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invasion. Most likely they belonged to somo building which was erected after that event, but which Pericles removed in order to open the present entrance. The walls of rectangular blocks of Pirai'c limestone, which are observable underneath the Propyliea to tho W., cannot be Pelasgic, but are probably remains of defences erected in the time of Themistooles, and superseded by the outworks of the Propyla?a built by Pericles.
A fine specimen of a somewhat Pelasgic character of masonry may be seen in the wall which supports the area of the Pnyx towards the Areopagus.
To complete our conception of the Acropolis before the Persian invasion we must suppose it covered with mean buildings, from which two temples rose conspicuous. Of these, the most sacred was the earlier Erechtheum, dedicated to Neptune (Poseidon) and Minerva Polias, the burning of which is mentioned by Herodotus and others; another larger temple, sacred to Minerva, occupied the site of the present Parthenon. Tho existence of this latter temple is not made known to us by contemporary history, but by unquestionable local evidence. There is little doubt that a number of fragments of columns and entablatures which are to be seen built up in the N. wall of the Acropolis, belonged to this temple, and sufficient data may be gathered from these, and from the indications on the groundwork of tho Parthenon, to conclude that the temple had Doric columns of 6 ft. 3 in. in diameter; 6 columns in each front; and 14 on the Hanks, reckoning the angle columns twice; that its length was about 176 ft., and its breadth 65. At the western end of the Parthenon, the corner on the northern side of the platform of the older temple may be distinctly observed, as well as the refined character of the older masonry.
The date of this temple, judging from the fragments, may perhaps be referred to tho timo of Pisistratus, or a little earlier. (See 'Principles of Athenian Architecture,' p. 73).
Our object will now bo to describe the Acropolis as it existed in its splendour.
But first a circuit of the walls may advantageously be made, beginning with the Propylsea, and going round by way of N. and E.
Leaving for the present the mediaeval outworks at the extreme W. of the Acropolis, laid open by M. Beule's excavations in 1853, we come to a bastion built in the year 1822 by tho Greek General Odysseus to defend the ancient well under the N. wing of the Propylaia, to which there is access from above by an antinuo passage and stair of 47 steps, for the most part cut in the rock. This passage terminates in a small chapel, with niches in the sides. The well has a peristomium of marble, and was described by Wordsworth in 1833 as containing water at a distance of about 30 ft. This is the famous fountain Ckpsydra; so called because it was intermittent, the supply being greatest at the commencement, and least at the falling off, of the Etesian winds.* It was anciently called Empedo, and was supposed to have a subterranean communication with Pholerum. Above tho bastion the ancient wall has recently been carefully restored. Beyond it, we come to two caves close together, or rather a double cave, of no great depth, which was dedicated to Apollo and Pan. Miltiades introduced the worship of Pan in consideration of services supposed to have beenrenderedatMarathon. Withiuthe cave are various sinkings which onco held tablete or votive offerings. Close to the cave the foot ascent, from which the passage to the Clepsydra just mentioned branches off, began to ascend the rocks towards the Propylam.
Near this spot to the N. was the Pclatgicum, already mentioned. Dean Stanley, perhaps somewhat fancifully, (' Class. Mus.,' vol. i. p. 53) remarks how "the gloom of the black shado thrown by the steep precipice Would conspire with the memory of a hateful race to make tho Athenians hate the spot."
* The name dates from a time anterior to the construction of the water-clock of Andronlcus [which was called Clepsydra1). There was a ountatn of the same name at Ithome.
The plan is borrowed from l>r. Smith's Dictionary; but No. 24 should be placed about 150 feet further N. No, 25, according to some authorities, stood nearer the centre of the Agora, a good ileal to tJie W. of the position here given.
About 200 ft. to the eastward of the Cave of Pan, in the midst of the Long rocks, as that part of the precipice was called, and at their foot, is a remarkable cavern, and 120 ft. further on and immediately under the wall of the citadel, not many yards from the northern portico of the Erechtheum, U a smaller one. Within the latter are remains of 13 niches. The former has (rjreat antiquarian interest. Lonko (p. 266) showed that in all probability this cavern must have had a communication with the Acropolis above, and this has since been proved to be the fact. Wordsworth identifies this cavern as the grotto of Agraulos. Close by, a
little lower down tho hill, was a temple of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), named the Anaceium. Polyajnus relates that when Pisistratus had seized the Acropolis, his next object was to disarm the Athenians. For this purpose he summoned an assembly in tho Anaceium; descending into which ho addressed the people in so low a tone of voice, that in order to hear they wero obliged to crowd about him. Whilo thus engaged, their arms were seized upon by the adherents of Pisistratus, and conveyed into the Agraulium, which was, as we know, in communication with the Acropolis. The Anaceium was a Btrongly fortified post,
Returning to the Cave of Apollo and Pan for the purpose of examining the walls themselves, wo find a large buttress of not very ancient construction. The rock is here very steep and crested by the wall. On passing round a salient angle, where there is a small buttress, we find a nearly straight line of wall for about 210 feet, then a short bend to the S.E., and afterwards a further straight reach for about 120 feet, nearly parallel to the former. The first of these two lines of wall contains very interesting remains of a Doric entablature of Pirai'c limestone; and the second, of frusta of columns and steps of Pentelic marble. They evidently belonged to the samo building; and there can be no reasonable doubt that this was the Temple of Minerva which preceded the present Parthenon on the same site. The fragments of entablature are in two separate groups. The architrave stones,although of the same height, differ considerably in length in the two groups: those in the western averaging about 13 ft. 3 in., and the others 12 ft. 7 in. Tho columns were of two sizes; the larger, 6 ft. 3 in., and tho smaller, 5 ft. 7 in. in diameter. The temple therefore must have had a difference in its front and flank intereolumniutions, and the columns of the Pronaos and Posticum must have been smaller than those of tho Peristyle. These data have been of service in arriving at the general dimensions of tho temple given above.
A medifeval buttress, about 100 ft. from the N.E. angle of tho Ereehtheum, forms the termiuation of the second reach of wall, viz. that in which are the frusta of columns. Hence to the N.E. angle of the Acropolis, occur several large squared stones, which appear to have belonged to some early temple.
The wall into which these as well as the fragments before mentioned are built, seems to be of Hellenic construction From opposite the Erechtheum, to the north-eastern extremity, the natural rock, although still very steep, is less inaccessible than almost anywhere else, except at the Propyhea; the wall immediately surmounts the
cliff. The eastern wall of the Acropolis appears to have been entirely rebuilt in tho middle ages on tho old foundations. On this side a ledge of several feet in width is left between the summit of the precipice and the base of tho wall, flanked by a small square tower, which projects in front of the curtain at the N.E. corner. Near the middle of this reach of wall there is a large cavern in the rock. This and tho slope which it surmounts is considered by Leake to have been the Eleusinium—a hierum inferior only in sanctity to tho Temple of Ores (Demeter) at Eleusis. He also supposes it to have been a kind of outwork to the Acropolis, and that there was a communication with tho upper citadel through the cavern. For wo learn from Thucydides that in the beginning of the Peloponnesiau war the Eleusinium was strongly fortified, and guarded with the greatest jealousy. Little more is known of this temple. Pausanias, in all matters connected with the Mysteries, is a tiresomo guide. Of this sanctuary he says, "While intending to proceed further in this matter (T. of Triptolemus), as well as in those things which relate to tho Athenian temple called Eleusinium, I was deterred by a vision in my sleep." Southward of this cave the rock becomes remarkably fine and precipitous. At the S.E. angle wo again find the Hellenic masonry of tho 8. wall or Cimonium (built by Cimou). Twenty-nine courses remain, making 45 ft. of height. This wall, instead of being perpendicular, "batters" a little, the stones being set back from those below them, about an inch in each course. As wo follow the wall westwards, we find that it has been almost entirely cased in mediaeval and recent times, and is further supported by nine buttresses. Among the stones which form this easing may be noticed a few small fragments of statues, one or two of a very fine character. The Hellenic masonry can be traced all along, as far as the Propyloea, under the casing, where the latter has been shattered. The centre of the Dionysiac Theatre occurs about 200 ft. from the eastern end of the Cimonium. A little westward of it occurs a deep course of the Pirai'c limestone, a fragment of some early temple. A little further on tho wall is 65 ft. high, and batters 7 ft. This is much loftier than any part of the wall to the N., but the rocks are less precipitous. The difference ia mainly this, that thero a very steep cliff is little more than crested by the wall; here a cliff less strong by nature is encased by an artificial construction of great importance. Beyond the point last-mentioned, the wall takes a bend to the W.N.W., and terminates in a solid tower about 30 ft. high, which is surmounted by the small Ionic temple of Victory without Wings. Until lately the only entrance to the Acropolis was immediately under the W. face of this tower: but we may now pass through the new opening formed in the western wall of the mediaeval outworks, whence we commenced our circuit, and ascend in a direct line from the W., that is, from the ancient Agora.
The Acropolis—the city of Cecrops and the cradle of Athens.—after the invasion of Xerxes, ceased to be inhabited as a town and became one great sanctuary, partitioned only by the boundaries of the sacred portions or Ttfitni, for we learn that in the Peloponnesian war, when the inhabitants of all Attica crowded to Athens and every available space was allotted to them; even then, so sacred was the Acropolis, that it remained uninhabited. (Thucyd. ii. 17.) It was, nevertheless, to be used as a citadel to retire to, but only in the last extremity, as in modern warfare churches have sometimes been resorted to. "In order then," as Leake says (p. 309), "to form a due conception of the effect of this storehouse of the arts, and to do justice to Athenian taste, we must imagine the platform of the hill cleared of everything but the temples and a few buildings necessary for their administration, and thus forming one vast composition of architecture and sculpture; or, to use the words of a Greek rhetorician, a single monument or dedication to the gods."
It is somewhat difficult to comprehend the nature of the outworks and approaches which defended tho Propylrea. The approach was guarded on the left, we may assume, by men stationed in the Pinacotheca, and on the right by the wing on the base now occupied by the huge mediaeval structure called tho Venetian tower; but the five gates alone of the Propylam, without Bomo other work in front, would be of little avail against an enemy provided with machines of war. We must look lower down for external military defences of the citadel. In front, j'.e. westwards of the great flight of steps, there seems to have been a kind of fortified court protected by flanking walls and towers, in some degree resembling the great gate at Megalopolis, only that there the court is round, here it was square. Tho wall which remains is of moderate thickness, a little more than 20 ft. high, and built of Pentelic marble. The lower courses are very much narrower than those above them. This wall is pierced by a doorway, about 12 ft. high and 6 wide. Above the lintel is a Doric entablature, composed of architrave, triglyphs, and cornice, together between 4 and 5 ft. high. These probably originally formed part of some other construction. Above the cornice has been added another architrave, with the usual band and gutta? tablets. This circumstance, together with the irregularity in the courses above mentioned, and the general inferiority of execution in the masonry, lead to the supposition that this wall, as wo see it, is not coeval with the Propylsea, but was part of some restoration of former military works. From its irregular construction it is believed by Professor KouBopouloB to bo of Roman origin (probably of the time of Valerian), and to have been added to first by Byzantines and afterwards by Turks. That it is at least posterior to the ago of Demosthenes, is proved by tho fact of Professor Kousopoulos having discovered a piece of marble placed horizontally in the wall to the north of the western gate, the exposed part
of which displays an inscription of that period. Nevertheless it probably points out what was the original outwork as designed by Pericles. There are traces which indicate that there was a carriage approach from the S., immediately westward of the tower, on which the temple of Victory without Wings is placed, at which point the southern wall of the acropolis in ancient times would seem to have ended. Such is the opinion of Mr. Eousopoulos. Hire has been the solo entrance in modern times until the excavations above mentioned opened anew the western gate. There was also the foot entrance and stair to the N., which has been already described, and which opened upon the principal staircaso just behind tho great pedestal.
Tlie outer walls of the Propylasa being thrown so far in front of it, and therefore on a much lower level, were enabled to be carried to a sufficient height for defence, without obscuring tho building; so that the whole front and a considerable portion, if not the whole, of the staircase could be seen from places at a moderate distance, especially from the adjacent eminences. From the Pnyx the Atheuian orators more than once pointed to it, and alluded to its imposing effect. As a visitor drew near to the Acropolis from the W., ho would have around him tho many interesting objects which filled the eastern extremity of the Agora. At this point the temple of iEsculapius, and the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, very near to the entrance to the Acropolis, would especially claim his attention. Or if ho approached by tho carriage way from tho S., before he reached the Propylaja, he would leave on his right hand what has generally bct'ii considered to be the temple of Tell us and Ceres; of which tho two niches under the tower, surmounted by the small Ionic temple, have been supposed to have formed the adytum. If the visitor approached from tho N., he would have gained the narrow and steep footway near the cave sacred to Apollo and Pan, as
we have seen, and passing immediately under the northern wing of the Propyhea, would have emerged at tho foot of the great staircase, behind tho outworks, and the great pedestal. In any case, coming upon the Propylam, lie would have been overwhelmed with the magnificence of the scene before him. Other buildings may have exceeded this in size, but none in beauty and in tho " artificial infinite" obtained by harmony of proportion, which, in this instance, is especially remarkable in the relation of the architecture of the wings to that of the central portico. He would have stood at the bottom of the flight of marble steps 70 ft. across, with tho main portico, or Propylaia, in front; tho Pinacotheca, or painted chamber on the 1.; the exquisite small Ionic temple of the Wingless Victory standing a little in advance of the rt. wing, which, being less complete than the Pinacotheca, but for this addition would not quite have balanced it in effect. All was adorned with painting on tho walls and ceilings, with groups of sculpture between tho columns, but there was no sculpture on the architecture itself, with the exception of tho temple of Victory. The passage between the great central stairs and tho walls of this temple was protected by a balustrade—still complete—a portion of which is tho marble known by tho namo of tho celebrated headless statue of Victory which is now in the temple. This admirable scene would have produced an effect which it must vainly tax the imagination to reproduce. It is hard, even with tho help of the N. wing—fortunately tolerably perfect,—to reconstruct mentally the columns on their shattered frusta, and to crown them with the entablature and pediment which they bore so late as two hundred years ago. The following description may aid tho imagination in restoring this scene. (' Athens and Attica,' p. Ill):—
"There is something of peculiar interest attached to that single door of St. Peter's Church at Kome which is opened by the hand of the Pope to