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admit into the church the crowds of the periodic jubilee, and at all other times remains shut. No one can look on that entrance without reflecting what a deep and strong tide of feeling has flowod through it. Here we now stand before the Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis. Through that door in the centre of this building moved the periodic processions of the Panathenaic jubilee. The marks of their chariot wheels are still visible on the stone floor of its entrance. In the narrow space between those two ruts in the pavement, the feet of the noblest Athenians since the ago of Pericles have trod.
"Here, above all places at Athens, the mind of the traveller enjoys an exquisite pleasure. It seems as if this portal had been Bpared, in order that our imagination might see through it, as through a triumphal arch, all the glories of Athenian antiquity in visible parade. In our visions of that spectacle wo would unroll the lon^ Panathenaic frieze of Phidins, representing that spectacle, from its place in the marble walls of the cella of the Parthenon, in order that, indued with ideal life, it might move through this splendid avenue, as its originals did of old.
"Even national enemies paid homage to the magnificence of the fabric; for when, in the Thebnn assembly, Epominondas intended to convey to his audience that they must struggle to transfer the glory of Athens to Thebes, ho thus expressed that sentiment by a vivid image:' Oh, men of Thebes, you must uproot the Propylsc-ii of the Athenian Acropolis, and plant them in front of the Cadmoian citadel.' It was this particular point in the localities of Athens which was most admired by the Athenians themselves: nor is this surprising. Let us conceive such a restitution of this fabric as its surviving fragments will suggest: let us imagine it restored to its pristine beauty; let it rise once more in the full diguity of its youthful stature; let all its architectural decorations be fresh and perfect; let their mouldings bo again brilliant
with their glowing tints of red and blue; let the coffers of its soffits bo again spangled with stars, and the marble antre be fringed over as they once were with their delicate embroidery; let it be in such a lovely day as the present day of November— and then let the bronze valves of these five gates of tho Propylsea be suddenly flung open, and all the splendours of the interior of the Acropolis burst at once upon tho view."
We now propose to follow through the Acropolis a far less imaginative traveller, but one who saw and described Athens in its pristine splendour—the accurate, but often vexatious, Pausanias, adding to his account such comments as the existing remains suggest; and afterwards returning to describe more fully in detail the principal buildings: viz. the Temple of Victory, the Propylasa, tho Parthenon, and the Erechthoum.
The five gates in the transverse wall of the Propyltea formed the only public entrance into the Acropolis (there was, however, as we have seen a postern on the N. side, through the Aglaurium, and perhaps another at the extremo E.). Pausanias was told that the great pedestal on the 1. was built for equestrian statnes of Gryllus and Diodorus, sons of Xenophon: the inscription it bears, now partly obliterated, was perhaps afterwards substituted for the original one, so as to attribute these statues to Agrippa and Augustus, a mode of flattery not uncommon in Greece, under the Romans. Cicero, whilst anxious to have a statue erected to his honour at Athens, deprecates this practice: Equidem valdo ipsas Athenas amo; volo esse aliquod monumentum; odi falsas inscriptiones statuarum alienarum. ('Athens and Attica,' p. 141.1 Tho structure of this pedestal, of tho style of masonry called by Vitruvius pseudisodomum —or alternately equal coursed — refers its period to about the beginning of the Christian era. It is evident, from its too great size and want of I delicacy in the mouldings, that it did I not form part of the original design of the Propylfca, It is, moreover, of Hyniettian grey marble, instead of Pontelic. It was not long since on the point of crumbling to pieces, not being solidly built, but was restored; though perhaps tho Acropolis of Pericles would be more easily realized were it no longer standing.
On the rt. hand of tho entrance stands the Temple of Victory without Wings. Thence there is a prospect of the sea; and it is thence that .(Egens is said to hnvo thrown himself down and perished, when he saw the ship which carried his son Theseus returning with black sails, instead of white, which he promised to hoist if ho returned safe from Crete, but which he forgot to do in consequence of his amour with Ariadne. It is remarkable that neither the pedestal of Agrippa nor the Templo of Agrippa are parallel with the Propylaja. The 1. hand or N. wing of the Propylaja, usually called the Pinncotheca, contained pictures by the celebrated painter Polygnotus, painted, no doubt, on the walls. The subjects were chiefly from the Trojan war.
It appears that tho carriage-way was formed of broad slabs of marble which were roughened with crossgrooves to improve the foot-hold, as the ascent is very steep. The floor of tho eastern portico of the Propylam is raised by fivo tall steps, 4 ft. C in, above that of tho western. The carriage-way was carried through tho central and principal gateway, and preserved a nearly uniform slope through tho building. Considerable portions of it remain, and are marked with the wheel-ruts of ancient traffic. As soon as the colonnade of the Eastern portico is passed, we are in the Acropolis, with the Parthenon full in view. We should here remark, that although the front of the Propylcea is parallel to that of tho Parthenon, the central axis of the former falls go much to the N. of that of the latter, that, on entering, the spectator sees the Parthenon at an angle well selected for picturesque effect. In placing their temples the Greeks teach us a lesson which it would bo well oftener to
follow. They seldom placed the approaches in the line of tho principal axis of the temple. And we should further notice the absence of parallelism observable among the several buildings. Except the Propylsea and Parthenon, which have a definite relation to each other, no two are parallel. This asymmetria not only gives an individuality to each building, but also obviates the uniformity of too many parallel lines, and produces exquisite varieties of light mid shade. A happy instance of this latter effect is in the Temple of Victory without Wings. Tho facade of this temple and the pedestal of Agrippa remain in shade for a considerable time after tho front of the Propylsea has been lighted up, and gradually receive every variety of light until the sun is sufficiently on the decline to shine nearly equally on all tho western faces of the group.
The inclined plane was continued through the Propylsea, and was prolonged beyond it in the direction of the interval between the two temples of Minerva, as far as the highest natural level of the hill. On either side of this main route, the surface of tho Acropolis was divided into platforms communicating with one another by steps. Upon these platforms stood tho temples, sanctuaries, or monuments which occupied all the summit. Immediately after passing the Propylsea, Pausanias describes the following objects: a Mercury Propylaeus, and tho three Graces, by Socrates, son of Sophroniscus; a brazen lioness, a Venus, a brazen statue of Diitrephes, a Hygieia, daughter of ^sculapius, and a Minerva Hygeia. The pedestal of the latter remains in situ, under the S.E. column of the eastern portico of tho Propyhea; so that we may assign one of the levelled spaces, a little to the eastward, as the site of the Mercury and Graces just mentioned, by the hand of the great philosopher. Turning due S., there are uomo steps leading up to a platform on the rock, where probably Pausanias saw the boy in brass by Lycius, son of Myron; Perseus slaying Medusa, by Myron; the Sanctuary of Diana Brauronin, containing a statue by Praxiteles; a brazen figure of the Trojan horse; five portrait statues; Minerva punishing the unlucky, but impudent, Marsyas; Theseus anil the Minotaur; four more mythological groups, and a temple containing the deity venerated by illustrious men; a statue by Clecetas; and one of which he greatly praises the execution—the Earth, imploring showers from Jupiter. These last were probably immediately to the \V. of the Parthenon, where the terraces may be very clearly made out, and where in many places may be seen the grooves and sinkings by which sculptures were fixed.
In this part of the Acropolis, M. Pittakys, when Conservator of the Antiquities, built several straight walls, composed of the smaller architectural fragments which have been found on the Acropolis. These, as ■well as other objects, are effectually preserved from being interfered with, as a Boldier has orders to follow each party of visitors in their wanderings on the Acropolis.
Between the Parthenon and Erechtheum we may look for the sites of the statues of Timotheus, son of Conon, and of Conon himself; Procne and Itys; the contest of Athene and Poseidon, the former with tho olive, the latter raising the waves. The lastmentioned group was perhaps placed on a smoothly-levelled area, which is to be seen in front of the S. or Caryatid portion of the Erechtheum. Also a Jupiter, by Leochares, and another Jupiter, sumamed Polieus. It is remarkable that the boundaries of these terraces for the most part point towards the great statue of Minerva Promachus, of which the base has been discovered northwards of tho road leading upwards from the Propylsea.
The traveller will find but little between the Parthenon and Erechtheum; the ground near tlie former temple is encumbered with its massive ruins produced by the devastating explosion of 1687. He will have here tho best opportunity of studying the exquisite mush of the capitals and other decorative portions, and he may fii.d a ii»
of the metopes in a very shattered state. Ho must avoid a large well or cistern, which probably received the water from the roof of tho Parthenon.
Pausanios seems to have passed round the north-eastern comer of tho Parthenon, and entered by the proper and only entrance to the Naos or inner temple at the E. Having entered, he saw the celebrated statue of Minerva by Phidias, covered with ivory and glittering with gold ornaments, though the latter were then of a less solid character than those appended by Pericles, weighing Bb much as 11,5001. The statue was 27 cubits, or 40 ft. high, holding a Victory on one hand, and stood on a richly sculi>tnred base, and was protected from injury by a railing of bronzo. He saw no other statue within the Naos excepting one of Hadrian, which Athenian gratitudo or flattery had placed there. There were, however, painted portraits of Themistocles, and some others. In the Pronaos, wo learn from Pliny, the painter Protogencs had represented the celebrated triremes Paralus and Hammonias, together with several other vessels on a smaller scale.
Eastwards of the Parthenon, he saw a brazen statue of Apollo Parnopius (chuser of locusts); a statue of Xanthippus, placed there doubtless by tho filial piety of Pericles, in front of his renowned Parthenon; one of tho poet Anacreon, and some other statues. Some remains, with an inscription, show that there was a small circular temple dedicated to Augustus and Borne, occupying the extremity, perhaps, of the eastern platform in front of tho Parthenon, and, it is supposed, about 90 ft. distant from it. A very interesting excavation has been made near this point. In it are to be seen n number of drums of eolumns; some much shattered, others apparently rough from the quarry ; others partly worked, and discarded in consequence of some defect in the material. The ground about them, when first discovered, was strewed with marble chips, and some sculptors' tools and !t;ia co'..tuiiii.:£ red c lr.ur were found with them. It seems to have been one of the places where the workmen who were employed in building the Parthenon hewed out the columns; and as it was below the level of the finished terrace, these remains, after the completion of the Parthenon, were covered with made ground.* The layers of this made ground are very evident close to the Parthenon on the S. side. They are composed of chips of stone, the lowest being of the red marble of the rock of the Acropolis; the second the white marble of PentelicuB, and the upper layer of the magnesian limestone of the hills near the Pirceus.
The S. wall of the Acropolis, called tho Cimonium, formed of squared blocks of Pirai'c stone, upwards of 60 ft. in height in some places, was adorned with sculptures, extending, as we may fairly presume, from the summit over against the W. end of the Parthenon to above the Dionysiac Theatre. Near the latter point there is a portion of a marble foundation which probably belonged to some of these sculptures; they represented tho Gigantoinachia, or War of the Giants, the wars between the Athenians and the Amazons, the battle of Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attalus, King of Pergamua, by whom these groups were dedicated. It is recorded that, in the year of the battle of Actium, a violent wind (an clement of which the energy was witnessed on tho 26th of October, 1852, in the injury done to the Erechthcum, and the loss of one of the columns of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius) threw down several statues at Athens, and precipitated one of the group of the Gigantomachia into tho Dionysiac Theatre; thus determining the position of that group. These sculptures doubtless played their part in the view of the S. side of the Acropolis, the magnificent effect of which is mentioned by several writers.
There is little to engage attention on tho S. side of the Parthenon, where
* Vide the letter from Mr. Bracebridge, printed In the Appendix to WordsworuV* Athens and. Attica.
the whole surface is encumbered with a confused mass of ruins; or in tho extreme E., where a low-walled building is being erected for tho purpose of containing the various fragments of sculpture now dispersed in different parts of the Acropolis. In that quarter little has been done in the way of excavation, and only a few limestone walls have been discovered. Pausanias does not load us to expect any thing important there. It was perhaps occupied by the dwellings of those who officiated in the mysteries or guarded the sanctuaries of the Acropolis. One should, however, go there for the view of Hymettus and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius; and on returning towards the Parthenon will be rewarded by an enchanting view of that temple. Although the western front retains its pediment, and is, generally speaking, more perfect than the eastern, the columns were so shattered in the last war, that they give no idea whatever of the beauty of this exquisite feature of the Greek Doric. In the eastern portico tho columns exhibit their full perfection, and the imperceptibly curved lines of the shadows of their flutes sweep uninterruptedly from the ground. Attention should be directed to the second column from the S. in this front It is not too much to affirm that the skill both of the architect and the workman, as exhibited in the subtle proportions and accurate execution of these columns has never been rivalled.
Erom the Cimonium, Pausanias proceeds to the Erechtheum. In front, towards the E., was an altar of Jupiter Hypatus; one to Neptune near the entrance; others to Butes and Vulcan. Tho walls of the porticoes were covered with pictures. In the interior he saw a well of salt water, and a figure of Poseidon's trident on the rock (on the supposed traces of which we shall speak hereafter), and the aboriginal olive-tree, miraculously saved when the temple was burnt by tho Persians, which occupied the centre, or according to some, the Caryatid portico on the S. sido of this twofold temple. Everything here gave evidence of the contest of Athene and Poseidon for the soil of Attica. Here also were the moat ancient and sacred statue of the goddess, of olive wood, to which the new Peplus was carried every fifth year of the celebration of the Panathenaic festival ; a golden lamp always burning, with a brazen palm-tree above it, to convey the smoke to the roof: and various ancient relics and spoils of the Medes, taken at Marathon and Salamis. In the precinct, or re/i^cos, to the W., of which the boundary-wall running E. and W., composed of rough blocks of limestone, is preserved, Pausanias saw the dwelling and playground used by the two young girls who were trained for the annual celebration of the mystery of Erichthonius. In this precinct were also colossal statues of the Thracian Eumolpus, son of Poseiddn, and of Erechtheus, the protogd of Athene, and several other mythological personages, the mortal champions of that combat between the two races to which we have alluded, whilst their common worship in this temple pointed out their ultimate reconciliation. About 150 ft from tho W. of the Erechtheum, on the very edge of the rock, is the staircase, partly built and partly cut out of tho rock, which led downwards to the Grotto of Agraulos, already described. It was possible in 1845, by climbing up the rocks as far as to the grotto, to ascend and descend by this passage and stair. It has since been closed below, but is accessible from above. Very near this point, southwards, stood the colossal statue of Minerva Promachus in bronze, made by Phidias of tho spoils of Marathon. Its height was such that the glittering crest of the helmet and the point of the spear might be seen at sea as ships approached Athens after coming round Cape Sunium. The statue must have appeared to the 1. hand of the Parthenon, and was probably as high as the summit of that temple; we cannot allow less than 50 ft. for the height of the statue, and 20 for that of the pedestal. The position of tho base has been laid open by
an excavation which shows that it fronted tho main central entrance of the Propylam, and appeared as the Promachus, or tutelary goddess, of the city. Awe-inspiring must have been the effect upon a stranger impressed with due reverence for the Gods, an idea given in one of the stanzas, in which the author of 'Childe Harold' alludes to the spoliation of the Acropolis by Lord Elgin :—
"Where was thine «gls, Pallas! that appall'd Stern Alaric and Havoc on their way? Where Peleus' son? whom Hell In vain enthrall'd. His shade from Hades npon that dread daj Bursting to light in terrible array! What! could not Pluto spare the chief once more, To scare a second robber from his prey? Idly he wander'd on the Stygian shore. Nor now preserv'd the walls he loved to shield before."
But all were not alike impressed with this feeling; Aristophanes did not scruple to joke about the great size of the ivory finger of tho Minerva, or to observe how fine a soup-tureen might be made of the shield. Such, howover, are not tho feelings of our guide Pausanias, who will describe the brazen quadriga, made of spoils won from the Boeotians and men of Clialkis (in tho battle mentioned by Herod., v., 79); a smaller statue of Minerva in bronze, by Phidias, the Minerva Lemma,—accounted the finest of all the works of that master; and a statue of Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, on the 1. hand of the entrance to the Acropolis, which he had done so much to adorn.
1. Temple of Nike Apteros, or Victory without Wings.—After the general survey of tho Acropolis, we return to examine more in detail the principal remains. The first of these is the Temple of Nike Apteros, or Wingless Victory (a goddess sometimes identified with Athene, and called Athene Nike), and thus represented in the earliest times, although in tho time of Pericles sho was figured as a young female with golden wings. This temple is not mentioned among the works of Pericles, and has been supposed to