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of that Emperor, but from the division of the seats into 13 compartments (ftepitfSes), answering to the number of the tribes into which the Athenians were divided when his desire of identifying himself with the city which he boasted of having rebuilt induced him to add to the original 12 another bearing his own name.
The excavations in 1862, however, showed that this was not the last change or restoration which the Dionysiac theatre underwent. Within the limits of the orchestra proper, was disclosed the front of a stage built up in a very unworkmanlike style from marbles
evidently taken from other parts of theearlier structure; up to this led stono steps bearing the following inscription :—
"Sol T(!5e Ka\hv ?Tf vje, <pi\ipyi(,
It has been conjectured, from tho character of the masonry and the inscription, that this Phaedrus must have lived about the 3rd century, and he may have been one of those who, in the time of Diocletian or even later, attempted to stem the advancing tide of Christianity by a restoration of tho already doomed rites of paganism. Tlio same excavations laid bare nlso a wall of the Roman period in front of tho first row of seats, which served, in all probability, to fence in tho orchestra when it had been degraded into- an arena for those contests of men and beasts which replaced the intellectual enjoyments of tho drama. There were also found many still later remains of the Frank and Turkish ages, showing that tho orchestra was then used as a reservoir of water, and even for a lime-kiln, fed by the marble relics of art so profusely scattered around.
But the traveller will gladly pass over all these vicissitudes to go back in imagination to better times. On these seats, under tho canopy of an Athenian sky, looking over the plain towards the sea, embraced by tho heights of Salamis, jEgina, and Hymettus, he will not fail to realize tho powerful local influences whose effect on poet, actor, and spectator, combined to produce the unparalleled spectacle of an Athenian drama.
•■Then what golden hours were for us
While we sate together there.
Seem'tl to wave up a live air!
Down the deep iambic lines,
Curled like vapour over shrines!
How he drove the bolted breath
In the gnarled oak beneath 1
Who was born to monarch's place.
I^ess by kingly power than grace!
With bis droppings of warm tears.
Till they rose to touch the spheres!"
Though tho labours of 1862 have done much to discover tho theatre, there is still great obscurity enveloping the many ruins around it. For the plan annexed, as well as for the general theory and explanations contained in this article, tho reader is indebted to the papers which appeared from the learned pen of Professor liouaopoulos,
of the University of Athens, published in the 'Archaeological Journal' of that city, in 1862.*
Every Greek theatre consisted of threo chief parts: 1, the orchestra, where the chorus made its evolutions;
2, tho body of tho theatre (m7\oy, cavca), occupied by the spectators;
3, the stage (o-(oji^).
In tho Athenian'theatre the orchestra is in the form of a semicircle, of which the circumference at each end of the diameter is produced in two straight lines into an apsidal form. In tho centre of the semicircle we may see tho spot where stood the altar of Dionysus (8\>ii.i\T\) round which tho chorus moved, but which in Roman times was superseded by a marble pillar. The middle of the floor of tho orchestra is paved with small pieces of grey marble, arranged in the shape of a parallelogram and sloping slightly towards the 9vfie\v, so as to carry off tho rain, and tho blood which flowed from the sacrificial altar, Tho thick wall which fences in the front row of seats from the orchestra, was probably erected after the Greek chorus had been supplanted by the combatants of the arena. The whole stage of Phardrus (as marked in the plan) was found behind the proscenium which now remains within the orchestra, or, more properly speaking, within tho area of its two open side-entrances (irdpciSoi) for the chorus and spectators, which were ornamented with statues of poets and other appropriate personages. Tho greater part of theso encroachments has, however, been removed, and the front wall or proscenium of the stage of PhreUrus alone remains as it was found, tho other fragments behind being those of tho stages of the earlier theatres.
2. Tho theatre proper, where the audience sat (miXov, cavca), consists of concentric tiers of seats radiating in tho shape of a fan from the diameter of tho orchestra up to a road nearly parallel to the lino of tho pro
• These have been embodied in this paper by Mr. Charles Cookson, to whom the thanks of the editor of this work are due.
scenium which shut thorn in on the N. nearly at tho foot of the cavea, below the S. wall of the Acropolis. It is divided by 13 flights of steps cut in the rock into as many compartments, answering to the 13 tribes in the time of Hadrian, of the form of truncated cones (called KfpxtSts, from thoir resemblance to tho web stretched in the loom), the lowest tier of these compartments being occupied by thrones of Pentelic marble (67 in all, five in front of each compartment except at tho two extreme wings, where there are six to each), forming the places of honour (irpoeSpia) for religious and other official dignitaries. In the centre of the middle compartment (assigned to the tribe of Hadrian) is the beautifully carved throne of the priest of Dionysus, tho giver of freedom (Aiori(Tou Ek(v$eptas,. Behind these are tho seats of Peiraic marble for the rest of the people of Athens. The present arrangement of these compartments, as well as the inscriptions on the Beats, belong, as has been observed before, to the period of the supposed restoration by Hadrian, whose statue is conjectured to have been plsiced in each compartment. Those skilled in such matters will have no difficulty in recognizing the difference in the character of the writing on the seats, on some of which the ancient inscriptions have been effaced to make way for others of the Roman period.
It«was usual in great theatres for the compartments of the cavea to be divided laterally by semicircular zones ($ta(dpaTa); but if any such divisions existed in this theatre, the traces of them aro not now visible.
3. Thus far the present condition of tho remains leaves little doubt as to the general plan of tho theatre. But when wo come to the third division, the covered stage (o-ktj^), it is impossible with certainty to distinguish the age and nature of the ruins in front of the orchestra: though the theory indicated in the plan of Mr. Kousopoulos has generally been accepted as correct. From the level of tho orchestra there wus an ascent to
the stage constructed by Phsodrus, and in front of the stage runs tho proscenium, supporting the stage from which the actors spoke (koyciov, oicptfids, pulpitum). This proscenium is faced with i slabs of marble containing basreliefs, on the centre of which is a oollossal figure of Silenus in the position of an Atlas supporting the stage, and remarkable for the excellence of the workmanship of the beard and hair which covers the breast and the lower limbs, as well as for the general power and effectiveness of its outlines. This figure, probably of the Macedonian period, appears to have been transferred to its present position by Phsedrus, and part of the stage to have been cut away to admit it. The other figures on each side are probably of i different ages, as they certainly aro of different degrees of excellence. For the explanation of the other remains behind tho proscenium the render is referred to the plan.
On the E. and W. sides of tho whole area of the theatre, from the extremities of the two side entrances, the exterior wall ran N. and S. up to tho road which closed it in on the N. at the foot of tho wall of the Acropolis. This wall may possibly have enclosed covered porticoes.
The dimensions of the theatre, as taken from the scale in the plan of Mr. Kousopoulos, aro as follow :—
Metres. Ft In. Depth of cavea from road on
,N. to front row .. ..46 0 = 161 0
„ from front row to 9vjj.i\ii 10 60 = 34 8
„ from 6vfj.e\rj to proscenium
ofPhaidrus 5 0 = 16 4
„ from proscenium of Ph:e
druslu that of Lycurgus 4 90= 16 0
M from proscenium of Lycurgus to back of stage fatTaffK-nvtov) .. .. 7 50 = 24 6
Breadth from L. to w. external
wall at broadest .. .. 88 0 = 288 8
„ of diameter of orchestra 11 0 = 36 1
„ „ Proscenium of l'haxlrus 11 0= 36 1
,. ,. Do. of Lycurgus 13 0 = 42 6
Height of stage of Phaxlrus .. 1 40 = 4 7
The cave above the centre of the theatre is supposed to have been originally chiselled out in the Pelnsgic ages. It was converted by Thrasyllus (b.c. 411) into an Ionic temple in com
Theatre of Dionysus, from a Coin now in the British Mnscam.
Westwards of the theatre is a wall supported on arches of very late and irregular construction, the sub-basement, probably, of a covered stoa, connecting the theatre with
16. Tlie Odeum of Herodes or RegiUa, situated beneath the southern wall of the Acropolis at the western extremity, which was built by Herodes AtticuB in the time of the Antonines, in honour of his deceased wife Regilla. Pausanias, who did not mention it in bis description of Athens, because it Whs not built at the time of his visit, subsequently remarks that it surpassed all other Odeia in Greece. The roofing of so large a building required great architectural skill, and excited the greater admiration as having been of cedar. The diameter within tha walls was about 240 ft., and it seems to have been capable of holding 6000 persons. There are very considerable remains of the building; but as Mure remarks, it loses in appearance, owing to the rows of small and apparently useless arches which break up the masses into insignifi
cant portions. It is built partly of brick and partly of magnesian limestone, the interior having been faced with marble. The statue at tho western entrance is conjectured to be that of Herodes, the father of Herodes Atticus. Of this personage the story is told, that having informed the emperor that he had found treasure, he received in reply an injunction to use it, and that on his then writing to say that it exceeded the measure of his wants, tho Emperor replied, "Then abuse it." Behind the Odeum, t.«. between it and the Acropolis, is the supposed site of the temple of ^sculapius, which, according to Pausanias, contained statues of Dionysus and his children, and pictures worthy of inspection.
Leaving the Odeum and passing a little to westwards of the Acropolis, we come to
17. The Areopagus, a locality to us full of an interest not mainly derived from the associations of ancient Athens. Not, however, that it is devoid of such interest. Pausanias thus describes it:—" Not far distant [from the cave of Apollo and Pan] is the Areopagus, Bo called because Mars was the first person here tried for tho murder of Hnlirrhothius. Here is an altar of Minerva Areia dedicated by Orestes, on escaping punishment for the murder of his mother. Here also are 2 rude stones, upon one of which the accuser stands, and upon tho other the defendant. Near this place is the sanctuary of the goddesses called Semnffi, but whom Hesiod in tho Theogonia names Erinnyes. jEschylus was the first to represent them with snakes in their hair; but here tho statues have nothing ferocious in their aspect, nor have those of tho other subterranean deities here represented, namely, Pluto, Hermes, and the Earth."
Leake says, p. 165, "Tho identity of the Areopagus with that rocky height which is separated only from the western end of tne Acropolis by a hollow, forming a communication between tho northern and southern divisions of the ancient city, is found in the words of Pausanias (above quoted), and in the remark of Herodotus that it was a height over against the Acropolis from whence the Persians assailed the westernendof the Acropolis; and in the lines of JEschy Ius, describing the position of the camp of the Amazons (Eumenid. 689). Nor ought we to neglect the strong traditional evidence afforded by the church of Dionysius the Areopagite, of which the ruins wero seen by Wheler and Spon at the foot of the height of the N.E. side."
Mars' hill is thus described by Wordsworth, p. 74 :—" Sixteen stone steps cut in the rock at its S.W. angle lead up to the hill of the Areopagus from the valley of the Agora. This angle seems to be the point of the hill on which the Council of the Areopagus sat. Immediately above the steps, on the level of the hill, is a bench of stone excavated in the limestone rock, forming 3 sides of a quadrangle, like a triclinium: it faces the 8.; on its E. and \V. side is a raised block,—the former may, perhaps, have been the tribunal, the 2 latter the rude stones whicli Pausanias saw."
The great and solemn Areopagite Council (iSouAfj) sat in the open air; but there was also a Court (8i«a<rHjpioy), whicli was held, probably, in the building described by Vitruvius (2, 1) as roofed with tile.
Below the northern end of the eastern extremity of the hill of Mars is a deep fissure, or wide long chasm, in the low precipices which border tho height: within these is a source of black water, esteemed by the peasants for its medicinal virtues. This gloomy recess was probably the auditum of tho temple of the Semnm or Erinnycs.
But the chief interest in the Areopagus is connected with a far different worship—in the events described in the 17th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. The following commentary on those events is taken from Conybeare and Howson's 'Life and Epistles of 8t. Paul,' a work abounding in valuable illustration. k !'T}ie Athenians took thp Apostle
from the tumult of public discussion to the place which was at once most convenient and appropriate. The place to which they took him was the summit of the Areopagus, where the most awful court of judicature had sat from time immemorial, to pass sentence on the greatest criminals, and to decide the most solemn questions connected with religion. The judges sat in the open air upon seats hewn out in the rock, on a platform, which was ascended by a flight of stone steps immediately from the Agora. On thlB spot a long series of awful causes connected with crime and religion had been determined, beginning with the legendary trial of Mars, which gave to the place the name of Mars' Hill. A temple of the god was, as we have seen, on tho brow of the eminence [on the southern slope of the Areopagus]; and an additional solemnity was given to the place by the sanctuary of tho Furies in a broken cleft of tho rock, immediately below the judges' seats. Even in the political decay of Athens this spot and this court were regarded by the people with superstitious reverence. It was a scene with which the dread recollections of centuries were associated. It was a place of silent awo in the midst of the gay and frivolous city. Those who withdrew to the Areopagus from tho Agora came, as it were, into the presence of a higher power.
"There was everything in the place to incline the auditors, so far as they were seriously disposed at all, to a reverent and thoughtful attention. It is probablo that Dionysius, with tho other Areopagites, were on the judicial scats; and a vague tradition of tho dread thoughts associated by poetry and tradition with the Hill of Mars may have solemnised the minds of some of those who crowded up the stone steps with the Apostle, and clustered round the summit of the hill to hear his announcement of the new divinities.
"There is no point in the annals of the first planting of Christianity whicli seizes so powerfully on the imagination of those who are familiar with thp