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ture built in the Cyclopean style, are to be seen. At the distance of 80 stadia from the city was the temple of Esculapius, and 40 stadia from the temple was a Peribolus, containing an Adytum sacred to Isis. Tho Tithoreans held a vernal and autumnal solemnity in honour of the goddess, where the victims were swathed in folds of linen in the Egyptian fashion. Other authorities, however, place Neon here. Neon is identified by some writers with a paleokastron about 1 hour from Velitza.
From Velitza to Dadi is 2 hrs. The road turns N.W. by N, and crosses a torrent by a bridge, afterwards a foot of Parnassus, which projects into the plain, and then another stream. On a hill beyond the village are ancient walla of Cyclopean architecture; one of the mural turrets is still standing. These are remains of Amphiclea. Dadi is built on terraces in the form of a theatre, like Delphi. It faces the plain of the Kephissus towards N.N.E.
To Budonitza from Dadi is 3 hrs. Tho road descends by an old military way, by an aqueduct and fountain, into the plain of Elatea. crosses tho Kephissus, and soon after traverses the plain, and begins to ascend a part of Mount (Eta. Several ruins are seen in this district; the road is very bad as it approaches tho summit. From the summit tho prospect is grand and beautiful; this was probably the eminence called Cnllidromos. On the right the N.AV. promontory of Eubcea projects towards the centre of the picture. To the left extend the summits and shores of Thessaly. From this spot we descend to
Budonitza, where good accommodation may be had, and which is a favourable head-quarters for the exploration of Thermopylae. Below tho Castle, which must always have been an important bulwark in guarding this passage, are the remains of ancient walls, resembling those at Dadi.
To the Polyandrium of the Greeks who fell at Thermopylas is 1 hour's journey from Budonitza. The road is by the ancient military way, the route pursued by the Spartans under Leonidas, who defended the defile against Xerxes. The whole of the road is a descent, but lies high above the marshy plain. The hills are covered with trees and rare plants. In a Bmall plain into which the road turns suddenly, just as a steep and continued descent commences to the narrowest parts of the straits, is the Polyandrium, or sepulchral monument of the Greeks who fell at Thermopylae, an ancient tumulus with the remains of a square pedestal of square blocks of red marble breccia, so much decomposed on its surface as to resemble grey lime-stone.
Thermopylst, 1J hr. The descent is very rapid, and the military way is frequently broken by torrents, f hr. from the Polyandrium are tho remains of the great northern wall mentioned by Herodotus. It lias been traced from the Malian Gulf to tho Gulf of Corinth, a distance of 24 leagues, forming a barrier to Hellas, excluding iEtolia, Acarnania, and Thessaly.
Beyond the road enters the bog, tho only passage over which is by a narrow paved causeway. Tho Turkish barrier was placed here upon a narrow stone bridge. This deep and impassable morass extends towards the E. to the sea; to Mount (Eta towards tho W. The Thermro, or hot springs, whence this defile takes its name, are at a short distance from this bridge. They issue from 2 mouths at the foot of the limestone precipices of (Eta. They were sacred to Hercules, and aro halfway between Budenitza and Thermopylae The temperature of the water is 111° of Fahrenheit at the mouth of the spring. It is impregnated with carbonic acid, lime, salt, and sulphur, and is very transparent. The ground round the springs yields a hollow sound like the solfatara at Naples. At the S. end of the pass, close to a pool from the hot springs, is a mound, probably that to which the Spartans finally retreated, and on which they were killed: from this the localities of the pass are easily traced. The Anopsea, or upper path, by which the Persians turned the flank of the Greeks, is on the mountains above.
Zeitun, or Lamia, is 2} hrs. from Thermopylae. The defile continues for some distance from the springs, and then the road turns off across the plain to Zeitun. The pavement in many places marks the route of Leonidas in his attack upon the Persian camp, when he ventured out of the defile the night before his defeat. The Sperchius is the chief river in the plain. Tho marshy air of Thermopylae is unwholesome, but the scenery is some of the best wooded and most beautiful in Greece, and the associations connected with the locality offer inducements to the traveller to visit the spot. The road to Zeitun lies over the swampy plain of Trachinia, intersected by the Sperchius, the valley of which river is 60 miles long, formed by the nearly parallel chains of (Eta and Othrys, both offshoots of Pindus. To the Deity of this river Achilles vowed his hair, if he should live to revisit his country. Ttie tragedy of Sophocles, the woes of Dejanira, add interest to this scenery. The funeral pyro of Hercules was on ttio peak of (Eta, and, beneath, his Spartan progeny fought at Thermopylae Hero too the Amphictyonic council met at tho gates of Greece. The pass, unconquered by man, has been conquered by nature, and is now no longer of much military importance. The defile of a few yards has been widened into a swampy plain from the alluvial deposit of the Sperchius and the retreat of the Malian Gulf.
Lamia, or Zeitun, is seated on a hill to the N. of the Trachinian plain, and at a short distance from the Malian Gulf. An excursion may be made from Lamia to the next border town, which is called variously by its Turkish name of Patradjik, and its Greek names otA'etfpatra and Jlijpata. It is only 3 his. from Lamia ; no tho
excursion may be made in one day, returning to Lamia; or one may reach by this route the Bhores of the Ambracian Gulf, or of the Gulf of Corinth. Caspariti is 10 hrs. from Neiipatra, and Kravataras is 1 day's journey further (Route 16). Neopatra is finely situated under (Eta, and looks out on Othrys, but it contains very slight remains of antiquity. In ancient times it was a town of the district of Phthiotis in Thessaly, and derives its only interest from having been the centre of tho military operations carried on in B.C. 323 by the confederate Greeks against Antipater —the so-called Lamian war. The only remains of antiquity are some pieces of ancient wall in the masonry of the Castle. Lamia has been compared to Athens, with its rambling old castle, or acropolis, above, and its Pirteus at Stylidha, next the ancient Philora, on the shore below. Thore is a fine viow from the Castlo; and sevoral good houses have been erected of late years in the town. The frontier of Turkey is only 2 hrs. to the N., and there is always a garrison of 200 or 300 soldiers at Lamia to repress tho robbers who infest the boundary line. It is 2 days' journey from Lamia to Larissa.
THRBHOFYLM TO LEBADEA
is 3 days' journey. The road lies along the plain, within sight of the sea, for about 2 hrs.; there is good riding when you arrive at the little village of Molo, where there is a decent khan,
with mud walls. The nature of tho ground traversed is such, that in some places a raised road has been constructed above the marshes. Several streams are crossed, running down from the heights of (Eta, which have materially altered the features of tho ground, and especially the coast, by forming long alluvial beds running into tho sea. It would be difficult now to guard the pass against a force so much superior as the Persians were to the Greeks, though another noble stand was made in it during the revolution against tho Turks.
From Molo to Drachmdno, tho site of ancient Elatea, is a ride of 8 hrs. During the first part, the road gradually leaves the sea, rising to tho hills; it then ascends a long valley, and winds over a bleak hill. From the summit is a noble view of the extended plain of the Kephissus, backed by the dark heights of Parnassus, here seen rising, unbroken by intervening hills, directly out of the plain of Boeotia. The top is clothed in deep snow for tho greater part of the year. The village of Drachmdno contains a khan, with some appearance of comfort. Hence there are two roads to Lebadea: the shorter and more direct passes through Chseronea; tho other, answering to the ipeiKJ) 5Sos of Pausanias, leads by the ruins of Hyampolis and Abie to Scripu (Orchomenus). This latter road runs along at the foot of tho hills which bound tho plain of Boeotia on tho 1., and being unfrequented, it requires some attention to trace it. The little villago of Vogddno occupies tho site of Hyampolis; tho ruins lie on a hill about £ ra. N.E. of the village, where tho r.inge ends in the shape of a parallelogram, at the junction of 3 valleys. Pausanias mentions as a curious fact, that the city was possessed of one source of water only, to which the inhabitants were obliged to resort. This perhaps may be traced in a very copious spring, which supplies the village of Vogdiino: it is a little to the W., down the hill: there are many largo blocks of squared stones
lying about it. In order to see the ruins of Abie, wo pass the village of Exarcho, which lies about 2 m. across the valley, on the 1. within sight. A little S. of it are 2 lines of polygonal wall, which unite on the N. side, the higher passing down the hill until it meets the lower. There are 3 or 4 gates, 2 of which were partly choked up with fallen stones; a 3rd, to which the path leads, and which is therefore tho first seen, is very massive, in tho Egyptian style, narrowing considerably towards the top, and of diminutive proportions; for a horse could with difficulty enter, and yet the soil cannot have been raised artificially, because tho natural rock on which the town must have been built still projects in sharp points close to the gate. The stones of which it is composed are not generally large, though there is one nearly 14 ft. in length; they ore beautifully joined, and afford a fine specimen of that kind of construction. On the top of the lower wall was a broad terrace of greensward, 12 or 14 paces wide, which still exists, little broken; this is artificial, as tho natural hill is steep. On either side of this gate the wall projected, and on one side formed a square tower. On tho summit is a fiat space sufficient for a small temple: but Pausanias is not explicit enough to be a guide to the spot where the Oracle stood, which was of such high reputation in the time of Xerxes. The theatre is entirely gone, ns at Hyampolis. The traveller should be cautioned against attempting to cross the marsh by a short road to Scripu, unless with a man of the country to guide him, otherwise he may be detained for hours. The regular road lies over the top of the hills on the rt. of the marsh, and descends directly into tho village of Scripu, passing somo fine walls of a fort which once crowned theso heights. From Scripu to Lebadea the road is laid down in tho preceding route.
N.B. — One has also the choice of proceeding from Thermopylae to Chalkis, a picturesque journey of 3 days, chiefly along the shore of tho strait of Euboea; or from Thermopyhe to Thebes, also about 3 days' journey. (See next Bte.)
THERMOFY1JE TO THEBES.
Thermopylaj to— lire.
Thebes , ... 10
Thermopylso to Budonitza, see Bte. 4.
On leaving Budonitza for Architza, the road descends to tho sea-shore, along which it continues for many hours. About half-way wo pass tho Monastery of Constantine. The wooded sides of Mount Cnemis rise on the rt.; on the 1. are the coast and mountains of Euboea, and the winding strait which separates them from the mainland. The myrtles grow with great luxuriance close to the edge of the sea. Besides its natural beauties, there is not much to interest the traveller on this route.
Architza, 8 hrs., a considerable village. Hence to the villago of Proskymno is 5 hrs., passing by tho seala of Talanda, leaving that town itself about 2 m. to the rt. Talanda derives its name from the islet of Atalanta, which shelters its port Remains of the ancient city of Opus are found at Kardenitza, o village 1 hr. S.E.
The plain is left soon after leaving the scala, and the rood passes over barren hills by Proshymno to
Martini, 7 hrs., a large village. Hence the direct road to Thebes descends to tho Copaic Lake, and so by Itokhino to
Thebes, 10 hrs. (Bte. 4.)
MAKATHON TO CHALKIS.
Marathon to— Hrs.
Site of Rhamnus 1J
Buins of Tanagra 3
Return to Oropos 3
Delisi (tho site of Delium), 7 m.
The site of the ruins of Bliamnus is remarkable: the ground is covered with clumps of lentisk, and no house is visible; a long woody ridge runs eastward into the sea. and on either side is a ravine parallel to it. On tho E. extremity of this ridge, on a small rocky peninsula, is tho site of Rhamnus. Its chief ruins ore those of 2 temples; they stand on rather higher ground W. of this peninsula.
"Among tho lentisk-bushes which entangle the path there, you are suddenly surprised with tho site of a long wall of puro white marble, the blocks of which, though of irregular forms, aro joined with the most exquisite symmetry. This wall runs eastward, and meets another of similar masonry abutting upon it at right angles. They form 2 sides of a platform. On this platform are heaps of scattered fragments of columns, mouldings, statues, and reliefs, lying in wild confusion. The outlines of two edifices standing nearly from N. to S. are distinctly traceable, which are almost contiguous and nearly, though not quite, parallel to each other. These two edifices were temples; this terraced platform Whs their riiuvos, or sacred enclosure. The western of these temples, to judge from its diminutive size and ruder architecture, was of much earlier date than the other. It consisted of a simple cella, being constructed in an tis, whereas the remains of its neighbour show that it possessed a double portico and a splendid peristyle. It had 12 columus on the flank, and six on each front."— Wordsworth.
The largest of these temples has been supposed to be that of the Rhamnusian goddess Nemesis, and an inscription found here seems to confirm the idea. It records the dedication by Herodes Atticus of a statue of one of his adopted children to the goddess Nemesis.
But both these temples were dedicated to Nemesis, and it is probable that the former temple was in ruins before the latter was erected; at what period it was destroyed, or by whom, is uncertain. The remains of Khamnus are considerable. The W. gate is flunked by towers, and the S. wall, cxtuuding towards the sea, is well preserved, and about 20 ft. high. The part of the town bordering on the sea is rendered very strong by its position on the edge of perpendicular rocks. Tho beauty of its site and natural features is enhanced by the interest attached to tho spot. Standing on this knoll, among walls and towers grey with age, with the sea behind you, and Attica before, you look up a woody glen, where, on a platform like a natural basement, the temples stood, of which the ruined walls, of shining marble, show so fairly to the eye through the veil of green shade that screens them. This was tho birthplace of Antipho, the master of Thuoydides.
Grammatical, 1} hr., is an Albanian villoge. The route now lies over a mountain tract, near the tops of Mount Varnava (Barnabas). Hence is a magnificent view extending W. over the highest ridge of Parnes, with a glimpse of tho Saronic Gulf. S. are the high peaks of Brilessus. Beneath, on the rt., is the strait of Eubcea. The surface of the hills is here and thero clothed with shrubs, but there is no large timber.
We descend by a route broken into frequent ravines by the torrents which flow from tho higher summits.
Kalamot, 3 hrs., is on the heights above tho sea, in face of the deep gulf of Aliveri in Eubcea. From the hill abovo tho town is a fine view of the surrounding country. Leaving Kalamos wo descend by a bad road to the Charadra, or torrent which comes from the summit of Parnes. Thore are many remains of antiquity here, and some inscriptions have fixed this spot as the site of the temple of Amphiaruus. Hence we descend through a gorge in the hills by a gradual slope. To 1., in a lofty situation, is the village of Marlcopoulos, which must not be confounded with another village of the same name in the central district of Attica. We now enter a plain extending to the mouth of the Asopus; and, crossing two large torrents, arrive at
Apoitoli, 3 hrs. (A7101 'Av6<rro\oi, the Holy Apoetlee), most probably the Bite of Delphinium, which was once the harbour of Oropos. It is now the scala or wharf of Oropos, and the port whence passengers embark for Euboea. Such was the case also with Delphinium.
"Tho name itself of Apostoli was, I conceive, chosen from reference to this its maritime character. The vessels which left its harbour, the voyages which were here commenced, suggested, from the very terms in the language by which thpy were described, the present appropriate dedication of tho place to the Holy Apostles; which the pious ingenuity, by which the