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Hkasttle— having a front range of six columns: tho Parthenon is
Ktattylt—i. e. with eight columns in front.
a temple sometimes was.
i* a treasury. Obchestba—a circular level space, corresponding somewhat in position
to the pit of a modern theatre; but anciently Bet apart for the chorus.
Pedoknt, or Fastigicm—the triangular termination of the roof of n temple, resting upon the entablature which surrounds tho building, and enclosing the tympanum.
PESjBOLrB—the wall or colonnade surrounding the temeuos, or dote, in *hich a temple usually stood.
Pekhteral—having columns all round the cella.
Peristyle—the walk round the outside of tho edifice between the columns and the wall.
Pilaster—a square engaged pillar; t.«. attached to a wall.
Poktioo (jrro£)—the covered space in front of the cella. The term portico was sometimes applied to any walk covered with a roof and supported by columns, whether attached to a temple or not.
Pumcof—the inner porch within the peristyle of a temple, before the ■W of the Opisthodomus, usually placed towards the west.
PttciscnoKEs—the landings, or gangways, which separated and gave access to the ranges of seats in theatres.
Proxies—the porch at the entrance of the Nadf, opposite tho Posticum.
•sjffit—a wrought surface that can be seen from below.
^nxoBATE—The basis or substructure on which a colonnade is placed.
Tetbasttle—having a front range of four columns.
Trklyph (Tply\v<tm)—the distinguishing ornament of the Doric entablatoi, being a tablet fluted with upright grooves.
Tthpanch—the surface framed within the pediment; so called by tho Utins from its analogy to the skin in the frame of a drum; and Skt6s by ••*• Greeks, probably because the tympanum of the earliest temples dedicated to Jupiter was usually ornamented by an eagle in relief.
Volute—the Ionic scroll; a characteristic of the Ionic, as the Triglyph a if the Doric order.
Vohitobia—passages facilitating egress from a theatre (a Latin term).
The three orders of Grecian architecture are, as we have seen,—
1- The Doric, the eldest, the most simple, and the most dignified of all. Ashaft of massive proportions, willvmt a liaise, crowned with the simplest '* capitals and the heaviest of abaci, supports an entablature massive like |Wf, and composed of a very few bold members. Tho great characteristic '•" the triglyphB, oririnally tlie ends of the cross-beams appearing through fe entablature. The grave simplicity and iEsehyleun majesty of a "** temple admirably expresses the mind of the race among whom it "grated. "The Doric character," as Midler observes, "created the "tic architecture."
* The Ionic order retains the impress of the refinement and delicacy "■the Ifrnjans among whom it arose. It is the flowing liquid dialect, of JJ'Toriotns, as compared with tho broad strength of a Spartan inscription. V» great characteristic of the Ionic pillar is the volutes, or spiral projec***'- at each angle of the capital; said to have been suggested by tho ^ling down of bark at the top of tho tcooden column of primitive ages. n* pillar U furnished with a base in both the Ionic and the Corinthian orders. Colonel Leake has made the important observation, that of the two early forms of Grecian architecture, the Ionic was usually employed for buildings on a level surrounded with hills; whereas the massive and majestic Doric was best displayed on a lofty rock. The columns of the Doric temple at Kemea, situated in a narrow plain, have proportions not less slender than some examples of the Ionic. It was, in fact, situation that determined the Greeks in all the varieties of their architecture. "So far," says Leake, " from being the slaves of rule, there are no two examples of the Doric, much less of the Ionic, that perfectly resemble each other either in proportion, construction, or ornament."
3. The Corinthian, tho third and last of the Grecian orders, with its tall slender columnB, its elaborate cornice, and, above all, with its chief characteristic—itB highly-wrought capitals—is the direct opposite of tho original Doric. "Here," says Mr. Freeman, "the utmost lightness of proportion and the most florid gorgeousness of detail have utterly banished the sterner graces of the elder architecture; so completely had commerce, and the wealth and luxury which attended it, changed the spirit of tho famous city whoso name it bears, since the days when her two harbours were first added to the conquests of the invading Dorian."
According to Yitruvius, the inventor of the Corinthian order was Callimachus, who was accidentally struck by seeing some leaves entwining round a basket, and embodied the idea in the exquisite capitals "with many a woven acanthuB-leaf divine"—a legend too graceful to be omitted.
"We must remember," again to quote Mr. Freemau (' History of Architecture;' London, 1849), "that the Grecian orders do not, like the styles of Gothic architecture, each represent the exclusive architecture of a singlo period. The invention of new forms did not exclude the use of the elder ones; and tho three orders were employed simultaneously. Consequently there were many cases in which tho architect who adopted the stern grandeur of the Doric order chose it in actual preference to tho elegaut Ionic and florid Corinthian, which were in contemporary use."
With regard to tliiB part of our subject, we cannot do better than refer the reader to Mr. Fergusson's excellent 'Handbook of Architecture;' the chapters in Mr. Freeman's work which relate to Grecian architecture; and to tho dissertation on the history of Greek Art by Mr. Scharf, junior, prefixed to the last edition of Dr. Wordsworth's ' Greece.' Respecting the vexed question as to whether the true principle of the arch was known or not to the ancient Greeks, Mr. Scharf decides in the affirmative; and we shall have occasion to mention some examples of its use in the course of tho following pages.
III. A full and yet concise account of the arrangements and component parts of the Greek Temple, Theatre, &c, will be found under the proper heads in Dr. Smith's 'Dictionary of Antiquities.' The traveller will do well to refresh his memory by an attentive perusal of these articles before leaving England. Greece is pre-eminently the country to justify Dr. Johnson's famous remark, that if a man wishes to bring back knowledge from his travels, he must take a good deal of knowledge with him when he sets out. Tho alphabetical list of technical terms given above will supply the most requisite practical information.
The Temple is of course the most important and characteristic form of Hellenic architecture. "Other Grecian remains, however interesting as matters of archaeology, throw but little light upon architecture. The magnificent propylasa of Athens are simply a Doric portico, differing in no essential respect from those forming the fronts of the temples. The vast theatres, whether constructed or hewn in the rock, teach us no new lesson, and can hardly bo called works of architecture in the strictest sense. Still lea ean we look for domestic architecture among the Greeks; it was nn art not likely to be cultivated among a people who looked with envy on any individual display of magnificence as betokening designs against their liberties."—Freeman.
There is a wide, and, as yet, comparatively unexplored, field of study in (ireece for the professional or amateur architect, in the examination of the monumente of the Byzantine style. Mr. Fergusson ("Handbook of Architecture,' book x. chap, i.) shows that the term Byzantine is properly restricted to the architecture of the Greek Church as it arose under Justinian, and continued, down to the 16th or 17th century, to be practised in all the Christian countries of the East. It may be briefly described as the domical or vaalted style of Asia engrafted on tho Roman architecture. For the divisions, &c, of Byzantine Churches, see below, in.
L Outline Op Gbeek History.
A short Sfa-teh of the Modern History of Greece — Latin Princes — Turkish Gmquest— Mode of Government by the Turks — tlie KlcpIUs—Armatoles — Pixpular Poetry — Insurrection of 1770 — Progress of Education — Rliirjas—Coray—Capotlistria — the Iletairia — Mi Pasha—War vf Independence — Battle of Xavarino — General Reflections.
Though frequent reference will be made, under their separate heads, to the annals of her more famous cities and localities, it would, of course, bo foreign to the plan of this work to give a systematic accouut of the ancient History of Greece. A brief outline of her modern History is, however, requisite, as far less familiar to the general reader or traveller, but still indispensable to a right understanding of the present condition of tho eeuntry and people.
Daring the three centuries which preceded tho reign of Alexander tho Great, Greece exhibited one of the most splendid and active scenes of social iod political existence which the world has ever witnessed. Legislation, raflitary science, and diplomacy are, in a great measure, indebted for their origin to this golden age of Hellas; whilo at the same period all tho arts «kieh embellish the life and adorn the mind of man attained a degree of I*rf..-ction which has never since been surpassed. Two centuries succeeded, 'luring which the energy which had so long animated tho rival states jrraJusdly died away, for tho independence of Greece was controlled by tho Macedonian kings. The year 140 B.C. witnessed the last faint struggle of (tarian freedom against tho still mightier power of Rome. Reduced to tho audition of a province, Greece followed the fortunes of her conqueror—she taame the theatre of the contests with Antiochus and Mithridates, and of £* fierco strife of the civil wars; and then fell upon her that devastation rf her cities and depopulation of her territory from which she has never yet iwovexed. The tranquillity of the first two centuries of the empire was •land by Greece along with the rest of tho Roman world; but in the succeeding ages she was deluged with successive streams of Slavonians, Albanians, and other invaders from the north. These barbarians havo left •i«p traces of their presence in the names of places, as well as in the language and blood of the Greeks.
In the partition of the Roman world by Constnntine, Greece fell to the share of the Eastern empire. When, in A.d. 1201, tho decrepitude of tie Casars sank prostrate before the fleet of Dandolo, and a small army rf Latin cru3aders, a portion of the sea-coasts, and nearly all the islands, *ere seized upon by Venice; while Northern Greece and tho Peloponnesus
were shared out among adventurers from Western Europe. Hellas now heard of Lords of Argos and Corinth, Dukes of Athens, and other titles, strange to classic cars, but some of which have been rendered familiar to Englishmen by the genius of Shakspeare. Castles, churches, and other edifices—as well as various names of places—still remain to attest the conquests in Greece of these nobles of the West. Though the Latin empire in Constantinople lasted only fifty-seven years, the Latin princes generally retained their principalities, as vassals of the restored Byzantine Emperors, until tho whole of Greece was finally reduced under the sway of the Ottomans about the middle of the fifteenth century. Venice still retained her hold on Crete, on some other of tho islands, and on various portions of the coast, and bore during several ages the chief brunt of the Moslem arms. Towards the end of the seventeenth century she lost Crete, and gained, for a short time, the Peloponnesus; but, after the Peace of Passarowitz in 1718 A.d., her flag floated on the Ionian Islands alone, save on the following isolated posts on the neighbouring mainland, Butrinto, Gomenitza, Parga, Prevesa, and Vonitza. (See Introduction to Section I.)
Using the rights of conquest after the fashion of the Normans in England, the Turks had everywhere, except in the Cycladcs, in which they did not settle, seized on the greater part of the most fertile lands. Under the title of Agas, a word corresponding to country genttemen, they formed the landlord class of Greece; while the Rayahs, as the Turks style their nonMussulman subjects, usually farmed the territories of their proud masters on what is called the Melayer system. A poll-tax, named Kharaich (i. e. salvation), was paid annually by each Christian for permission to live and to practise his religion; "death or tribute from unbelievers" being the clad tidings of the prophet. Carries, frequent extortions, and the rapacity of the Turkish Governors, kept them in a state of misery; the justice administered by the Mahommedan Cadis, or judges, was often venal and partial; the personal, the domestic, and the national honour of Greeks were daily exposed to outrage from the fanatical Turks. The mainland of Greece, like the rest of the Ottoman empire, was divided into separate governments, each presided over by a Pasha. With the exception of Crete, in which the Mahommedans formed about a third of the whole population, and which was always administered in the same way as the Continent—the Islands, generally, wero left to their own local administrations : the Capitanpasha, or High Admiral, was their Governor-General, and periodically sailed round to collect the taxes, and to procure a regular supply of seamen for the Imperial navy.
The Greeks, however, wero not wholly devoid of landed property; for the Church, whoso hierarchy was sometimes, from motives of policy, rather courted than persecuted by the conquerors, retained a part of its ancient possessions, as did also tho descendants of certain Christian families; these latter, with those who had raised themselves to wealth by commercial enterprise, formed the native gentry. Under Turkish supervision and control, all influence was in their hands and in those of the higher clergy; they, like the head men of villages in India, regulated the local affairs of the districts in which they resided. By the Turks, they wero styled Khoja-bashis (literally, old heads), and by the Greeks, Archons (*Apx<"""r), or Primate* (ripotiTTof). Themselves the slaves of their Ottoman masters, the characters of these mon too often exhibited as well the vices generated by servitude as those by the exercise of despotic power; they adopted many Turkish customs; and the oppression which they exercised over their own countrymen was sometimes little less galling than that of the Turkish functionaries. The mountaineers on the continent, and the Jigean islanders of all classes, being less exposed than their brethren to the hateful influence of tyranny tod slavery, were, in general, of a character superior to that of their less uroared countrymen. For an account of the Phanariots, or Constantiaopoiitan Greeks, we refer to the Handbook for Constantinople.
T'ih) mountain-ridges which occupy so large a portion of the surface of IMas have been in all ages the seat of a wild and rude independence. The Mainotes, as the clans inhabiting the fastnesses of Taygitus in the Peloponnesus are named, were never completely reduced under the Turkibh lokc; the same was the case with the dwellers on the precipitous ranges of Ossa, Olympus, and Pindus. Like the Scotch Highlanders of old, these mountaineers infested the inhabitants of the neighbouring plains and valleys by their constant depredations; and the appropriate appellation given to them was that of KI?pitta (KAt'oVrai, corrupted from KAtVrai), or Hubbers. But it is to bo remembered, that to be a Klepht in Greece under the old Turkish re~ijime was no more considered a disgrace than to be a pirate in tike days of Homer, to be an outlaw in the time of ltobin Hood, or a '" jrentltman-cateran" in the Highlands of Scotland a hundred and seventy ;>ars ago. On the contrary, tho Klephtic chiefttiins wero looked upon with favour and admiration by the mass of their Christian fellow-countrymen, as their only avengers on their Muhomniedan oppressors, or, at worst, a* merely spoilers of the Egyptians. They were the popular heroes,— Hercules and Theseus of modern Greece : in tho worst of times they kept alive some sparks of the old Greek spirit; and their exploits formed the chief subject of the national ballads which were sung through tho country by the wandering minstrels, the descendants of the bards and rhapeodists of ancient Hellas. (See FaurieVe Chants jmpulairee de la GrtceJ) "So," it has been observed, "the English peasants sympathized entirely seven hundred years ago, and still do partly sympathize, with those gallant outlaws who retired from Norman tyranny to tho depths of tho forests, where they found 'no enemy but winter and rough weather.' A captain of Greek Elephts used to reason like Boderick I >hu, in the Lady of the Lake,—
■ Pent in this fortress of toe North,
These robbers of Greece were no vulgar or indiscriminate plunderers. The Turkish Aaas were the chief objects of their assaults, though their necessities obliged them at times to levy contributions also on their own '--onrputriots. In the passes of Pindus, at the beginning of the present onrtury, there flourished a Robin Hood, with a Greek priest—a Eriar Tuck —in his band. This ecclesiastic used to take up a position in an old hollow oak. and his comrades, on catching a prisoner, were wont to bring him before this Dodona, when a dialogue to the following purport ensued:—
RcM-er-Cajttain.—" O holy oak, what shall we do with this captive of our
t»jw and spear?"
kiia of love, and dedicating his puree to relievo the wants of his poorer
brethren." But if the captive were a Mussulman, the answer of the Oracle was decisive:
~ Hang the unbeliever to my sacred branches, and confiscate all that he
hath to the service of the true Church and her faithful children."
It is a proof of the estimation in which tho KlephU were held by their
oocntrymen, that the patriotic or national, iu contradistinction from the