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Yagilopido, 0 in., or 2 lira. A village occupying a lofty situation near the N. extremity of the valley. The villages of old Tragameeti anil Imiziana are also situated on this side of the valley. Of these three, Tragamesti, or Dragornestre, is the largest. The valley is bounded by the mountains which are a N. continuation of Kalkitza.

between Lutziann and Tragamesti, below a monustory of St. Elias, a root of Mount Velutzi projecting into the valley, was the site of the town which possessed the district of Tragarnesti in Hellenic times, and nt a subsequent period. The remains consist of walls of mortar and rubble, erected upon regular Hellenic masonry. There are also the ruins of a large church, and, at the anglo of the fortress, a square tower coeval with the church. This Hellenic town was probably Crithote; but according to Kiepert and others, Astacus, which Leake places, as we have said, more to the S.

The road from Vasilopulo crosses the hills and descends into a valley, and, passing through Mukhera, once a considerable village, follows the slope of the hills to tho

Paleo-kastron of Porta, 4 hrs. Tho monastery, called the Panayhia of Porta, is founded on a part of the walls of an ancient city (probably Phytia), encircling the summit of an irregular height rising from the middle of the vale, which is inclosed by Mount Bumisto, the ridge of Katuna, and the mountain of Chrysoritzi. The walls are chiefly polygonal, except on the lower side towards Makhala, where they are best preserved, and where a tiwer of regular ninsonry subsists to half its original height. A little above it is an ancient reservoir, which still contains tho waters of a spring which here takes its rise. Within the Hellenic enclosure are many foundations of ancient buildings and traces of terraces, now separated from each other by luxuriant bay-trees. The monastery is large, but contains no Hellenic remains. The hill of Porta is the limit of the valley of Ados, so culled

from a deserted village at the foot of Mount Bumisto, opposite to which, in the direction of Porta, is a pointed hill crowned with a castle of the lower ages, also named Aetog.

Leaving Porta, wo proceed in tho direction of Katuna, through the valley, which,except at Aetos and Katunn, is uncultivated. In 2 hrs. we find ourselves immediately below tit. Nicholas of Aetos, a monastery on tho lower heights of the ridge attached to tho castle peak.

Katuna, 2J hrs., a large village.

From Katuna we proceed to Lutraki and Bulimbey, near tho S. shore of tho beautiful Ainbracian Gulf. From thence to St. Basil, a village on the N. slope of the mountain of Pergandi, is 1§ hr. Here thero is nothing except a church of St. Basil, and a cluster of cottages.

Vonitza is 3 hrs. from St. Basil. Tho road descends tho mountain, crosses the elevated plain, re-enters the forests, and approaches Vonitza a little abovo some ancient foundations on tho hill of St. Elias. The, lower road from Katuna to Vonitza has been described above (Kte. 10).



Aetos to lire.

Alyzea (Kandili) :i

Leueadia (Santa Maura) .. .. 5

This route may be regarded us an appendage or cross-road to that immediately preceding. Two hours from

Aetoa bring the traveller to a gorge near the village of Lavitza, through which a torrent forces its way into the plain of Mytika, separated from the island of Kalumos by a very narrow strait of the sea. On the summit of tho pass is a small and beautiful Hellenic tower. Descending the mountain, we cross the plain of Mytika to tho Paleo-kastron of Kandili, the name given to the ruins of Alyzea, situnted above the village of Kandili, about 1 hr. from the sea. Tho walla are in the best Hellenic style, and probably, of all tho cities in this part of Acarnania, Alyzea would best repay excavation and research.

Near the apex of the plain of Mytika —a triangular level, of which the shorn is tho base, and two chains of lofty uud abrupt mountains form tho sides —a stream has forced a magnificent passage through the limestone, and, restrained there by an embankment, lias accumulated its waters for the

irrigation of the plain. Thus Hellenic construction and Cyclopean labours were here devoted to a useful work, and remain at the present day an instructive lesson.

From Kandili a rugged path leads by Mytika and Zaverdha to Santa Maura, a distance of about 5 hrs.

In the year B.c. 374 the bay of Alyzea was the scene of a naval victory, gained by GO Athenian ships, commanded by Timotheus, over tho Lacedemonians, under Nicolochus: on which occasion the historian relates that Timotheus retired after the battle to Alyzea, where he erected a trophy; that tho Lacedemonians, having been reinforced by six ships from Ambraeia, again offered him battle, and that when Timotheus refused to come forth, Nicolochus erected a trophy on ono of the neighbouring islands, probably that of Kalamoe, anciently Carnus, and which is now a dependency of Ithaca (Section I.).


Introductory Remarks.

The isthmus of Corinth is so narrow in comparison with the size of the peninsula, that the ancient Greeks called the latter the Island of Pelops—or Peloponnesus—after the mythical hero of that name. In fact, it has all the advantages, without the drawbacks, of an insular situation. The niedireval name of Morea is derived by some writers from the mulberry-trees (jiope'a) grown there, or from its resemblance in form to a mulberry-leaf. But, as Strabo and Piny observed, the Peloponnesus more nearly resembles in shape tho leaf of a plane-tree or vine; and Morea was probably derived from the Slavonic word Mare", the sea, us being, par excettewx, the maritime province of Greece. The name dates from the period when the peninsula was overcome by Slavonians, who have left many traces in the modern names of towns and mountains.

Arcadia is tho Switzerland of the Peloponnesus. This Alpine district is encircled by an irregular wall of mountains, from which lateral brunches extend in various directions to the sea. Tho highest peak is that of Taygetus, 7903 ft above tho sea; the next Kyllene, 7788 ft. Erymanthus rises to the height of 7297 ft., and the Aroanian mountains (Khelmo's) to that of 7726 it. The other principal summits, arc those of Mount Panachaicum above Patrns (6322 ft.), Mount Lykaras (4659 ft.), Mount Artemisium (5814 ft), &c. Tho chief river—the Achelous of the Peloponnese—is the Alpheus.

The Peloponnesus contains five of the thirteen departments, or names, into which the kingdom of Greece is divided; and these divisions correspond witli tolerable accuracy to the ancient districts whose names they bear.

Though the surface of tho Peninsula is only about one-third more extensive than that of Yorkshire, there is probably no part of the world which will more fully repay a tour of a month or six weeks. The scenery, both of the great historic sites and of the more obscure retreats of the Peloponnese, is of the rarest grandeur and beauty, and stamps itself on the memory with distinctness. Other sights and length of time do not confuse or alter its impressions. The cloud-capped Acropolis of Corinth, the primaeval remains of Tiryns and Mykenaj, the hollow, stadium-like valley of Sparta, the massive wulls and towers of Messene, with the alter-like hill of Ithome above, the mountoinsbrine of Bassse, tho beautiful valo of Olympia, the Convent of the Great Cavern (Megaspelfflon), the vast ealdron-glen and cliff of the Styx, tho secluded lake of Pheneus, with the curious phenomena of the rise and fall of its waters, all these are among the choice places of the earth which, once seen, live in perpetual freshness in the imagination.

Tho following routes will point out to the traveller the most striking features of the Peloponnese. Still there is doubtless room for discovery, at least in the way of natural beauty, for those who deviate from the beaten tracks. We cannot doubt that there would bo much to reward a diligent explorer in the mountains of Epiduurus and Trcezen, and in the volcanic peninsula of Methana; in the hills of Isakonia, where a primitive dialect still lingers; in the chain of Erymanthus, S.W. of Patras; and, above all, in the crags and recesses of Taygetus.

Roi:tk Paoe

21. Athena to Nauplia, by Epi

daurus 264

22. Athena to Xuuplia.hy iEgina,

Poros. Hydra, and Spetzia .. 2G8

23. Nauplia to Sjxtrta, by MyIfnx, Argoa, Tripolitza, and Mantinea 273

24. Sparta, through Maina toKalarnata 284

25. Sparta, over Mount Taygetus,

to Kalamata 295

20. Sparta, by Mcssene, to Kalamata .. 296

27. Kalnmata to Sakona and Messene 301

28. Knlomatji to Kyparutia (Ar

cadia), by Pylon (Navarino) 301


29. Kypariusia to Tripolitza .. 306

30. Kypnrissia, through Arcadia and Elis, to Patrns .. ..308

31. Pyrgos to Tchelebi .. ..312

32. Pyrgos to Patras, by Gastuni ".. .. 313

33. Kalabryta to Orinth .. .. 313

34. Andritzena to Kiilabryta .. 314 8.1. Patras to Tripolitza .. .. 315

36. Karytena by Dimitarna, to

Kolabryta and the Styx .. 316

37. Patrns to Corinth, by Yostitzn, Megaepelion, and Sikyon .. 317 Nauplia to Tatras, by Mantinea, Phonin, and Vostitza 320

Nauplia to Corinth, by Mykenn, tiemea and Cleon/K .. 321





His. M. Mil.

Pirreus to Eginafby sea).. 0 0 11 Kgina to Epidaurus '^by

sea) 0 0 11

Epidaurus to Nauplia .. 7 0
Epidaurus, by Hieron, to

Nauplia 9 0

Boats can be hired in the Piraeus at reasonable rates for excursions in nil directions. jEgina may be visited in a separn(c excursion from Athens, or en route for the Peloponnesus. In shape the island is an irregular triangle, and contains about 41 square m. Its western half consists of a plain, which, though stony, is well cultivated with corn, but the remainder of the island is mountainous and unproductive. A magnificent conical hill, called Oron, occupies the whole southern part of the island, and is the most remarkable among the natural features of ^Egina. Notwithstanding its small size, /Egiua was fine of the most celebrated of the Greek islands. It was famous in the mythical period; and in historical times we find it peopled by Dorians from Epidaurus, and pos

sessing a powerful navy. About B.c. 500, the jEginetans held the empire of the sea; and at the battle of Salnmis, B.C. 480, they were admitted to have distinguished themselves above all other Greeks for their bravery. Long » rival of Athens, jEgina succumbed to her in B.c. 456, and became a portion of the Athenian empire. But, dreading the vicinity of sucli discontented subjects, Pericles, who used to called the island the Eye-tore of the Pirajus, expelled the whole population in B.C. 431, and filled their place with Athenian settlers. The expelled ^Eginetans were settled by the Spartans in Thyrea, and, though restored to their country at the close of the Peloponnesinn war, they never recovered their ancient power and prosjierity.

The island of jEgina is distant about 11 m. from the Piraeus, and nearly the same from Epidaurus. It was one of the few places which escaped the calamities of the devastating war of the Revolution. It was for some time, in 1828-29, the seat of tho Greek government; and many rich famil ies of the Peloponnesus bought land and settled here, added to which, refugees from Scio and Psara flocked hither in great numbers; so that in 1829 it became the resort of a mixed population of about 10,001) Greeks from all ports of Greece. At present the inhabitants of iEgina do not exceed 7000 in number. It is in general easier to go from Athens to /Egina and Epidaurus than vice vend, owing to the prevalence of northerly winds during a great part of the year; and it is misery to be wind-bound in either of the latter places.

The climate of jEgina is delightful, and the air so pure, that epidemic fevers, the scourge of the Peloponnesus, are almost unknown in it. The soil is fertile, and it is carefully cultivated, yielding all the usual productions of Greece in great abundance. The interior of the island is rather destitute of wood, but the picturesque hills, rocky precipices, and pretty valleys with which it is diversified, afford a variety of pleasing landscapes. The heights present beautiful views of the surrounding islands and continent. The best plan is to land at the N.E. extremity of the island, and to walk up to the temple. This can be easily effected, and it is not more than half an hour's walk.

Toton of JEgina.—On a pointed hill, 3 m. inland, may be seen the ruins of the Venetian town of the Middle Ages. This has been abandoned by the inhabitants, who, being induced by their love of commerce to prefer the seashore, removed to tho site of the ancient city, whose position is marked by a Doric column. To the S. of this column may be seen traces of an old port, oval in shape, and sheltered by two ancient moles, which leave only a narrow passage in the middle, between the remains of towers, on either Bide of the entrance. In the same direction we find another oval port, twice as large as the former one, tho entrance of which is protected in tho same way by moles 15 or 20 ft. thick. The walls of the ancient city are traced through their wholo extent on the land side. The actual town occupies the site of the ancient city at the N.W. end of the island. The streets in the modern town aro more regular than those in most other towns of Greece; some good houses wero built hero


before Athens became the residence of the court. Since that period, however, the place has again dec! ied. Capodistria erected an extorsive range of buildings near tho town, which he destined for barracks, but they have been converted into a museum, a library, and a school. Tho Museum was the first institution of tho kind in Greece, but its antiquities were transferred to Athens, and the building is falling into decay. The Library, a spacious lofty room, contains a few ancient Greek or Koman books printed in London.

In former days jEgina was celebrated for the beauty and richness of its monuments; the only remains of them consist of a few tombs, vestiges of wells, a mosaic pavement, the column on tho shore above mentioned, and the ruins of the

Temple of Minerva (formerly supposed to have been a temple of J upiter Panhellenius).—This temple, one of tho most ancient in Greece, is (i m. distant from tho port, and the badness of tho road requires 2J hrs. to reach it; the best course is to land immediately below tho temple and to proceed to tho town afterwards. The approach, by a winding path, ascending through rich and varied scenery, is very attractive, and nothing can exceed tho picturesque beauty of the situation. The ruins are on the top of a hill, of moderate height, but commanding a view of the greater part of the island, tho whole of the Gulf of Salamis, and some of the more distant islands, tho coast of Attica from the Skironian rocks to Cape Sunium, the Parthenon, and Eleusis. The temple is not near any human habitation, and was surrounded with shrubs and small pinotrees. 22 of its 34 columns are entire, viz. 20 of tho peribolus, and 2 of tho cella. The greater part of the architrave is remaining, but the cornice with the metopes and triglyphs have fallen. The temple is built of soft porous stone, coated with thin stucco, and the architraves and cornice were painted. The pavement also was covered with fine stucco, of vermilioii

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