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Hi-. H.

Kalamata to Scala 4 15

Scala to the Khan of Snkona 1 40 Sakona to Mavromati (Mcssene) 4 0

From Kalamata to Scala is 4 hrs. 15 min. The traveller proceeds to 1'alea Lutra (the Roman baths), and then leaves 1'aleo-katlron (Thuria) to the rt. The road crosses a bridge over the Tidhima (Aris); 40 min. afterwards it reaches a magnificent source, forming the rt. branch of the Pamisns: it continues over the plain to the foundation of a small temple, below which are a rock and fountain, the source of the Pamisus.

Scala is situated on a low ridge, which crosses from Mount MacryplMgi directly towards Mount Ithome. Turning westwurd from this village, and crossing the river Mavrozumeno (the ancient Balyra), the traveller soon reaches Mavromati and the ruins of Messene.

Scala to Sakona is 1 lir. 40 min. To the rt., about 10 min. from Scala, are some curious strata of rocks; n little farther to the rt. are some hills, with remains of antiquity; near this to the rt. is an insulated rock with ii eh. on it, and a cave below the ch. Mount Bala bounds the plain to the rt. 25 min. afterwards are seen across the plain some ruined towers on a hill; the road crosses another stream from the rt., and proceeds northwards to Sakona across the Stenvclerian plain.

Sakona. See Kte. 26.

Sakona to Mavromati is 4 hrs. See lite. 26.


Kalamata To KYPAKI9SIA (Arcadia) BY PYLOS (Naearino).


Kalamata to Nisi;!

Nisi to Navarino (Pylos) .. .. 10

Navarino to Modon 2

Modon to Coron 5

Keturn to Navarino 7

Navarino to Arcadia 11

Another arrangement of this route and of the preceding one, ia the following:

Kalamata to Coron,

Coron to Modon,

Modon to Navurino,

Navarino to Mcssene; an extremely beautiful rido, and

Mcssene to Arcadia, remaining at Kalamata or Nisi, and making an excursion to the objects in tho plain of Mcssenia.

Kalamata to Nisi 3 hrs. (Rtc. 26.) Nisi to Navarino, about 30 m., occupies nearly 10 hrs. This journey is a tedious one, for tho intervening plains are often completely inundated, which renders travelling at all times difficult, und often occasions a complete cessation of intercourse between Nisi and Navarino. The herbage, mixed with a profusion of white clover, is most luxuriant, and the district extremely productive.

On quitting the plains of Nisi a gradual usceut terminates in a summit, whence there is a fine view of tho bays of Coron and Kalamata, the plains beneath, and the mountains of Mainu and Arcadia. The Khan of Mifka, about half - way between Nisi and Navarino, is the usual resting-place. The traveller fords a river on approaching the Khan; the banks are thickly clothed with arbutus, rhododendrons, and a variety of aromatic plants. A wide-spreading plittanus contiguous to the Khan affords welcome shade.

The :-i succeeding hours arc spent in travelling through a forest, in which are very line oaks, and other valuable timber. This forest was set on lire in 1827, in different places, by Ibrahim's soldiers. Hence the track passes over an undulating plain, partly cultivated, partly covered with briars and heath, intermingled with rocks. The two last miles to Navarino are over an old Venetian pavement, which has been much neglected, and is nearly impracticable. The communications in G reeco have retrograded since the heroic age: lor Homer represents Telemachus as driving in a chariot in one day from Py los to Pherae (Kalamata), and thence in another day to Sparta.

Navarino (no hotel)—called by the Greeks NeoTuutron (Newcastle), a place of no importance till the end of the 15th centy.—was converted into a fortress by the Venetians. It is situated oil a cape, projecting towards the S. end of t$)iliucteria, off which there is a rock, called, from the tomb of a Turkish saint, Deliklihaba. Between this rock and the fortress is the entrance to the Bay of Navarino; a uoblo basin, with a depth of from 12 to 20 fathoms of water. Tho safest anchorage is about the middle of the port, behind the low rook called Chelonaki (x«A-<ocaKi), from its likeness to a tortoise. The northern entrance to the harbour, i. e. that between Sphncteria and Old Navarino (the ancient promontory of Coryphasiuin), is now choked up with a bar of sand, passable only in small boats. A S.W. wind brings a great swell into the harbour of Navarino. The citadel, or upper town, is on an eminence. During the war, Navarino alternately was in the hands of the Turks, Greeks, and Egyptians.

Here Ibrahim Pasha landed a disciplined Egyptian army of S00O men iu May, 1825, and occupying the fortresses of Navarino, Moron, and Ooron, completely recovered the mili

tary command of the Morea. The negotiations of England, France, and Kussia, for the pacification of Greece, commenced at St. Petersburg by the Protocol of April 4, 1826", and continued by the Treaty of July, 1827. rallied the whole of the energies of Sultan Mahmoud and the Viceroy of Egypt for one grand effort; and the joint squadrons of Constantinople and Alexandria, evading the cruisers of the Allied Powers, transported to Navarino, on the 9th September, 1827, an armada sufficient to have entirely extinguished tho rebellion. Meantime, the Russian squadron from the Baltic having joined the squadrons of England and France, the three admirals sent to the Egyptian commander at Navarino, to Bay that they had received orders not to permit any hostile, movement by sea against tho Greeks, and to beg that he would not make any attempt of the kind. On the 25th of September they had an interview with lbraldm, and an armistice was concluded extending to all tho sea and land forces, lately arrived from Egypt, to continue in force till Ibrahim should receive an answer from the Porte, or from Mehemet Ali. As an answer could not be expected to arrive in less than twenty days, and as no doubts were entertained that Ibrahim would be ordered to evacuate the Morea, the French and English ships were ordered to prepare for escorting the Ottoman fleet to Alexandria or the Dardanelles. A week, however, had scarce elapsed, when upwards of forty sail of the Egyptian fleet came out of the harbour and steered for the • N. Admiral Codrington, who had gone to Zaute on the conclusion of the armistice, on hearing of this movement, made sail with his own ship, the Asia, and two smaller vessels, and getting ahead of them, resolved to oppose their entrance into the Gulf of 1'atras. The Egyptian commander asked permission to enter Patras; but on receiving refusal, accompanied with reproaches for his breach of faith, he returned towards the S., escorted by the English ships. On the fleet arriving (Oct. 3) between Zante and Cephalonia, Ibrahim and two other admirals joined it, with fourteen or fifteen ships of war. Notwithstanding their great superiority of force, the English commander boro down upon them, resolved to enforce respect to the armistice. The Ottoman fleet still proceeded southward; but taking advantage of a gale of wind and of the darkness of the night, the four admirals' ships, and some smaller vessels, ran to the Gulf of Patras. On seeing them there in the morning, tbe English squadron bore down on them and fired, till they made them show their colours. During the night it blew a hurricane; the English squadron was driven off, and Ibrahim, again taking advantage of the darkness, got out to sea; so that when, in the morning of the 5th, the English admiral was returning towards Patras. ho saw thirty sail of the enemy's ships between Zante and Cephalouia. He forced tho whole of them to return to Navarino.

On the 18th of October the three allied admirals held a conference, in which, as the most effectual mode of enforcing tho armistice, they agreed to enter the Bay of Navarino. and to maintain the blockade of the Ottoman fleet. It was expected that, as Ibrahim, when at sea, did not venture to engage the English squadron alone, he would submit at once at tho sight of the allied fleet.

Accordingly, on the 20th October, 1827, at two o'clock in the afternoon, the combined squadron prepared to pass the batteries, in order to anchor in the Bay of Navarino, where tho Turkish ships of the lino were moored in the form of a crescent, with springs on their cables, and their broadsides towards the centre; the smaller vessels were behind them. The combined fleet sailed in two columns; that on the weather side being composed of the French and English ships, the Russians forming the other or lee line. Admiral Codrington's ship, the 'Asia,' led the wuy, followed by the 'Genoa' and the ' Albion ;' they passed in with great rapidity, and moored alongside of the Capitan-pasha and two other large ships. Orders had been given

that no gun should be fired if the example was not set by the Turks. When the ships had all entered the harbour, the ' Dartmouth' .sent a boat to ono of the Turkish flreships which were near the mouth of the port. Tho Turks fired with musketry on the boat, and killed the lieutenant and several of the crew. This was returned from the 'Dartmouth' and 'La Sirfcne,' tho flag-ship of Kear-Admiral De Rigny. Admiral Codrington's pilot was then sent on board the Turkish admiral, but was shot in the boat; and at the same time cannon-shot was fired at 'La Sirene' by one of the Turkish ships, which was instantly returned, and tho battle soon became general. The conflict lasted with great fury for four hours, and terminated in the destruction of nearly tho entire Turkish fleet. As each ship became disabled, her crew set tiro to her, and dreadful explosions every moment threatened destruction to tho ships of the allies. Of eighty-one ships of war, of which the Turkish fleet consisted, there remained but one frigate and fifteen smaller vessels in a state to be again able to put to sea. Tho 'Asia,'' Genoa, and' Albion,' were very much damaged, and the loss of life in the allied fleet was considerable.

After the victory, ono of tho captive Turkish captains was sent to Ibrahim and tho other chiefs, to assure them that if a single musket or cannonshot should 1k< fired on any ship or boat belonging to the allied powers, they would immediately destroy all the remaining vessels and the forts of Navarino; and, moreover, consider such an act as a declaration of war on the part of the Porte against the three allied powers; but if the Turkish chiefs acknowledged their fault in committing the aggression, and hoisted a white flag on their forts, they were willing to resume the terms of good understanding which had been interrupted. The answer returned was, of course, peaceful.

The battle of Navarino ended, in effect, the war in Greece. The intelligence of it was received with exultation in Franco and Kussia; but the English ministry at that time were doubtful what to say to it, and their successors in office hesitated not to express their disapprobation of tho "untoward event." Though tho fact cannot be proved, yet it seems probable, that this wavering conduct of the British Government hardened Sultan Mohmoud in his obstinacy, and led him to reject all the efforts of Russia for a pacific adjustment of the differences between them, for ho still secretly believed that the other powers would come forward to save him at tho last hour.

Navarino was, at the close of the war, ceded by tho Egyptians to the French, who repaired the fortifications. It consists now of about 200 wellbuilt stone houses, and about 100 wooden habitations, principally cabarets and inferior shops, on and near the shore, about 200 yards from the fort. The remains of Navarino Vecchio, the ancient Fylos, on a lofty promontory at the northern extremity of the bay, consist of a fort or castle of mean construction, covering the summit of a hill, sloping sharply to the &., but falling in abrupt precipices to the N. and E. In tho northern face of tho hill is a large natural cavern, which is mentioned by Pausanias. The town was built on the southern declivity, and was surrounded with a wall, which, allowing for the natural irregularities of the soil, represented a triangle, with a casllo at the apex,—a form observed in many of the ancient cities of Greece. The ascent is steep, and is rendered more difficult by the loose stones and broken tiles which aro the only vestigos of the habitations. Tho mediaeval walls on the summit served as a fortress during the war; and here the gallant Count Santa Bosa, a riedmouteso refugee, was killed on tho 25th August, 1825. His tomb, and that of young Euoien Bonapaite, who also fell in the Greek War of Independence, are shown on tho island of Sphacteria. It is to bo observed that Navarino Vecchio was called by tho Byzantine writers TlaXaibt 'AflapTvos, probably after some Frank noble of the middle ages. The

name was changed into Navarino by the habit of using the accusative, and prefixing the final v of the article to tho substantive: its rbv A$ap7vov becaiuo <rrbv Affafiivov, whence orb Na£ap7vo. There aro numerous similar examples in tho modern names of places in Greece Mr. Clark (' Peloponnesus,' p. 224) remarks that so, vice versa, vip0ri( is corrupted into &p<h)£; and that so from the old English a nedder comes the modern English an adder.

There can bo no hesitation in identifying the old Navarino, and tho plain now partly occupied by a lagoon beneath it, with the site of tho sandy Pylos,— the "well - built city" of Nestor. It is a good local habitation for the beautiful representations in the Odyssey of the manners and feelings of the heroic times exhibited when the young Telemachus came, with reverential awe, to inquire of his father's fate from Nestor, his father's old companion in arras. Here the Goddess of Wisdom, in her disguise, rejoiced in the piety of tho young Pisistratns, Nestor's son, who had requested her to make libations to Neptune, "for that all men stood in need of the gods" (Od., iii. 48)

The after history of Fylos presents at least two strange contrasts wilh this scene. In B.c. 425 Athens here triumphed over her rival Sparta, and 2252 years afterwards she was again raised to be the first city of Greece, in consequence of a battle fought on the same waters.

Tho harbour of Navarino is shut in by tho island of Sphacteria or Sphaqin," famous for the signal defeat which tho Spartans here sustained from tho Athenians in the Peloponnesian war. The military operations and exploits of Brosidas on tho one side, and of Clcon and Demosthenes on the other, are familiar to the reader of ancient history. A visit to Sphacteria will enable the traveller to verify tho graphic accuracy of the local descriptions of Thucydides. The well neur the centre of the island where tho

i.e. Slaughter-homo.

Spartans were surprised by the Athenians, and the craggy eminence at the northern extremity, to which they retired before their final surrender, are both easily recognizable. The island is now inhabited only by hares and red-legged partridges; and the wood which once covered it has never grown up since it was burned down by the Athenians. There was some hard fighting here again during the Greek Revolution; and the history of Sphacteria recalls the etymology of the name. The island, which is 3 m. in length, has been separated, towards its southern extremity, into three or four parts by the violence of the waves, so that, in calm weather, boats may pass from the open sea into the port by means of the channels so formed. On one of the detached rocks is the tomb of the Turkish santon before mentioned. Sphacteria is said to be the scene of Lord Byron's 'Uorsair,' and was long famous as a resort of pirates.

From Navarino is a direct road to Messene; but the distance is upwards of 12 hrs. by the shortest way.

There are traces of the carriageroad which formerly led from Neokastron to Modon and Coron, and was originally a Venetian pavement.

The French laid out a line of road as far as Modon, but it is now in ruins. It extends for j of an hr. along the base of Mount St. Nicholas, leaving it and other hills to the rt., between it and the sea. The environs of Motion are desolate in the extreme; the vineyards and gardens mentioned by travellers were destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha.

Modon {MtSiivT)) is about 7 m. distant from Nedkastron, or the town of Navarino. It consists of a faubonrg once a considerable Greek village, without the walls, which has been rebuilt. Within the walls of the Venetian fortress all is in ruins. Off the outer end of the town is the rock which Pausanias calls Mothon, and which he describes as forming at once a narrow entrance and a shelter to the harbour of his time, Modon is forti

fied with walls of Venetian construction, and defended by a fosse, over which the French built a bridge. It is described as having been a place of importance, but it was taken and retaken during the war, and was once almost entirely burnt down.

The Lion of St. Mark is still seen on the walls; and within the gate, on the old Venetian piazza, the French made a place-d'armet, which served as a promenade and an exercising ground. All now is silent and desolate.

Here is the oidy remaining object of antiquity—the shafts of an old granite column, 3 ft. in diameter, and 12 ft. high, with a barbarous base and capital, which seem to have been added by the Venetians.

At tho 8. extremity of tho town is an old lighthouse, and beneath it an ancient wall, enclosing a port for Bmall craft. The great harbour for ships of war is formed by the island of Sapienza, i m. distant from Modon, from which it seems to have been separated by an earthquake. This island, once tho resort of pirates, is uncultivated and uninhabited. At the foot of the hills behind Modon are the remains of an ancient city, supposed to be Mothone, consisting of some fragments of marble and broken columns, with the traces of an acropolis. They are 2 m. from the gate of the fortress.

From Modon to Coron is about 15 m., or 5 hrs.' ride; the intervening country is very uninteresting. Tho road, passing over barren hills, leads to a small inlet of the sea, opposite the island of Cabrera; it then crosses the mountain, whose S. extremity is Cape Gallo, and one hour before reaching the town enters a cultivated plain. This country was once well wooded, but the timber has been destroyed or cut down.

Coron has been supposed to occupy tho site of Corone, founded by Epaminondos on the site of Epea, an erroneous supposition, as it does not agree with the position of that city as described by Pausauias. The village of Petalhidi, 15 m. higher up, is built

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