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are formed. The blocks are put together in the best Greek style. The enormous size of the fluted Doric columns, together with the site and dimensions of the foundations, leave no doubt that these poor remains are those of the Temple of Jupiter, where once stood the celebrated statue of that god, one of the wonders of the world, and formed, as Pausanias says, of ivory and gold, the work of Phidias, and 60 feet high. The great sculptor owned that his mind was filled with Homer's description of the King of Gods and men.
The Olympic games exercised an immense influence on the character and fortunes of the wholo Hellenic nation, from Marseilles and Sicily to Trebizond and Cyprus, and from Crete and Gyrene to Corcyra and Epidaurus. The athletic nature of the contests prevented the influx of Oriental weakness, while their publicity and the concourse of pcoplo made them act the part of a public press. For upwards of 1000 years, the full moon after the summer solstice, every fourth year, witnessed the celebration of these games. The first Olympiad coincides with B.C. 77G. and the last with A.d. 394, or the Kjth of the Emperor Theodosius (see Wordsworth's'Greece,' p. 314, 315). To the Olympic games we owe, not only the Odes of Pindar, but the chronology of all Hellenic history, literary and political. Amid all tho intricacies of the politics, through all changes of fortune in the old Greek world, in spite of pestilence and war, the Olympic festival "remained," as it has been well remarked, "with the regularity of a solar phenomenon."
Nowhere in Greece is tho contrast so marked as here between the present desolate aspect and the busy past history and associations of a place. There is now scarcely a human habitation on the site of Olympia. On the N. of the valley are rocky heights crowned with wood; pines cover the hills to the W., and Oriental planetrees hang over the wide gravelly bed of the Alpheus to the S. All the altars and statues have passed away like the countless multitudes which once
thronged around them. The scenery at Olympia, is more interesting than the undent remains. The valley is very beautiful, and the hills of tho wildest form, carpeted with the finest turf, and shaded with the pine, wild olive, and plane. It is still called by tho peasants Andilula, after a hamkt which once stood on the bank of the stream bounding it to the W.; and which was so named from being" over against Lula," a town inhabited in the Turkish times by a tribe of Mussulman Albanians, who were swept away by the revolution.
Miraka to Pyrgos, by rhloka, is 4 hre. The path follows the Alpheus for 2 hrs., and on quitting it crosses an undulating plain. On the opposite bank of the river are low and picturesque hills broken into glens, and richly wooded.
Pyrgos, where there is a resident British Vice-Consul, is the principal town in this district, and exhibits appearances of industry and activity greater than are to be found in most parts of Greece. It is a considerable town of scattered white houses, lying upon a well-watered slope between Mount Olonos and the Alplieus. The bazaar is thronged and busy. The produce of the country is exported from hence, and European manufactures imported. Katacolo is the port of Pyrgos, but is merely an exposed roadstead.
From Pyrgos there are two roads to Patras; the one by I'ahrtrpolis, the other by Gattuni (see lite. 32): the latter is longer by 1 hr. than the former.
Pyrgos to Palseopolis is 6 hrs. 20 min. The road lies through the fino plains of Elis, and crosses several streams.
l'uhr.opolit (ancient Elis) stood on the edge of the plain where the Peneus issues from the hills, on the northern side of one of them, at a distance of about 8 in. by the road from Gastuni. The hill of Elis is conspicuous above the others by its superior height, its peaked form, and by a ruined tower on the summit. Both the height and the tower are now called Kaloskopi, a name which the Venetians, having translated it into " Belvedere," applied to one of the Ave districts into which they divided the Morea. The great insulated rock called tho Mountain of Saiulameri is a most remarkablo feature in this part of Eleia.
The Peneus flowed through tho city of Elis. Of Grecian remains there are nothing but confused scattered blocks. Some masses of brickwork seem to be of Roman origin. The soil of Elis is well adapted to conceal speedily, and may therefore still preserve many works of art.
Palreopolis to Kapeleti is 5} hrs. Leaving Pakeopolis we cross the Peneus, and subsequently two or three other streams, the third probably the Larissus. The country becomes more woody as wo approach
Kapeleti, a village of two or three houses in a wood, where wo hardly find accommodation.
From Kapeleti to Metokhi is 3J hrs. through a woody plain; about 2 hrs. from Kapeleti a lake is seen to the 1.; to the 1. nlso is a road leading to a rock on the coast, on which are the vestiges of an old fortress. At Ali TcheUhi, 3 hrs. from Kapeleti, the traveller may find accommodation, 1 hough it is very bad. The Metokhi, or Convent Varrn, in this village, is also a place where strangers may lodge. If they bring letters, they find good accommodation. There is excellent woodcock-shooting here in winter; this part of tho country is often visited. The scenery resembles that of an English park. It is S lira, from Ali Tchelebi to Patras.
From this Metokhi to Paliea Achaia is 3 hrs. 20 min. An hour after leaving Metokhi is a hastron on a rocky hill. A lake extends towards Cape Papa, the ancient Araxus on the 1.; in another liour are seen vestiges of the city of Dyme.
At Pal&a Achaia is a khan with inscriptions. The ruins, 200 yds. S.
of it, consist of the foundations of the city walls on the top of a natural bank. This was the site of Olenus.
Palam Achaia to Patras, is a delightful ride of 4 or 5 hrs. The river Kamenitza (the Pierus) must be forded near Palam Achaia: the ford is difficult, and occupies § hr. crossing it with luggage; to the rt,, among the trees, are the ruins of Olenus. The remainder of the journey of 3 hrs. is through a fine country of pasture lands and forests of oaks. On the rt. is the river Leuka (Olaucus). The traveller enters Patras by the shore, passing the Church of St. Andrew and tho Well of Ceres.
Patras (see Rte. 1).
FROM PYRGOS TO TCHELEBI.
This is a good road between Elis and Gastuni, and shorter than cither of the routes given above. It crosses the Peneus by a good horse-ferry boat, which is absolutely necessary at times, when the stream flows fully aa strong and as deep as the Alpheua. The little village of Tragona, on a slight rise in the plain, affords good accommodation, and commands one of tho finest panoramic views in the Morea. It is about J hr. from tho ferry of the Peneus. The river Kamenitza, near Palea Achain, has a ferryboat for foot-passengers, and as horses can swim after the boat by halter, tho passage of the Btream is quite easy and short.
PTBOOS TO PATBAS BT GASTUNI.
Hra. Mln. Miles.
Pyrgos to Gastuni .. 6 0 18
Gastuni to Clarenza .. 2 0 7
Clarenza to Kapeleti .. 6 0 18
Kapeleti to the Metokhi 3 30 6
M« U.khi to Palaa Achuiu 3 20 12
Falsa Achaia to Patrui 5 0 15
From Pyrgos to Gastuni the road leads through the plain by the site of Letrini. Near it begins the great lagoon, which extends for some way along the coast. The journey occupies nearly 6 lira.
Gastuni is built of bricks baked in the sun. The town is unhealthy in summer, owing to the excavations made in digging out the bricks, which leave stagnant pools of water. The name is probably of Frank origin, and it was possibly founded by some member of one of the families, Champlitte and Villehardouin, of the name of Gaston, who in the year 1204 established a principality in the N. of the Morea. Flax and wheat form the 'chief produce of Gastuni.
To Clarenza is 2 hrs.' ride over a marshy plain. Clarenza is now reduced to a few houses, and is the usual lxnding-place from Zante. The fortress picturesquely crowns the height. Here was the ancient Kyllene, the port of Elis. Castel Tornese is another fortress of Frank construction, very conspicuous in this part of Elis.
From Clarenza to Kapeleti is a ride of 6 hrs.—18 in. At this spot the two roads to 1'atras join (see Bte. 30).
KALABBYTA TO COBINTH.
Kalabryta to— Hra>
St. George 10
From Kalabryta in 6 hrs. by a wild mountain-track under Khelmos to
SoUn (Ktc. 36). Here a guide should be taken to the Full* of the Styx, and the traveller should return to Solos to sleep. From Solos it is one short day's journey, by St. Barbara and Zaruchla, to
Phonia (Bte. 351. From Phonia the road ascends to the summit of the ridge of Kyllene, which separates the plains or valleys of Phonia and Stymphalus. It then descends and skirts the lake of Stymphalus, which is about 4 m. long by 1§ broad when the waters are full. But in summer there is usually only a pond near the mouth of the Katabothron. The city of Stymphalus was of no great importance in antiquity. Its remains are to be seen near the edge of the lake, and upon a rocky promontory connected with the mountains behind. The circuit of the walls, with their tower;, may be traced; and also the foundations of various buildings. The plain and lake of Stymphalus take their modern name from the village of Zaraka. Hence it is 6 hrs. in a N.E. direction to the ruins of Sikyon (Bte. 37).
Leaving Stymphalus and crossing another ridge, we reach at the end of a long day's journey the flourishing village of
St. George ("A-yios TtApyuni), 10 lire, from Phonia. This is now the principal place in the territory of Phlius, a little stale which played an independent part in Peloponnesian history. The ruins of the city are situated a short hour W. of the village cf St. George, on one of the spurs of Mount p
Tricaranum, so called from its three Hummita, or heads. The remains are of considerable extent, but present little more than foundations. On the S.W. slope of the height is the church of Our Lady of the Ridge (^ Uavaryla PoXKUT'ffca), which gives its popular name to the site. There are ruins of a small Hellenic fortress on Mount Tricaranum.
From St. George it is about 8 hrs. by Neniea and Cleonse (lite. 39) to "Corintii (Kte. 1).
ANDRITZENA TO KALABHYTA.
lire. -Mi:i. Andritzena to H. Jannis 3 0
H. .Iannis to Chora .. .. 4 30 Chora to Vclimaki, about 5 0 Vclimaki to Tripotamo ..2 0 Tripotamo to Kalabryta .. 7 0
By the help of a country guide a shorter route may be found to the Alpheus thau that usually taken through Tzalta and II. Jatnm. The traveller must not trust to his Athens servant alone, unless he be well versed in this part of the country, because he may mistake the passage of the river, which is only passable at certain fords. After crossing the Alpheus the road falls into that leading to Olympia, and follows it till it crosses the Ludon and reaches Belesi. Thence it ascends the 1. bank of the Erymanthm, through beautiful oak-woods, which cover the high banks of the river, forming very picturesque scenery. Behind are extensive views of the valley of the Ladon and Alpheus, rich in woods, while over them are seen the tops of Mount Lykajum. The oak-trees are
planted at proper distances to allow the full growth to which they have attained, and form a grateful shade: whilo the path is not blocked up by tangled brushwood, but lies among ferns and cypresses. This continues for 4 hrs. or more to the village of Chora. The road thence lies over the top of the hills to Velimaki. Thenco we ascend some high hills, and again obtain a view of the vale of tho Krymanthus. On the opposite side rises the mountain of Olonot, with rugged banks and precipitous sides. In front the eye looks down upon the junction of two streams with the Krymanthus. from which the place takes tho name of Trijiotamo, or Three Rivers. 2 hrs.' descent brings us to the spot where there nre some remains of the ancient town of Psophu: the square blocks which composed tho walls still lie scattered about, and an angle or two are in good preservation. The situation is exceedingly grand, and still possesses merits for which the traveller is totally unprepared; for. after riding many an hour without any one to speak to, he suddenly finds himself in a fertile valley. We then quit the plain; the path ascends a very steep mountain, whence to Kalabryta is 5 hrs. or more, of which nearly one is occupied in ascending the hill, and as much in descending tho other side. The village of Syrbaiii is passed on the rt. The scenery is very grand. The snowy Khelmoi rises, above Syrbani, and divides the waters of tho N. from those of the S. In nil, from Tripotamo to Kalabryta is about 7 hrs.
The following route may be suggested as a variation of, or addition to, those just described
Andritzena to H. Jannis (Henea), 3 hrs. Thence by Belesi and Miraka to Olympia, 8 hrs. From Olynipia turn N.K. by Lala (inhabited before the revolution by Mahommedans of Albanian race) to the ruins of Psophis and the modern Sopoto, 2 days'journey. From So]wto by the ruins of Oleitor to Sudena, 1 day. Sudena to Megaspelion by Kalabryta, 1 day. In all about G days.
The road crosses a stream in tho plain of Patras, leaving Mount Voidliia to the 1.; 6J hrs. from Patrns is a khan to the rt., and a Pako-ka*tron which has been supposed to be Tritira, and is very extensive. The road crosses a river, which falls into the sea at Vostitza; 1J hr. farther is a fountain, on a spot formerly notorious for robbers. Mount Olonos is Been to the rt. Near Kalabryta is a cave in the hill, the roof of which is in compartments. There is also near it another sepulchral cave.
Kalabryta (tcaXA /3pi/ra) takes its name from the tine sources of water in the neighbourhood. The town stands just above the edge of the plain, on either side of the bed of a wide torrent, descending directly from Mount Chelmos, the western summit of which, generally covered with snow, is seen over the back of the town. The two catacombs above mentioned are the only remains of antiquity here. The convent of Megaspelion is only 2 hrs. distant from Kalabryta, on the road to Vostitza. From Kalabryta to the Valley of the Styx is 4 hrs.; and the Styx should certainly be seen from hence, if not from Phonia. Kalabryta is the site of the ancient Kynxtha.
From Kalabryta to Phonia, is 10J hrs. The road ascends a high pass, and descends into a cold, bleak country.— 2J hrs. from Kalabryta is a station at the top of a high pass, whence thcro is a tine view, with a lake to tho rt,
and to the 1. Mount Chelmos. After a long descent into the plain, the road enters a gorge, and descends to Kleitor on the plain of Kalzdnes.
The ruins of Kleitor or Clitorium are situated in a fertile plain, surrounded by some of the highest mountains in Arcadia, at the northern extremity of which Chelmos, the highest peak of the Aroanian mountains, and 7720 ft. above the sea, rises in conspicuous grandeur. This mountain is interspersed with sylvan scenery, where fine masses of rock peer out amid the blended foliage of the pine, the plane-tree, tho ilex, and the oak, its grand outline terminating in a pointed summit of great height. Most of the walls of Kleitor may be traced, though little of them remains above ground. They inclose an irregular oblong space, and were fortified with circular towers. The stylo of construction is nearly equilateral, which gives them an appearance of great solidity; their general thickness is 15 ft. Here are remains of a small Doric templo with fluted ante, aud columns with capitals of a singular form. About 20 min. from Kleitor is a village called Mazi. The road passes on to Lykuria, near which is an abundant spring, the outlet of the subterranean waters of the river and lake of Phonia: the stream is the Ladon, which, after a circuitous and rapid course through Arcadia, joins the Alpheus. A very ancient canal, ascribed in legend to Hercules, helped to carry off the waters of tho lake of Phencus through this valloy, and some traces of it remain.
Lykuria, a straggling village, is 2A hrs. from Phonia. Thence the road ascends by a steep path to the top of a pass, and then, by a steep descent, leads to the Kataiothron, or Abyss, where the waters of the lake sink. Wo now proceed along the beautiful shores of the lake. There, are some vestiges of walls to the 1., and some blocks, seeming to indicate a former fortification of the pass. The signs of the ancient height of the water, mentioned by Pausanias, are observed