« السابقةمتابعة »
Nauplia by Tiryns and Mykenm to Arms, see Rte. 23.
From Argos we proceed into Arcadia by the road anciently called Prinus. It follows the course of the Charadrus (now the Xeria, or Dry River) and afterwards ascends Mount Artemisium (Malerdt). From the summit of the ridge there is a very interesting view over the upland plains of Arcadia, separated by the branches of various mountain ranges. Hence we descend to
Ttipidna (9 hrs.), a flourishing village, built on rising ground, near the R edge of the valley of Mantinea.
Hence our route passes the ruins of Mantinea (Hte. 23), and then turning N. crosses several ridges with intervening valleys. The scenery recalls all the associations connected with the rivers of Arcadia. There is a beautiful view over the Lake and plain of Phonia from the ridge at their S. extremity. From this point the path descends" through a striking gorge, adorned with fine forest-trees. It then winds along the eastern side of the lake, among groves of sweet-scented shrubs. Near the N. end of the lake, the size of which varies considerably iu different seasons, is the town of
Phonia, 12 hrs. Rte. 35.
"We ascend from the lake through a fine ravine. From the summit there are grand viewB on all sides. To the 1. are the snows, pines, and crags of Khelmos, the Aroanian range. Thence we descend by the bed of a torrent to the pretty village of Zaruehla. Then comes a most picturesque ride through the glen of Klakines to
Solos. 7 hrs. A straggling village built on the site of the ancient Aoiiacun, among groves of chestnut and walnut trees. 2 m. from Solos the Styx trickles over an inaccessible cliff, from the grand and lofty Klielmos (Rte. 35).
The road to Megaspelion climbs up the steep and rugged Mount Olenot, having Khelmos, a mass of rock and snow, on the 1. From the summit of
the ridge we descend into a bleak and wild country, interspersed with glades of fir-trees. Farther on, the Gulf of Corinth opens on the rt., and the Swisslooking valley of Kalabryta on the 1. On turning "the comer of a rock we discover at length the
Convent of Megaspelion; 6 hrs. (Rte. 37).
From the convent to Vostitza is about 7 hrs. (Rte. 1).
The road from Vostitza to Patras lies for the most part along the shore of the Gulf of Corinth, and is chiefly remarkable for the noble views of its northern shore.
Patras, 8 hrs. (Rte. 1).
NAOTLTA TO CORINTH, BT MYKENM, NEMEA, AND OLEONS.
Hn>. Mln. Nauplia to Mykenco .. .. 3 0
Nemea 2 30
Cleonaj 1 15
Corinth 2 30
There arc 3 routes from Nauplia and Argos to Corinth.
The most circuitous, which is the most level, issues from the Argolic plain, at its N.W. angle, passes over some low hills, then turns to the rt., and arrives at Nemea; thence, bearing to the N.B. it leaves Oleoma on the rt., and reaches Corinth after traversing about 33 m.
The other two roads are to the E. of the first: that nearest to it following, after its exit from the plain, two narrow defiles, which were of old known by the name of Tretus (<5 rpeToj), or perforated road (from the caverns fabled to be haunted by the Nemean lion), and which are now colled Dervenakia; the other, to tho E. of this, is a footpath skirting the rugged mountains to the N. of Mykena\ and was termed of old the Contoporeia, or staff road. These two latter routes were in 1822 the scene of the destruction of the Turkish army which had incautiously advanced into the plain of Argos without supplies. They are the Khyber Pass of the Peloponnesus. All the neighbouring towns were long afterwards a mart for the rich clothes and arms of the Turks, and for many subsequent years the ravines were strewed with the skeletons of men, horBes, and camels.
The most interesting route for the traveller to follow is tho second of those described above; viz., by Mykenai, through the Tretus pass to Nemea; and thence by Cleonse to Corinth.
From Nauplia it is 3 hrs. to Mykense (Rte. 23).
From Mykenffi to Nemea it is about 2 hrs. 20 min. by the Tretus road.
As he descends into the plain from Mykense, the traveller will observe that the rocks in this part, as in other districts of Greece, frequently assume the appearance of rude ancient masonry, like the ruins which he has just left. Quitting the Argolic plain, the road enters the defile called of old Tretus, or perforated road, and continues partly along the bed of the torrent. This pass was the chief scene of the destruction of the Turkish army in 1822, as stated abov.e. The road emerges on the valley of Nemea.
Nemea. Near Nemea, to the rt., are many caves in the rocks, the haunts of the Nemean Lion of fable:—
"There is a temple in ruins stands, Fashion'd by long-forgotten bands; Two or three columns, and many a stone, Marble and granite, with grass o'ergrown 1 Out upon Time I it will leave no more < if the things to come than the things before! Out upon Time! who for ever will leave But enough of the past for the future to grieve 0*er that which hath been, and o'er that which
\ must be;
Wbat we have wen, our sons shall see; Remnants of things that have pass'd away, fragments of stone, rear'd by creatures of clay 1 '•
Of tho famous temple of Jupiter, the patron god of Nemea, three pillars only are now standing; but a portion of the cella, several prostrate columns almost entire, and fragments of the entablature still remain. The form and decorations are Doric, with nearly Ionic proportions. It is owing probably to the coarseness of the material that these ruins, like those of Pajstum, have been left in their place. The breadth of the temple was ti5 ft., and the length more than double. The walls of the cella, pronaos, and porticus are together 105 ft. 2 in. in length: width 30 ft. 7 in. Two of the columns now standing belonged to the Pronaos, and were placed as usual between ante: they aro 4 ft. 7 in. in diameter at the base, and still support their architrave. The third column, which belonged to the outer range, is 5 ft. 3 in. in diameter at the base, and about 34 ft. high, including a capital of 2 ft. Its distance from the corresponding column of the pronaos is 18 ft. Tho total height of the three members of the entablature was 8 ft. 2 in. The general intercolunmiation of the peristylo was 7 ft.; at the angles, 5 ft. 10 in. The entablature was less than one-fourth of the height of the column. The lowness of tho extant architrave, and the smallness and narrowness of the capitals, give tho impression that the building was inelegant, but it would be wrong to form this conclusion from a mere fragment.
At a small distance S. of the temple are other remains of the Doric order. TraceB of the Nemean theatre are to bo found at the foot of a hill not far distant. The valley is surrounded by mountains of considerable height, and the waters collected here run into the Corinthian Gulf.
Like Olympia, Nemea was a sanctuary and not a town. The place set apart for the celebration of the Nemean games was a level valley stretching from N. to S., nearly 3 m. in length, and 1 in breadth; but it had not, like Olympia, an Alpheus to adorn it, and was watered only by several rills which flow down from the mountains that encircle it, the chief of which, that on the N.E., is Fuka, the ancient Apems, with a flat summit, nearly 3000 ft. hif;h.
Nemea is 1 hr. 15 min. from the site of
Cleimx. The only remains here are some Hellenic fragments round a small height, on which are the foundation walls of several terraces. Cleome was a small town connected by alliance with Argos. It derived its only im
portance from the Nemean games being celebrated in its territory, in front of the Sanctuary of Nemea, between Cleonre and Phlius.
Cleonro to Corinth is 2J hrs. The road lies sometimes in tho bed of a torrent, then crosses a bridge and ravine, and ascends by a steep path to two tumuli. It then descends to another deep ravine, and enters the plain of Corinth, across which it continues to tho town (Rte. 1).
THE GREEK ISLANDS.
'1. Geographical Position, <te.—2. Steamers, Accommodation for
1. Geographical Position, &c.
The iEgean Sea, called by the Italians tho Archipelago (probably from Alytuov irfaayos), and by the Turks the White Sea (to distinguish it from the Black Sea) is bounded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, on the W. by Greece, and on the East by Asia Minor. Ancient writers have divided it into the Thracian, the Myrtoan, the Jcarian, and the Cretan seas; but the name is usually applied to the whole expanse of water as far 8. as the islands of Crete and Rhodes. The derivation is probably from alyls, a squall; but other etymologies have been given. The navigation of the JSgean has been dangerous and intricate in all ages, on account of its numerous islands and rocks, which occasion eddies and a rough sea, and also on account of the Etesian or northerly winds, which blow with great fury, especially about the equinoxes. The ancient poets frequently allude to these storms.
The appearauee of most of tho jEgean islands, on approaching them, is similar. Instead of the rich verdure and fragrant groves of Corfu and Zante, they generally present rude cliffs and acclivities, scarcely varied by a single tree, and whose loneliness is seldom enlivened by a human habitation. "The currents of the tideless sea," says Sir J. E. Tennant, " glide wavelessly around their shores, and the rays of the unclouded sun beam fiercely down on their unsheltered hills, 'dimmed with a haze of light'" On landing, however, every islet presents a different aspect; and every secluded hamlet a new picture of life, of manners, of costume, and sometimes of dialect. "The soil of one is rich, luxuriant, and verdant; that of a second, only a few miles distant, is dry, scorched, and volcanic; the harbonr of another is filled with the little trading craft of all the surrounding ports: its quays rife with the hum and hurry of commerce, and its coffee-houses crowded with the varied inhabitants of a hundred trading-marts; whilst a fourth, of equal capacities, and barely an hour's sail beyond it, will be as quiet and noiseless as a city of the plague; its shores unvisited, its streets untrodden, and its fields nntilled. But such is the result of that tenacity to ancient usages, and that predilection for the pursuits, the habits, and the tastes of their forefathers, which vindicates the title of the unchanging East. From age to age the natives of these secluded spots have continued to preserve those customs and those manners whose antiquity is now their greatest charm, and which long association has rendered it almost sacrilegious to alter or abandon."
The islands of the jEgean are divided into two principal groups :—1. The Cyclades, so named from their encircling the holy sanctuory of Delos; and 2. The Sporodes, which derive their name from being, as it were, town in a wavy line off the coasts of Macedonia, Thrace, and Asia Minor. The Cyclades belong to the kingdom of Greece; the Sporades, with the exception of the group lying off the northern extremity of Euboea, are still under the dominion of Turkey, though the Ottomans have rarely settled in them; and they have been almost invariably treated with less oppression than the continental provinces of the Sultan.
The Isles of Greece, the Isles of Greece!
Where burning Sappho loved and sung, Where grew the the arts of war and peace,—
Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung!
The Sclan and the Telan muse,*
Have found the fame your shores refuse;
To sounds which echo further west
Than your aires' "islands of the Bleat"
The mountains look on Marathon—
And musing there an hour alone,
For, standing on the Persian s grave,
I could not deem myself a slave.
A king sate on the rocky brow
And ships, by thousands, lay below,
He counted them at break of day—
And when the sun set, where were they?
And when are they? and where art thou,
The heroic lay is tuneless now—
And must thy lyre, so long divine,
Legenerate Into bands like mine?
'"f is something, in the dearth of fame,
To feel at least a patriot's shame.
For what Is left the poet here?
For Greeks a blush—for Greece a tear.
Must we but weep o'er days more blest?
Must we but blush f—Our fathers bled. Earth! render back from out thy breast
A remnant of our Spartan dead! Of the three hundred grant but three, To make a new Thermopylae!
What, silent still? and silent all.
Ah! no;—the voices of the dead Sound like a distant torrent's fall.
And answer, "Let one living head. But one arise,—we come, we come!" Wis but the living who are dumb.
In vain—in vain: strike other chords;
Fill high the bowl with Samian wine! Leave battle to the Turkish hordes,
And shed the blood of Scio's vine, Hark! rising to the Ignoble call— How answers each bold Bacchanal!
Ye have the Pyrrhic dance as yet;
Where is the Pyrrhic phalanx (roue? Of two such lessons, why forget
The nobler and the manlier one ■ Ye have the letters Cadmus gave— Think ye he meant them for a slave?
Fill high the bowl with Samian wine;
We will not think of themes like these! It made Anacreon's song divine:
He served—but served Polycrates—
The tyrant of the Chersonese
Was freedom's best and bravest friend; That tyrant was Mlltiades!
Oh! that the present hour would lend
Fill high the bowl with Samian wine >
Exists the remnant of a line
And there, perhaps, some seed is sown,
The Heracleidan blood might own.
Trust not for freedom to the Franks—
In native swords, and native ranks,
But Turkish force, and Latin fraud,
Would break your Bhield, however broad.
Fill high the bowl with Samian wme!
Our virgins dance beneath the shade— I see their glorious black eyes shine;
But, gazing on each glowing maid, My own the burning tear-drop laves, To think such breasts must suckle slaves.
Place me on Sunium's marbled steep. Where nothing, save the waves and I,
May bear our mutual murmurs sweep; There, swan-like, let me sing and die:
A land of slaves shall ne'er be mine—
Dash down yon cup of Samian wine!
2. Steamers, Accommodation Fob Travellers, &c.
Syra (36i5pos) should be the head-quarters of the traveller in the Mgevn. Here are several small inns; the best is the Hotel d'Anglcterre. In all the other islands strangers must generally rely on getting lodgings in private houses: and they should endeavour to procure letters of introduction to the authorities, &c. Syra is the centre of the steam navigation of the Levant; and steamers, English, French, Greek, and Austrian, are constantly arriving from
* Homer and Anacreon.