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the Greeks now differ but little from thoso of Western Europe, excepting inasmuch as there is in them less of formality, the Hellenes making no pretence of being more wealthy or more advanced in civilization than they really are. Both ladies and gentlemen in general dress in tho fashions of France and Italy. A considerable number of the latter, however, wear the Greek national costume. This dress is, properly speaking, the Albanian costume, and has been adopted in Greece only since the Revolution. It may be made very costly. Those who can afford it wear two velvet jackets, one inside the other, richly embroidered with gold and lace, and with fanciful patterns of birds, flowers, Btars, &c, with white fustanettes, or kilts, bound round the waist by a shawl or belt, generally containing pistols and daggers, often with silver hilts and scabbards curiously worked, and sometimes studded with precious stones. An Albanian chieftain wears also at his belt a whole armoury of little silver cartouche-boxes, and a small silver ink-horn; in fact he invests all his money in his arms and apparel. Embroidered mocassins and sandals, the fez, or red skull-cap, with a flowing blue tassel, and the shaggy white capote, or cloak, complete this classical costume. Tho dress of the Greek women varies in different districts. Those of the higher classes, who have not yet adopted French fashions, wear a red skull-cap, often set with pearls, an embroidered jacket fitting close to the body, and a loose petticoat of gay colours. Tho villagers in Attica wear in many instances a costume which in some respects resembles the Albanian, and in others that of the islanders described below. It consists of dark blue gaiters covering tho whole foot, and coming up to tho knee; of loose, but not baggy, trowsers from the knee upwards, fastened by a waistband of a bright colour; of a vest embroidered in front, and open and laced behind: of a dark capote thrown over the shoulders ; and of a scarlet cap, the fringe of which foils down at the back of the head.

The national dress is generally worn by the peasantry on the mainland, but the islanders, both of tho Ionian and iftgean Seas, wear a garb of a very different cut—consisting of a jacket of rough dark cloth, with wide blue trowsers, descending only as far as to tho knee. The red fez, and long stockings and sandals, complete the island costume.

Among the Greeks, families are usually more united than in other countries; and it is an unfrequent consequence of the death of a father that the children shonld divide the property and separate; the more general course being that tho elder son, though entitled to no greater portion than tho other members, should become the head of the family, and manage the common inheritance for the common benefit of all his brothers and sisters. Poor relations, dependents, and servants are kindly treated by the Greeks.

The influx of foreign customs has of late years brought about a great difference in this respect, as in others, at Corfu, Athens, and other large towns, but elsewhere marriages ore generally managed by the parents or friends of a young couple. This royal mode of match-making is as common among the Greeks now as of old. Even in the Ionian Islands young ladies, with few exceptions, seldom go into society beforo marriage. Girls are rarely married without a dowry; and the first care of parents, of whatever condition, is to set aside such portions for their daughters as their station in life requires. Moreover, it is common among the young Greeks to refrain from taking a wife themselves until their sisters are married; unless under peculiar circumstances advantageous to the family.

It has been truly observed that the domestic habits of the Greek peasantry, and indeed of all classes which have not as yet learnt to imitate tho manners of the West, seem not to have undergone any great change since the time of Homer. Many even of their superstitions ore probably as old as the ago of Hesiod. That their manners are almost identical with those of the Turks, except in those points in which their respective religions havo given rise to a difference, may be attributed to the strong tincture of Oriental customs, which is traceable in the G reeks of every age, in consequence of their situation on the borders of the Eastern World. But though the resemblance may thus partly he traced to a common origin, the Turks have probably adopted most of their present customs in the progress of their conquest of Greece and Asia Minor, during which tliey gradually exchanged the rude and simple habits of Tartary for the comparative refinement and luxury of the Byzantine empire.

It may bo worth mentioning, that all Levantines, whether Greeks, Moslems, or others, may frequently be seen twirling a string of heads, called Cmnboloio, in their fingers. This is a mere restless habit, and is nowise connected with any religious observance, such as the use of rosaries among the Latins.

The superstitious belief in the Evil Eye is common in Greece, as in the rest of tho East. Amulets are often worn as safeguards against its influence.

It is due to the Greeks to mention that inebriety is a vice almost unknown among them. They are great drinkers of water (ipurrov ftiv Soup), and very particular about its taste and coolness. Salted olives, coarse bread, and a few common vegetables are now, as they appear always to have been, tho food of tho lower classes. A Greek peasant's meal would still bo well described by some lines of Antiphanes (apud Athcnamm), beginning with rb SeTiri'Oi' Ian ud{a, &c.

Ono of tho most interesting inheritances which tho modern Greek peasantry have derived from thoir forefathers is their national dance, the Romaika, as it is now generally called, though it probably bears a traditional resemblance to the Pyrrhic dance of antiquity. Though weapons are not now generally brandished by the male dancers, the whirls and inflexions of the body in which they sometimes indulge seem imitations of a warrior parrying and giving blows, handed down from the times when it was a sword-dance. At the present day the chief action devolves upon two leaders, the others merely following their movements in a sort of circular outline, and with a step alternately advancing and receding to the measures of the music. Tho leading dancer, with an action of the arms aud figure directed by his own choice, conducts his partner by the hand in a winding and labyrinthic courso; each of them constantly varying their movements in obedience to the music, which is either slow and measured, or lively and impetuous. The rapid and frequent chango of step and expression render tho Romaika a very pleasing dance. Sir Henry Holland describes in forciblo language how much he has "enjoyed, its exhibition in somo Arcadian villages; where in the spring of the year, and when the whole country was glowing with beauty, groups of youth of both sexes wero assembled amidst their habitations, circling round in tho mazes of this dance: with flowing hair, and a dress picturesquo enough even for tho outline which fancy frames of Arcadian scenery. It is impossible to look upon the Romaika without the suggestion of antiquity; as well in tho representations we have upon marbles and vases, as in tho description of similar movements of the poets of that age."

A favourable opportunity for seeing the Romaika, and the dresses of the peasantry, is afforded by the annual fisla celebrated at Corfu on Ascensionday, in an olive-grove near the town. The mountaineers of Albania dance, of course, with greater energy and wildness. Every ono will recollect Lord Byron's description of their dances, and paraphraso of their songs, in 'Guide Harold' (U. 71, 72)—a poem which should bo the pocketcompanion of the English traveller in Greece.

The modern Greeks havo still retained many relics of tho customs observed by their ancestors at the birth of their children, at their marriages, and at their funerals. In the remoter and nioro primitive districts of tho country most of the ancient ceremonies expressive of veneration for the dead are still preserved. The deceased is dressed in his best apparel, crowned with a garland of flowers, and carried in procession to tho grave, with dirges sung by moerologists, or professional mourners, like those of the Scotch Highlands. "The last embrace is concluded," writes Dr. Wordsworth, "with a chant of the solemn and melodious hymn attributed to Damascene :—' Seeing mo speechless and breathless, oh I weep over me, all my brothers, friends, kindred, and acquaintance; for yesterday I was speaking to you. Give me the last embrace, for I shall not walk or speak with you again. I go away to the Judge, with whom thero is no respect of persons; I go where servants and masters stand together, kings and soldiers, rich and poor, in equal dignity; for every one will bo either glorified or condemned, according to his own works.'"

2. Albanians ^AXPaviTai; Shipetar).

There can bo littlo doubt that the Albanians of the present day are the representatives of the ancient Illyrians, and that they were driven southward by the Slavonian migrations which settled in Dahnatia and the adjacent provinces during the decline of the Roman power. The name of Albania is now given to the whole of the ancient Epirus, and also to the southern provinces of ancient Illyria, as far north as the Rhizonic Gulf, or Boeehe <li CatUiro, and the mountains of Montenegro. Tho course of tho river Aous (the modern Viosa) is, speaking roughly, tho lino which divides at the present day Epirus Proper from Albania, projierly so called. Ptolemy (Geog. III. 13) mentions the tribe of Albani, and the town of Albanopolis, the modern Elbassan; and the name of this obscure clan seems to havo been exteuded over the whole nation: just as tho Grnsci (an Epirot tribe) have given to the Hellenes tho appellation by which they are known in Latin, and, through Latin, in most modern languages. Some of the later Byzantine writers use the term Albanitse ('AA/WiTai) in its present signification; and perhaps Arnaout, tho Turkish word for the Albanians, is a corrupted form of it. Numerous colonies of this nation, allured by tho prospect of plunder and conquest, settled during tho middle ages in southern Greece; indeed, nearly a fourth of the inhabitants of the modern kingdom arc at this day Christian Albanians, both by race and language. Such are the peasantry of most parts of Attica, Argolis, Boootia, and other districts of the mainland; and the islanders of Hydra and Spetzia, tho most gallant champions of Greek independence, though with little claim to Greek blood. Tho Albanians in Greece, however, are fast boing HeUenued; and are allowing their peculiar language and customs to fall into disuse. The real type of the nation must now be sought in Albania itself.

•' The eastern coast of the Adriatic," writes Dr. Arnold, "is one of thoso ill-fated portions of tho earth which, though placed in immediate contact with civilization, have remained perpetually barbarian." Northward of tho Ambracian Gulf, and lying without the limits of ancient us of modern Greece, tho various Epirot tribes of tho Chaonians, Thesprotians, Mol<*sians, &c, occupied the coast of tho Ionian Sea as far as the Acroceraunian Promontory, reaching inland as far as tho central range of Pindus. Beyond the northern boundary of tho Epirots dwelt the still wilder and roder Illyrian tribes, the ancestors of the Albanians of the present day. The ancient and modern annuls of these countries resemble each other closely, and their inhabitants from the earliest times have led a similar existence. They live for the most part now, as of old, in villages scattered over the mountains, or in green glades opening amidst the forests, always wearing arms, and with the outward habits, retaining much of the cruelty and restlessness of barbarians; attended by their fierce Molo3sian dogs, and supporting themselves chiefly by pasturage. In the most remoto antiquity Epirus shared in some of the mythical glories of Hellas; and tho oracle of Dodona was once no less famous than that of Delphi afterwards became. Even within historical times, though the mass of the population is styled barbarian by Thucydides, yet some of the Epirot chieftains seem to have boasted Greek descent and manners. Olympias, an Epirot princess, became the mother of Alexander the Great; and her brother, Alexander of Epirus, perished in Italy while defending the Greek colonies against tho Lucanians. Their cause was afterwards espoused, though unsuccessfully, against the Romans by King Pyrrhus, under whose rule the larger part of Epirus seems to have been formed into ono monarchy, and its people to have been considerably Hellenized. His family was extinct in his fourth successor; after which Epirus was only a loose confederacy of republics for about fifty years, until, in B.C. 167, it fell under tho Roman yoke, and thenceforward followed the fortunes of the Empire. The Romans made from Dyrrachium to Thessalonica the celebrated Egnatian road, extending 262 miles, and connecting the Adriatic with the ^Egean. The civil wars, and the other causes which led ako to the depopulation of Greece, had rendered Epirus almost a waste in the time of Strabo; and, under the Byzantine emperors, a number of Wallachian and Illyrian colonies settled in it. On the partial conquest of the Eastern Empire by the Latins in A.d. 1204, a prince of the Imperial Comnenus family established himself as Despot, or Lord of Albania, and his dynasty maintained their authority for more than two centuries. The last and greatest of the native chieftains was George Castriot, called by the Turks Scanderbeg— the hero of Epirus in modem as was Pyrrhus in ancient times. For more than twenty years he struggled against the whole force of the Ottomans; and it was not until after his death that Albania finally became a Turkish province. Even after their nominal reduction, the impracticable nature of the country and of its inhabitants long rendered the various Albanian clans as virtually independent of the supreme government as wero the Scotch Highlanders until the middle of the eighteenth century. They were first reduced to a condition somewhat resembling order and obedionce by tho celebrated Ali Pasha, himself originally a simple Albanian chieftain, but who, partly by force and partly by fraud, gradually made himself master of nearly tho whole country. At present, Albania is divided into three pashalics— Scutari or Scodra, Monastir, and Joannina. Most districts are now nearly as accessible as any portion of Greece, and have been explored by a succession of travellers since Gibbon, at the close of the eighteenth century, wrote of Albania, that a country " within Bight of Italy is less known than the interior of America."

The Albanian language is harsh, guttural, and very monosyllabic: and is mixed with many Greek, Turkish, and Slavonic words. It has, however, a distinct grammar and essential character; and its inflexions and vocabulary prove it to belong to the class of Indo-European languages. The Albanians call themselves Skipetar, that is Highlanders, in their own tongue. Those of the natives who can write use the Greek characters, having none of their own; Greek is also very generally understood and spoken, except in Upper or northern Albania; Turkish very rarely. The best authorities on the Albanian language, &c, axe Leake (' Researches in Greece,' chap. ii. sect. 1); Ritter Ton Xylander, who, in 1S35, published 'Die Spracho der Albanesen.' a work containing a grammar and vocabulary: and 'Albanesischo Studien' (Vienna, 1854), by J. G. de Hahn, Austrian consul in Albania; a very learned dissertation.

Except a few officials sent from Constantinople, there aro no Ottomans (i.e. Turks by race) in Albania; nnd although the Mahommedan Albanians now comprehend full half the nation, they are all the descendants of renegades who have apostatized from Christianity duringtho last four centuries, either to avoid persecution or to open to themselves a career. Their new faith, however, sits very loosely on most of them, and they often confound together Christian and Mahommedan, and even heathen, rites and names. Equally feared and hated by both Greeks and Ottomans, natives of Albania are to be found as mercenary soldiers in all parts of the Turkish Empire. The aggregate number of the race probably does not in all exceed a million and a half. They are divided in their own land into four principal tribes:—

1. The Glteye, who occupy all the north of Albania, and whose chief town is Seodra. The river Skumbi (the ancient Genusug), which falls into the Adriatic 6 hours' ride S. of Durazzo, and the lake of Ochirda, form the southern frontier of Ghegeria, as the country of the Ghegs is called. They are the most powerful, numerous, and characteristic of all the Albanian tribes. The Christians of this tribe, including the majority of the rural population in the plains, and all the mountaineers, belong to the Latin, and not like the Christians of Southern Albania, to the Greek Church. They are divided into various clans, the Mirditi, dementi, Hotti, &c, some of whom, and especially the Mirditi, are still virtually independent, and governed by their native chieftains.

2. The Toskeg, who dwell chiefly inland, extending from Delvino to Elbassan. Berat is their capital, and the river Skumbi their northern frontier.

3. The Liapes, who occupy Khimara and the maritime country to the southward and westward of the Totket, reaching nearly as far as Delvino.

4. The Tjamet, who are the most southemly of all the Albanian tribes. Their territory begins near Delvino, and they occupy the maritime country of southern Epirus, as far inland as the Greek districts about Joannina. The Suliots were therefore Tjamet.

The genuine Skipetar are generally of tho middle stature, and of lighter complexion than the Greeks; very spare and muscular, and particularly slight round the waist. They shave their hair on the fore part of the head, but suffer it to flow in profusion from the crown, in&tv xopitHmt, as Homer calls it. The lower classes are filthily dirty, often wearing tho same coarse woollen shirt and kilt till they fall to pieces. The dress of the soldiery and higher orders is very graceful, and, as we have already seen, has been adopted since the Revolution as the national costume of Greece. The peasant women of Albania, like those of Greece, are generally handsome and well formed when young, but hard fare, exposure, and tho field labour which they undergo, soon nip their beauty in its bud. The nnmarried girls carry their whole fortune on their heads, in coins of many ages and countries, braided in their hair, or fastened in rows on their caps. This is a prevailing fashion, and, as it has been judiciously observed, enables a lover to reckon up the dowry as well as the charms of his fair one before he declares his affections.

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