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sb.nt his horse's feet, without having before his eyes the imago of that sea-fight where so great a struggle was condensed into the narrow strait between the island and the shore, with Aristides and Themistocles fighting for the liberties of Greece, and Xerxes looking on from his golden tlirone. No one can look down from the peak of Pentelicus upon tho crescent of pale level ground, which is the field of Marathon, without feeling that it is the very sanctuary where that battle ought to have been fought whieh decided that Greece was never to bo a Persian satrapy."— QunrUriy Seriew.

The very mode of travelling will be felt by many to be an additional charm. Throughout Greece and European Turkey journeys are mado only on horseback. "This is not a recreation suited to all men, and is trying even to those who are vigorous and indifferent to luxuries and comforts; yet there is none of that languor and feverishness thut so generally result from travelling on wheels, but in their stead invigorated health, braced nerves, and elevated spirits. You are in immediate contact with Nature. Every circumstance of scenery and climate becomes of interest and value, and the minutest incident of country or of local habits cannot escape observation. A burning sun may sometimes exhaust, or a summer-storm may drench you, but what can be more exhilarating than the sight of the lengthened troop of variegated and gay costumes dashing at full speed along—what more picturesque than to watch their career over upland or dale, or along the waving line of the landscape—bursting away on a dewy morn, or racing 'home' on a rosy eve?

"You are constantly in the full enjoyment of the open air of a heavenly climate; its lightness passes to the spirits—its serenity sinks into tho mind. You are prepared to be satisfied with little, to support the bad without repining, to enjoy the good as a gain, and to be pleased with all things. You are fit for work, and glad of rest; you are, above all things, ready for your food, which is always savoury when it can be got, and never unseasonable when forthcoming. But here it will be seen that no small portion of the pleasures of Eastern travel arises from sheer hardship and privation, which increase so much our real enjoyments, by endowing us with a frame of mind and body at once to enjoy and to endure. It is also from such contingencies alone that those amongst us who have not to labour for their daily bread can obtain an insight into the real happiness enjoyed three times a day by tho whole mass of mankind who labour for their bread and hunger for their meals."—Urquhart.

As the Hellenic Kingdom obtained, in the course of the year 1870, so unhappy a celebrity on account of the capture at Pikermes, and as tli* question of safety Li, after all, the one of primary importance to tho traveller, it is desirable to state, as clearly as may bo possible, the present conditions in respect to it of travelling in Greece. Tho state of insecurity which for some years past has existed in that country may be traced V> the measure of employing condemned criminals in aiding the insurrectionists in Crete in 1866, many hundreds of these having formed themselves into brigand bands on their return to Greece. In the fifteen months ending with March, 1870, no fewer than 109 acts of brigandage are officially recorded, but since that date the efforts which, in deference to European opinion, have been made by the Ottoman as well as by tho Hellenic authorities have already produced a state of comparative security. Extremely few acts of brigandage have been recorded since April, 1870; p«rties of English travellers have made excursions in safety not only in the neighbourhood of Athens, but likewise in the Peloponnesus and other P«rts of Greece; and in April, 1871, the British Vice-Consul at Mesolonghi officially reported that JStolia and Acarnania, formerly the chosen haunts

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of brigands, were now " safe," whilst Her Majesty's Consul at Patras gavo a similar report in respect to the whole of the Peloponnesus. We should take upon ourselves gravo responsibility wore we to advise travellers to undcr-rate the risks of journeying in Greece, but on the other liaud it is equally our duty not to exaggerate them. Persons making tours in tho interior should carry with tiiem revolvers; the Hellenic authorities aro always ready to supply escorts when asked to do so; but they require that a traveller should, before setting out on any excursion, give, through the landlord of his hotel, twenty-four hours' notice to the police authorities, whose duty it is to provide escorts, or, if necessary, to give warning of danger. For the present, no traveller should undertake any excursion, however short, out of Athens without having duly taken this precaution.

6. Routes From England To Gbeece.

N.B.—The days of sailing, &c, given in the following lists, or elsewhere throughout these pages, are those fixed at the date of publication of tho present edition of this Handbook. Put as changes frequently occur in the urrangoments of steam-companies, reference should be made, before starting, to tho Continental Guide of Bradshaw or some similar monthly publication. The several lines of merchant steamers which have been established between various English and Levant ports give the traveller an extensive choice of conveyances by sea.

Many persons visit Greece on their return from the East, in which case they generally land at Syra; that great centre of the steam navigation of tho Levant, whence there is frequent communication with Athens, Salonica, Constantinople, Smyrna, Syria, and Egypt. (For details sec Section III., under head of Syra.) Again, many travellers proceed to Greece from Italy, in which case they can meet the weekly steamers from Trieste at Ancona or Brindisi.

The main routes from England to Greece direct arc as follows:—

I. (1.) Liverpool to Gibraltar,Malta,and /Syro(fourteendays)(about Wl. to Athens) by Burns and Maclver's steamers (1, liumford Street, Liverpool) several times a month; or (2.) Liverjiool to Malta, Syra, Constantinople, and Salonica; every ten days; or (3.) Liverpool to Syra, Constantinople, and Smyrna. John Bibby, Sons, and Company's steamers, which sail at irregular intervals.

II. Across France to Marsiiltat,and thence to Pirnus by French Steamers (Mrjwageries). For the present every alternate Saturday, at i p.m.

A variation of this route would be to go by steamer from Marseilles to Genoa, Leghorn, Civita Vecchhv or Naples, and then crossing Italy, to meet the steamers for Corfu at Ancona or Brindisi; or to go by Mont Cenis to Brindisi. A journey from London to Athens, direct, via Paris and Marseilles, costs about 211.

III. By the Austrian Lloyd's Steamers fivm Trieste. Perhaps the most agreeable route from England to the Ionian Islands and Greece is by railroad to Trieste; the traveller proceeding thence in the Austrian Lloyd's steamers to Corfu. The journey from London to Athens by this route can easily be accomplished in nine or ten days, and for about 25?. (Jirst-class fare, including living on the road, and all expenses). Corfu is reached by the same mode of conveyance in seven or eight dayB, and for about 201. The London agency of the Austrian Lloyd's Company is at 127, Leadenhall Street, where every requisite information may always be obtained. At present, the steamers leave Ti ieste—

(1.) Every Saturday, at 2 P.m., for Constantinople direct, touching only at Corfu and Syra. From Syra there is a branch line to Athens.

Frmn Corfu a pleasant variation of the above route, and one which we ran especially recommend to those who may not be accompanied by ladies, and even to ladies who may not to disposed to find fault with the imperfect arrangements of Levant travel, is by the Greek steamer to the Isthmus of Orinth, which leaves Corfu in connection with the lirindisi and Trieste Wts, every Tuesday afternoon or evening for Lutraki. For the short journey of six miles across the isthmus the Company provides carriages; and at Calamiiki, on the Gulf of Salamis, another steam-pocket will be found wherein to proceed to Athens (Pirajus).

(•2.) Once a week, for Corfu, by the coasts of Dalmatia and Albania. This is a voyage of about a week, but a large portion of that period is spent in port, and the traveller is enabled to see on his way, Zara, Spalato, lia-rum, Cattaro, Durazzo, Avlona, and other highly interesting places.

N.B. Arrivals from the Levant, Greece, and tho Ionian Islands oro admitted to f/ee pratique at Trieste.

The Austrian Lloyd's steamers which leave Trieste for Alexandria direct, every Saturday night, call at Corfu both in going out and in returning.

e. Keqcisttes AND HlNTS BEFORE STAKTtNG; LUGGAGE; CLOTHES; PRESENTS; Letters Of Introduction; Monet; Passports, &c.

In Greece and the East generally, even more than in other countries, let the traveller bear in mind this important hint—he should never omit visiting any object of interest whenever it happens to be within his reacli at the time, aa ho can never be certain whut impediments may occur to prevent him from carrying his intentions into effect at a subsequent period.

We strongly advise those going to Greece not to encumber themselves with a canteen, nor to purchase in England other similar requisites for journeys in the interior of Eastern countries. It is infinitely better to proceed in the first instance to Athens, and there enter into arrangements with one of the regular travelling servants, who provide all such necessaries. Luggage should bo packed in two portmanteaus or boxes of moderate size, or in two stout leather bags of equal weight,—so as to bilance easily on either side of tho pack-saddlo of a baggage-horse. A sportsman, will, of course, take his gun and cartridges. A tent, though rwjuisite in many parts of Asia, is unnecessary in Greece.

Protection from Vermin.—Greece and all parts of tho East abound in terrain of every description, each annoying the wearied traveller, and some by their bite occasioning serious pain or illnessi An apparatus for obviating this evil was invented by Mr. Levinge, and is thus described by Sir Charles Fellows, who used it in travelling in Asia Minor:—" The whole •pparatus may be compressed into a hat-case. A pair of calico sheets, nine feet long, sewed together at the bottom and on both sides, are fl'iitinued with muslin of the same form and size, sewed to them at their open end; and this muslin is drawn tightly together at the end of the tape. Within this knot are three or four loose tapes, about eighteen inches long, with nooses at their ends, through which, from within, a cane i* threaded so as to form a circle, extending the muslin as a canopy, which in this form is suspended. These canes must be in three pieces, three feet long, each fitting into the other with a socket or ferrule. The entrance t" the bed is by a neck from the calico, with a string to draw it tightly together when you are within. It is desirable that the traveller should enter this bod as he would a shower-bath, and having his nightshirt with him. When the end formed of muslin is suspended, the bed forms an airy canopy, in which the occupant may stand up and dress in privacy, no one being able to see him from without, while he can observe all around. To prevent accidents from tearing the apparatus, I have found that the best mode of entering it was to keep the opening in the middle of the mattrass, and, standing in it, draw the bag entrance over my head."


During the day one may read and write within it free from the annoyance of flies; and in the evening, by placing a lamp near the curtain, pursue one's occupations undisturbed by gnats. It will even supply the place of a tent, as a protection from tho dew, if a night be spent in the o]Kn nir. The price of this apparatus is trifling. Messrs. Maynard and Harris, 12G, Leadenball Street, have prepared it under Mr. Levinge's instructions, and furnish it complete, of the best materials, for 11. 5s.

Clothes should be such as will stand hard and rough work. They must not be too light, even in summer; for a day of intense heat is often followed by a storm, or by a cold night. It would be ridiculous in an English traveller to assume, the Greek or any other Oriental dress, unless he is a muster of the local languages and manners; and even in that improbable cose he will still find an Etiglifh thooting-jacket and wide-awake the most respectable and respected travelling costume throughout the Levant.

A comfortable English saddle and bridle will be found a great luxury.

A jxirtable india-rubber bath, with a bellows to distend it, is an immenso comfort, especially as it is next to impossible to procure any means of ablution in the interior of Greece.

A large and ttout cotton umbrella is required as a protection not only from the rain, but also from tho sun. A white umbrella should be purchased at Corfu or Athens in hot weather.

A green veil, and blue or neutral-tinted spectacles, are very useful as a safeguard against tho glare of tho sun. A poclcet-lelescope, a thermoavier, drawing material*, measuring tape, and the like, are luxuries to be provided or not, according to the tastes and pursuits of each individual tourist.

Travellers starting fmm Corfu for a tour in Albania, however short, or visiting the interior of Greece, without engaging the services of ono of tho Athenian couriers, should pay strict attention to tho following sensible recommendations of Mr. Lear :—" Previously to starting, a certain supply of cooking utensils, tin prates, knives and forks, a basin, &c., must absolutely be purchased, the stronger and plainer the better; for you go into lands where pots and pans are unknown, and all culinary processes are to be performed in strange localities, innocent of artificial means. A light mattress, sfme sheets and blankets, and a good supply of enpotes and plaids should not be neglected; two op three books; some rice, curry-powder, and cayenne; a world of drawing materials—if you be a hard sketclier; as little dress as possible, though you must have two sets of outer clothing— one for visiting Consuls, Pashas, and other dignitaries, tho other for rough every-day work; some quinine made into pills (rather leavo all behind than than this); a Buyourouldi or general order of introduction to governors or pashas; and your Tesktreh, or provincial passport for yourself and guide. All these are absolutely indispensable, and beyond these, the less you augment your impedimenta by luxuries tho better; though a long strap, with a pair of ordinary stirrups, to throw over tho Turkish saddles, may be recommended to save you tho cramp, caused by the awkward shovelstirrups of the country. Arms and ammunition, fine raiment, presents for natives, are all nonsense; simplicity should bo your aim. When all these things, so generically termed rdba by the Italians, aro in order, stow them into two Brobdignagian saddle-bags, united by a cord (if you can get leather bags so much the better; if not, goats' hair sacks); and by these hanging on each side of tho baggage-horse's saddle, no trouble will ever be given from seceding bits of luggage escaping at unexpected intervals. Until you adopt this plan (the simplest of any) you will lose much time ilaily by the constant necessity of putting the baggago in order."

Presents.—It is no longer customary in Greece and Turkey to exchango presents, as formerly; and the ordinary traveller cannot encumber himself with unnecessary luggage. Those, however, who remain some time in the Levant, who travel en grand seigneur, or who sail in their own yachts, tflen wish to leave somo token of remembrance with officials, or others fritn whom they may have received assistance or hospitality. For this purpose the best articles to provide aro English pistols, knives, poeketfclewopes, pencil-cases, toys for children, and ornaments for ladies. Prints "f the Queen, the Ministers, 4c, are always acceptable. New books, periodicals, &c., from London aro most prized by English residents in the East.

Letters of Introduction.—These may advantageously be procured for some of the following functionaries:—The British Minister, and the Consul M Athens; the Ambassador and the Consul-General at Constantinople; the Consuls at the chief towns which it is intended to visit, such as frrfu, Patras, Salonica, Yanina, &c.

Should the traveller be unprovided with letters, he will do well, nevertheless, to call on his countrymen holding official situations in Greece and Turkey. From them he will obtain full information as to the actual state «f the countries in which they reside; and how far travelling is safe and

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