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■wears everywhere a rugged aspect. There is but little cultivation, except where terraces have beeu formed on the mountain sides, and planted with vineyards. The scene is occasionally enlivened by a grove of evergreen oaks embosoming a church, or by a village surrounded with clumps of olives and cypresses. During a portion of the winter, the highest ridge of Santa Maura, rising about 3000 ft. over the si'ii, is robed in snow and mist, as it appeared to the eyes of tineas (JEn. iii. 274):—

"Mox < t Leucat& nlmbosa cactlmina month,, Kt furroidatus nautis apcritur Apollo."

In like manner, tho deep water, the strong currents, and the fierce gales which they there encounter, have preserved among the Greek sailors of the present day tho evil fame which the Cape of Leucad ia bore of old. Nothing but the substructions of tho onco farfamed Temple of Apollo now exist on the promontory. At a short distance from it. a small monastery, dedicated to St. Nicholas, the patron of mariners, nestles in a sheltored nook. It is a graceful feeling which has often induced men, both in ancient and in modorn times, to cover with a temple or a church the cliffs of their native land. Tho temple of the Leucadian Apollo, and that of Athene on Sunium, are but the forerunners of such shrines as the chapels of Our Lady above Honfleur and Marseilles, whence the "Star of the Sea" guides tho sailor from afar to his home, and recalls his wandering thoughts to that other haven which awaits him when the storms and troubles of life shall have passed away.

A broken white cliff, rising on one side perpendically from the sea to the height of at least 200 ft., and sloping precipitously into it on the other, is the "ancient mount" beneath whose shadow Childe Harold "saw the evening star abo»e Leucadia's far-projecting rock of woe." Its summit is strewn with fragments of ancient pottery, gloss, and hewn stones, the relics of the temple of Apollo; and the coins discovered on the spot generally bear a harp in honour of "the God of

Love, of Light, and Poesy." The prospect is very exteusive, but inferior to that from Karus, described above. The ancient associations of the spot form its chief charm. At the annual festival of Apollo it was the custom to cast down a criminal from this headland into the sea; to break his fall birds of various kinds were attached to him, and if he reached the water uninjured there were boats ready to pick him up (Strabo, x.; Cicero, Tunc, iv. 18; Ovid, Hermd., Ep. xv. 165). This appears to have been a kind of ordeal, or rather an expiatory rite; and it gave origin to the famous story that lovers leaped from this rock in order to seek relief from the pangs of love, as Sappho when enamoured of Phaon. That well-known legend, which vanishes at the first approach of criticism, is prettily set fortli by Moore in his 'Evenings in Greece':—

"The very spot where Sappho sung
Her swan-liko music, ere she sprung
(Still holding in that fearful leap
By her loved lyre) into the deep,
And dying quenched the fatal tire
At once of both her heart and lyre."

On the island there is too little cover to furnish any quantity of game; but in Acarnania magnificent sport may bo enjoyed in a magnificent country. During an easy excursion from Fort Santa Maura there may be found reddoer, fallow-deer, roe, wolves, jackals, &c, as well as an abundance of woodcocks, and every kind of wild fowl, from pelicans to jacksnipes. The best places to land at are Sallond and Encheleovivari ('Eyx*teo$t&&pi, £yx^e"*. vivarium, i.e. ed-pond), which are only a short row across the lagoons. Farther to the southward, and nearly opposite to Ithaca, there is good shooting near the bay of Tragamesti, and at the mouth of the Achrlow).

Unless the traveller should intend to make a tour in Albania, he ought by no means to omit visiting, while in this island, the Turkish town of Prevesa, and the ruins of Nicopolis, about 3 m. from it. With favourable weather, and a good boat, this excursion can easily be made in a few hours; going and returning the same day. It is only 9 m. by sea from Fort Santa Maura to Prevesa. In the West of Europe, though there are distinct languages in different states, yet the traveller will observe generally only small and progressive varieties of customs and dress. But here the scene is suddenly shifted, and there are presented to his eyes at once many of those appendages of Oriental character, manners, and landscape, by which Englishmen—perhaps owing to their early knowledge of the Bible—are so powerfully attracted. From the habits of civilized life the English traveller who crosses to Prevesa is immediately introduced into the solemn stillness of the East. The sedate and l>earded Ottoman, veiled women, latticed harems, are around him; and the AH>anian mountaineers, with their singular stateliness of carriage, and arrayed in the most picturesque costume of the world. There too is the fantastic tracery of the mosquo, and the tall slender minaret from which tho Imauni prays with his face to Mecca.

5. Ithaca.

Colonel Mure has remarked that there is, perhaps, no spot in the world where the influence of classical associations is so lively or so pure as in the island of Ithaca. The little rock retired into obscurity immediately after the age of its great mythological warrior and of his poet, and so it has remained for nigh 3000 years. Unlike many other places of ancient fame, it is indebted for no part of its interest to more recent distinctions, or to the rival associations of modem history;—so much as the name of Ithaca scarcely occurs in the page of any writer of historical ages, unless with reference to its poetical celebrity. Indeed, in A.d. 1504, it was nearly, if not quite uninhabited, having been depopulated by the incursions of corsairs, and during the fury of the wars waged between the Turks and the Christians; and record is still ex

tant of privileges offered by the Venetian Government to tho settlers from the neighbouring islands, and from tho mainland of Greece, by whom it was repeopled. Here, therefore, all our recollections are concentrated around tho heroic age; every hill and rock, every fountain and olive-grove, breathes Homer and the 'Odyssey;' and we are transplanted by a sudden hup over a hundred generations to the most brilliant period of Greek chivalry and song.

Like so many other names of classical geography, Ithaca was said to be derived from a chieftain of primitive times called Ithacus, who is mentioned by Homer (Od., xviii. 207). Tho measurement of the island, as given by Strabo (x. 2), is very wide of tho truth; its extreme length from N. to 8. is really about 17 m.; its greatest breadth does not exceed 4. It may be regarded in fact as a Hinglo narrow ridge of limestone rock, everywhere rising into nigged hills, of which tho chief is tho mountain of Anogo ('Avayfi), in shape and size not unlike Benlomond—towering over the N. shore of the great harbour. This, as being the highest and greatest mountain in the island, is, of course, identified with the "Neritos ardua saxis" of Virgil (Mn., iii. 271), and the NijpiTov tlvoaiipvWov of Homer (Od., ix. 21), although the forests which onco "waved their leaves" on its sides havo now disappeared. That fact is the reason why rain and dew are not so common here now as they were in the poet's time; and why the island no longer abounds in hogs fattening upon acoms, and guarded by "godliko swineherds"—successors of Eumicus. In all other points Homer's descriptions are still as accurate in Ithaca as they are elsewhere—proving him to be tho great father of History and Topography as well as of Poetry. His verses present a perfect picture of tho island as it now appears :—

'ep 8' '\8dxji O6t' &p' tp6/ioi fip4ts oltrc

ri \ft}j^3V' Aiyl&OTOs Kol n<i\Auv iirlipaTos iVn-o


Oil ydfi Tij viiaaiv lmrl)\aTOS oiS' tv

A*tpmp Al 6" oAl KtKXiarar 'Wdicri $4 re *al

Vfpl Tratrewv.

( </d.. iv. 603. Cf. also Od., xiii. 242.)

Thus translated by Pope :—

"Horrid with cliffs, our meagre land allows 'Chin herbage for the mountain-goat to browse, Hut neither mead nor plain supplies, to feed The sprightly courser, or indulge his speed: To sea-surrounded realms the gods assign Small tract of fertile lawn, the least to mine."

The general aspect is one ofruggedness and sterility; it can hardly be said that there are a hundred yards of continuous level ground in the whole island; which warrants the expression of Cicero that Ulysses loved his country "not because it was broad, but because it was his own." Nevertheless the scenery is rendered striking by the bold and broken outline of the mountains and cliffs indented by numerous small harbours and creeks, tho XiuVves ir<£vop/ioi of the 'Odyssey' (xiii. 193). And Ithaca is not without scenes of a softer character—in tho cultivated declivities of the ridges, and in the opc-uiug out towards the sea of many narrow ravines, where the water is fringed with feathery woods of olives, oranges, and altuond-trees, and the slopes are clothed with vineyards, or with evergreen copses of myrtle, cypress, arbutus, mastic, oleander, that beautiful rhododaphne or rose-laurel of tho ancients, and all the aromatic shrubs of the East, Here and there too among the rocks little green lawns glitter gaily with a thousand wild flowers.

The climate of Ithaca is very healthy, and its inhabitants are famous for their longevity. So it is from no empty patriotism that Ulysses says of his fatherland,—

Tp7?*^' «^' ayaflrj KOVporpd^of' Ovtoi tyttiy* H« 7aiTj? biU'fviat ykvKtfuttnpov aAAo IBtaOm.

"Jjow lies our isle, yet bless'd in fruitful stores; Strong are her sons, though rocky are her

shores; And none, ah! none so lovely to my sight, , Of all the lands that Heaven o'erspreads with light!"

(Od., ix. 27). Tho lines immediately preceding, and also applied to Ithaca

by Ulysses, have puzzled all tho commentators, both ancient and modern :—

Ahr)) He x^anaKii iravvirtpTaTT) tl» a\l

KftTat Floor £6<pov, at 8e aVeufle irpos ijto r'^e'

AioV Tf.

(Vide Nitzsch. Cf. also Od., x. 190). Strabo (x. 2) discusses tho passage, and perhaps his explanation is the most satisfactory of any. He supposes that by the epithet x9<W^ the poet intended to express how Ithaca lies under, as it were, the neighbouring mountains of Acarnania; while by that of itavinrfprirn he meant to denote its position at tho extremity of the group of islands formed by Zacynthuj), Cephallenia, and the Echinades. For another explanation see Wordsworth's 'Greece.'

The whole population of the island amounts to about 13,000. It is divided officially into 4 districts. The inhabitants are extremely laborious both by land and sea, cultivating with patient industry the light and scanty soil of their island, and maintaining at the same time a considerable part of the coasting trade of Greece, as well as of tho general carrying commerce of the Mediterranean and the Euxine. Almost every family possesses a few roods of land of its own, as well as a share in one or more of the large and excellent ships which belong to their port, and are continuully built and fitted out there. If we call to miud that Ulysses, with the whole force of the neighbouring islands of Cephallenia and Zacynthus, only mustered 12 galleys as his contingent to the Trojan expedition, it must be admitted that Ithaca has no reason to complain of any falling off in her naval establishment Bince the heroic age. (II., ii. 631, 637.)

The late Earl of Guilford, who founded the Ionian University, had intended, if insuperable difficulties had not been thrown in his way, to establish that institution in Ithaca. Here —amid mountains and rocks hollowed by a thousand memories—the scholar might have delighted his hours of leisure with tho fair visions of Greekdour or for costly decorations; little chapels are as numerous in this as in the neighbouring islands, and indeed in most parts of Greece.


Ithaca is divided into four districts, Bathy, Aetos, Anoge.andExoge; Bn0u, 'Aerbs, 'Aywyij, 'E{a>7TJ, i.e., Deep Bay, Eagle's Cliff, Highland, Oulland. The first at the southern, and the last at the northern extremity of the island, have each a fertile valley, but the rocky mountains of the two midland districts admit of little cultivation, Currant-grapes form the staple commodity of the Ithacans. A small quantity of oil and wine is also exported, the latter being reputed the best in the Ionian Islands. The produce in grain suffices only for three months' consumption; and even that quantity is raised by great toil and industry. But the natives are enabled to supply themselves from abroad, partly by their profits in the currant trade, and still more by the activity in maritime affairs which forms so remarkable a feature in this little people.

The sight of the modern capital of Ithaca must always excite admiration. Bulky contains about 2500 inhabitants, and extends in one narrow stripe of white houses round the southern extremity of the horseshoe port or "deep" (Bo9u), whence it derives its name. Large ships can moor in perfect safety close to the doors of their owners. Here are tho dwellings of the chief proprietors and merchants, and several Greek churches." ,

The beauty of tho scene is enhanced by a small island, crowned with buildings, in the middle of the harbour, and by several insulated houses scattered over the rising ground behind the town, and surrounded with trees and gardens.

The wholo prospect derives a singular aspect of seclusion from the mountains which hang over it on every side. It has no view of tho open sea, because tho creek on which it is built is an inlet of the wide and deep gulf, which, branching out into arms and bays sheltered by lofty hills and projecting cliffs, and running up into the heart of the island, divides it

into two nearly equal portions, connected by a narrow isthmus. On tho southern sido of this great gulf, local tradition exhibits in a small creek the port of Phorcys, now called by tho Ithacans "Aejio, probably because it is on the right hand of the entrance to the port of Bathy; and a little way up Mount St. Stephen above the harbour, the grotto of the Nymphs, in which the sleeping Ulysses was deposited by the Phseacians (Od., xiii. 116). The only entrance to this cave is a narrow opening to the N.W., admitting but little day. At the southern extremity there is a natural aperture, but one more practicable for gods than for men. Tho voult within is lighted up by delicate gleams of a bluish hue, and is hung with stalactites, expanding here and there into what Homer calls webs of stone, where the Nymphs may be fancied to have woven their threads whoso colour was like the purple of the ocean (Od., xiii. 108). It is highly probable that theBe are the very localities alluded to by Homer —indeed, this seems the only point exactly corresponding to the poet's data:—1. In admitting unobserved of a rugged walk over woods and cliffs (Od., xiv. 1) to tho station of Eumcaus at the extremity of the island nearest Peloponnesus {Od., xv. 36); 2. In being directly in front of Neritos, and so exactly adapted to the speech of the disguised Pallas, when she proves to Ulysses that he is in Ithaca by pointing to tho mountain (fid., xiii. 315). It may here bo remarked that a late resident in the winter of 1850 came in a single day from Ithaca to Corcyra in one of the coasting boats of the island, which are very like ancient galleys both in appearance and in mode of navigation ; so there is nothing wonderful in his predecessor Ulysses having accomplished in a single night—particularly with tho aid of Athene—tho voyage from Corcyra to Ithaca (Od., xiii. 81).

We have hitherto taken it for granted that this is the Ithaca alluded to by Homer. "Of that fact," says Sir George Bowen, "we have ample testimony in its relative position to Zacyn

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