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are characteristic of the royal school in the second half of the XI century; and the earliest pointed arch that has come down to us in the Ile de France dates from at least twenty years later than the vaults of Pleinpied. Consequently it seems probable that both these features were borrowed from Berry by the French builders.1

In other respects the churches of the Cher differed radically from those of the Ile de France, or even borrowed from the latter school. Buttresses for the nave vaults seem seldom to have been provided, since the small size of most of the buildings enabled the masons to raise a barrel vault even above a clearstory without danger. In a few churches, however, half barrel vaults thrown across the aisles were made to abut the ļ great vaults of the nave, an arrangement entirely analogous to the dispositions of St. Sernin of Toulouse (Ill. 130). Pilaster strips marked the bays externally, and were often very salient even at an early period. The crossing was covered usually with a dome or an octagonal cloistered vault on squinches or even on pendentives. These domes were a thoroughly Lombard feature and one never adopted in the Ile de France. The transept was almost universal in Berry even in the smallest churches; on the other hand, the nave was often of a single aisle, even when there were three aisles in the choir. Transeptal absidioles were well-nigh universal. The central tower was frequently placed on piers falling within the nave walls, thus leaving a passage from the nave directly into the transept.

The character and execution of the ornament in Berry was usually inferior to contemporary work elsewhere. The chief elements were the chevron and chipped zig-zag, both perhaps imported from Normandy; the billet moulding and engaged arcade of Carolingian tradition; the flat and arched corbeltables with grotesque carvings, derived (perhaps indirectly) from Lombardy. The flora, on the other hand, was either native or derived from the neighboring schools of the South. While there is a continuous and marked progress in ornamentation, this art always remained backward, and the portals in especial, even in the XII century, show nothing to rival the magnificent

1 Horseshoe arches occur in Berry at Charenton, Limeux, and Vesdun.

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doorways of England, Normandy, Lombardy, or Provence. The survival of classic tradition in Berry, as throughout the south of France, led to a certain awkwardness in the proportions of capitals and columns.

The façades of Berry were usually characterized by a Greek cross, placed in the gable, and by the peculiar portals which were often flanked by two blind arches, the whole being built out into a sort of edicule submerging the buttresses. Towers were for the most part without character or interest, and form a sorry contrast to those of Normandy or of the Ile de France. About the middle of the XII century they came to be placed at the west end, instead of over the crossing. Rib vaults were unknown until the middle of the XII century, when they were introduced from the Ile de France at Angy-sur-l'Aubois. Square east ends were never built before the XIII century.

Before the year 1100, the school of the royal domain remained far weaker than even its modest neighbor of Berry. The direct heir of Carolingian tradition, it seems to have preserved unaltered during the first half of the XI century the Carolingian forms in all their crudity. Four monuments have come down to us that may be ascribed to this epoch;1 they are all characterized by the use of rectangular piers and archivolts of a single order, and are constructed of rubble or herring-bone masonry with a minimum of ornament. Vaults were used only in the half-dome of the apse. In a word, the whole structure shows but the slightest advance over such a monument as the Basse Oeuvre. It is interesting that one of these monuments of the first half of the XI century the chapel at Filain has a square east end. About the middle of the XI century, certain innovations were introduced. The archivolts were built in two orders (Ill. 155, 156) instead of in one, and to support this second order a colonnette was engaged at either end of the pier (Ill. 155, 156). This arrangement which became very typical of the Ile de France persisted into the XII

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1 Filain (Aisne), St.-Remi-l'Abbaye (Oise), Sarron (Oise), and Rue-St.-Pierre (Oise). The prevailing opinion that the size of the windows is a sure test of the age of a Romanesque structure is erroneous. The size of the windows seems to have been purely arbitrary.

century. The barrel vault also appeared in the second half of the XI century, being employed over the choir and crossing, and even over the transepts, although at this period the nave was never vaulted. About the same time the groin vault came ✓ into use (Ill. 155). Employed timidly at first, and only in the side aisles (as at Rhuis, c. 1050), by the end of the century it had been used at Trouquoy to vault even the great choir. the side aisles it was regularly constructed with transverse ribs (Ill. 155). The plan in general preserved throughout the XI century its Carolingian characteristics - transeptal absidioles, and a choir lengthened at most one bay.

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About the year 1075 shafts engaged on the faces of the piers appeared in the Ile de France (Ill. 156). These shafts were probably borrowed from Normandy, although the French builders of this time were undoubtedly acquainted with the architectural achievements of Lombardy. We have seen that the Norman builders borrowed the engaged shaft together with the alternate system from Lombardy, but rejected the transverse arch. At the Abbaye-aux-Dames they had applied the engaged shaft to a uniform system. Now the fact that in the Ile de France the engaged shaft was always employed in connection with a uniform system (the alternate system never occurs in the royal domain at the period) seems to prove that this feature was derived from Normandy rather than from Lombardy direct. Although engaged shafts were never as universally adopted in the Ile de France as in Normandy — the old flat type of pier persisted in perhaps the majority of buildings (Ill. 157) yet the use of shafts was frequent, and examples may be found at Morienval (Ill. 156), St.-Thibaud-de-Bazoches, Berny, Rivière, etc. Most singular of all, in certain monuments (Berny, Rivière, and St.-Léger-aux-Bois) analogous shafts are engaged on the aisle side of the piers. This curious construc

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2 How extended was Lombard influence is proved by the fact that at a later period the Ile de France borrowed these transverse arches besides many other motives from Lombardy. Such transverse arches are found at Béthisy-St.-Martin, Trucy, Vailly, and Cerny-en-Laonnais. Examples are also found at Lavardin (Loire-et-Cher) dating from the XI century.

3 The earliest example of the alternate system in the Ile de France occurs at Melun c. 1100.

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