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vaulted; its capitals show all the characteristics of the style of the third quarter of the XII century. (Arnaud, 201.)

CHEZAL-BENOÎT, Cher. Abbaye. The nave of this church survives in a ruined condition together with certain portions of the foundations of the choir. This nave was seven bays long, and vaulted with a pointed barrel vault whose transverse arches rest on columns engaged in the piers. Since the side aisles were covered with vaults intended to buttress those of the nave, there could have been no clearstory. The façade is characterized by a mixture of round and pointed arches and a rich portal in many orders. It is known that this church was consecrated in 1104, but only the two eastern and two western bays of the nave can date from this epoch, the remainder of the edifice having evidently been rebuilt at a later period. (De Kersers V, 148.)

OTHER MONUMENTS

STE. GEMME, Cher. Église. Of the ancient edifice only the nave and side aisles survive, the choir having been recently rebuilt. The nave is rib-vaulted; the side aisles are covered with pointed barrel vaults whose axis is perpendicular to that of the church. The piers are cruciform in plan with engaged half columns, which rise to support the vault ribs. There is no clearstory, for the great longitudinal arch opening into the aisle vault occupies all the space beneath the longitudinal rib, — that is, the crowns of the barrel vaults of the aisles and of the rib vaults of the nave are at about the same level. As the monument is evidently in the main a construction of the end of the XII century — notwithstanding several inscriptions which refer to repairs executed at later epochs - these peculiar dispositions are of great interest. (De Kersers V, 30.)

MEHUN, Cher. Notre Dame, in spite of mutilations, is still of great interest. The choir, of horseshoe plan, is vaulted with a half-dome raised over a clearstory, and is surrounded by an ambulatory with which it communicates by seven arcades composed of high semicircular arches resting on rectangular piers. The ambulatory itself is covered with a barrel vault broken by very irregular penetrations. Three radiating chapels open to the eastward. The single-aisled nave is as broad as all three aisles of the choir, and is covered with a pointed barrel vault. This nave must date from late in the XII century; the choir is perhaps somewhat earlier. (De Kersers V, 295.)

BOURGES, Cher. St. Jean-le-Vieux. Certain portions of this cruciform church date probably from 1164, although the edifice was practically rebuilt in the XVII century. The choir and the chapels which flank it are covered with barrel vaults, pointed like all the great arches; the rib vaults of the transepts have been destroyed, but sufficient traces for a restoration remain. (De Kersers II, 215.)

Prieuré St. Paul. Some fragments of the church, which was ruined by the Huguenots in 1562 and repaired by Philippe Labbe in 1615, still survive in the court of the barracks below Sérancourt. The monument, which doubtless was erected in the XII century, consisted of a rectangular nave and a semicircular apse. (De Kersers II, 263.)

St. Martin-des-Champs is a rectangular building of the XI century roofed in wood. (De Kersers II, 262.)

St. Privé appears to date from the XII century. Only the timber-roofed nave survives. (De Kersers II, 222.)

FRESNAY-SUR-SARTHE, Sarthe. Notre Dame. The primitive edifice consisted of a single-aisled nave three bays long and rib-vaulted, of a central tower, and of a semicircular apse; but in 1865 transepts were added. The bases are characterized by the use of griffes; the fine Romanesque portal in three orders is decorated with drip-mouldings, stars, chipped chevrons, etc. This monument, a most interesting example of the transition in Maine, shows unmistakable influence from the Plantagenet school of Anjou, and is assigned by M. Lefèvre-Pontalis to the third quarter of the XII century.

ST.-CHRISTOPHE-DU-JAMBET, Sarthe. Notre Dame consists of a single-aisled nave, three bays long; a single transept, evidently later than the rest of the church; a central tower; and a semicircular apse. The main portal is in three orders. The vaults, which are pointed and supported by a continuous system, are the only portion of this structure which would lead us to suspect that the church was erected at so late a date as that indicated by the inscription — apparently authentic -painted upon the western vault: "In the year of the incarnation of our Lord, 1231, in the time of Jean François, curé of this parish." (Le Guicheux; Hucher.)

CUFFY, Cher. Église of the XII century is cruciform in plan. The apse presents a most unusual design, being ornamented with high and narrow arcades, some semicircular and others trilobed. Other remarkable features of the exterior design are the central tower and the finely sculptured western portal consisting of three orders of round arches resting on shafts. Internally, the church is covered with pointed barrel vaults. (De Kersers IV, 236.)

MENETOU-COUTURE, Cher. Abbaye de Fontmorigny. The most ancient portions of this much mutilated abbey date from the last half of the XII century, and furnish a typical example of Cistercian architecture. The choir, the crossing, the two arms of the transept, each of the two surviving bays of the nave, are so many squares, while four chapels, also square, open off the transept to the eastward. Choir and the transept are both rib-vaulted, but the nave is covered with a groin vault. (De Kersers VI, 35.)

Eglise contains fragments of architecture of many different epochs: the walls of the nave (which never had a vault) must date from the XI century; the lower part of the five-sided apse is Gothic; the upper portions are flamboyant; and the vault of most degraded style is a work of the Renaissance.

BAZOUGES-SUR-LOIRE, Sarthe. St. Aubin. The primitive edifice was replaced in the XII century by a larger one, of which the tower, the transepts with their absidioles, the apse, and the portal still survive, although the nave was rebuilt in the XV century. The rich west portal is of great interest, as is the central tower, notwithstanding the fact that its spire has perished. A most interesting timber roof

1 Anno ab incarnatione domini M II C tricesimo I tempore Jacobi Franci Persone huius ecclesie.

of the XV century, which still retains the original painted decoration, covers the (De la Bouillerie.)

nave.

BENGY, Cher. Église of the early XII century is a fine example of the Cluniac church of small dimensions, and consists of a single-aisled nave, a central tower, an eastern apse, and absidioles. All the great arches and the barrel vaults are pointed, but the nave vaults and the system on which they rest are modern. The apse is adorned externally with a flat corbel-table and with buttress shafts. (De Kersers I, 207.)

BLET, (Canton of Néroude), Cher. Église, notwithstanding disastrous restorations, still retains its original dispositions, and is of great interest for its sculptures. The monument consists of a single-aisled nave, a central tower, a choir with side aisles and three apses. The transepts, which formerly existed, have disappeared. All the eastern portions, covered with round barrel vaults, date from the XI century (1060-80); the nave, whose barrel vault is pointed, seems to be of about half a century later. The interior is characterized by transverse arches, a system usually continuous, a triforium, and the absence of a clearstory. The archivolts are of a single order, the windows shafted. Externally the apse is decorated with buttress shafts, flat corbel-tables, arcades, arched string-courses, and windows in two orders. (De Kersers VI, 4.)

ST.-AOUSTRILLE-LES-GRAÇAY, Cher. Église consists of a nave, the transverse arches of whose barrel vaults are carried on engaged columns; of two side aisles, also barrel-vaulted; of transepts without absidioles; of a choir flanked by two side aisles, and of three apses. Internally, the archivolts are of a single order, the windows shafted. The exterior is adorned with an engaged arcade, triangular masonry, and salient buttresses. A straight wall masks the half-dome of the apse. The nave and façade are largely of the XIV century; as for the rest of the edifice, while much of the decoration certainly shows the survival of Carolingian tradition, no portion can well be earlier than the second half of the XI century, although M. de Kersers does not hesitate to assign the construction to a date “very near 1014.”

CHARLY, Cher. Église. In 1854 the nave and a part of the tower were entirely reconstructed; but what remains of the original edifice seems to date from the XI century. The semicircular apse is adorned internally with highly interesting mural paintings and with three arcades borne on colonnettes; externally it is divided into bays by columns engaged before pilasters. The tower, which rises over the crossing, is of unusually gracious design; it is two stories high and crowned by a conical spire the only central spire in the département of Cher — and four angle turrets. (De Kersers VI, 11.)

GERMIGNY, Cher. Église is one of the most remarkable monuments of Berry. The choir, the three eastern apses, and the transepts, according to M. de Kersers, are in the main constructions of the XI or XII century, although the upper portions, destroyed by fire in 1772, have been restored. The single-aisled nave, the narthex, and the western tower, may be assigned to the third quarter of the XII century. A most remarkable pendentive dome is placed over the central bay of the narthex, beneath the tower. (De Kersers IV, 251.)

INEUIL, Cher. Église consists of an apse of the XI century polygonal externally, transepts of the XII century with absidioles, and a Gothic nave.

The nave

is covered with sexpartite rib vaults; the crossing has a cupola; the choir is surmounted by round, the transepts by pointed, barrel vaults. The system of the nave is continuous. Externally the central tower is adorned with arched string-courses and arched corbel-tables. (De Kersers V, 160.)

PRIMELLES, Cher. Église consists of a rectangular nave roofed in timber, a fine north lateral tower, a barrel-vaulted choir of one bay, and a semicircular apse. The tower, which is the most interesting part of the monument, is divided into four stories: the lowest forms the base; the second is a blind story adorned with triangular arches borne on colonnettes which recall the Carolingian work at Lorsch, etc.; the third the belfry is characterized by two grouped arches, pierced in each face, by a shaft engaged near each corner, and by a cornice formed of a flat corbel-table; and the fourth consists of a conical spire and four little turrets. The lower part of the tower and the church are assigned by M. de Kersers to the middle of the XI century, and it is not improbable they may be nearly as early as this. (De Kersers III, 161.)

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AVOR, Cher. Église. Except for the façade of the XII century, this monument must date from the XI century, though hardly from the first half, as has been claimed. The edifice consists of a choir, covered with a round barrel vault and flanked by two side aisles of nearly equal height, also barrel-vaulted and opening on the choir by two low arcades; of a semicircular apse; and of a single-aisled timber-roofed nave, as wide as the three aisles of the choir. The façade is adorned with arched corbel-tables and arcades, and with a Greek cross placed in the gable. (De Kersers I, 186.)

ALICAMPS, Cher. Eglise, of cruciform plan, is of interest only for the semicircular apse buttressed externally by engaged columns. The windows of this apse are round, but the interior archivolts are pointed, and rest on columns engaged on the faces of pilasters. (De Kersers VI, 94.)

LE MANS, Sarthe. Notre Dame-du-Pré (“Ancienne Abbaye St. Julien"). Although this establishment was founded in the first half of the XI century, the oldest parts of the existing edifice can not be older than the last half of that century. The structure consists of a nave, two side aisles, very deeply projecting transepts with absidioles, a chevet, an ambulatory, and three radiating chapels. The third and fourth bays and the vaults of the north aisle belong to the XI century; the rest of the church is substantially a work of the XII century, with the exception of certain alterations executed in the Gothic period. Flat pilasters are engaged in the heavier piers of the alternate system—a peculiarity of design strongly reminiscent of the cathedral of Le Mans as it was in the XI century. Viollet-le-Duc and RuprichRobert believe that these pilasters originally supported transverse arches; at all events, the present nave vaults were added in Gothic times. The archivolts are in two orders; the windows simply shafted and moulded. The portal, however, is elaborately moulded. Externally, with the exception of the Gothic windows, the monument is thoroughly Romanesque in appearance. (Ledru; Wismes.)

MONTIÉRAMEY, Aube. Église. The Romanesque nave, five bays long, like the side aisles, is covered with rib vaults in which round and pointed arches are used side by side; the clearstory windows are round; there are no flying buttresses; rectangular piers, with a shaft engaged on each of their four faces, rest on octagonal pedestals. The pentagonal choir and the transepts are lofty constructions of the early XVI century with flying buttresses and enormous windows. (Arnaud, 119.)

ANGY-SUR-L'AUBOIS, Cher. Église consists of a timber-roofed nave, transepts with eastern absidioles, a tower rising over the southern transept, a square choir, and a semicircular apse. The barrel vaults of the choir are pointed; that of the crossing is semicircular; while the lower story of the tower, which seems to date from about the middle of the XII century, is rib-vaulted, - an important and early instance of this construction in Berry. The capitals of the nave show all the characteristics of the style of the end of the XI century. (De Kersers VII, 106.)

CIVRAY, Cher. Église consists of a rectangular choir, a rectangular nave, and an enormous square tower to the westward. This tower, the most ancient part of the church, dates probably from the early part of the XII century, and is remarkable for the groin vault of the lower story. The nave is roofed in timber; the choir is rib-vaulted, but the ribs rest on corbels. This choir, with its angle buttresses, is evidently a construction of the XV century. (De Kersers II, 126.) CHAROST, Cher. St. Michel. The choir, the central cupola, and the side aisles were rebuilt in the XV century, so that only the large and bare nave, the side aisles of the choir, the three apses, and the transepts of the primitive structure of the XII century survive. The tower has been moved to the south. Externally the church is remarkable for the engaged arcades and columns which decorate the apse. (De Kersers III, 119.)

NEUILLY-EN-DUN, Cher. Église. This excellently preserved monument, notwithstanding its modest dimensions, possesses a remarkable wealth of detail. The structure consists of a semicircular apse, a choir, a central tower, and a single-aisled nave roofed in wood. The arches throughout are round. Externally the edifice is remarkable for the beautiful design of the central tower, which is richly ornamented with chevrons. (De Kersers VII, 119.)

MOUSSEY, Aube. St. Martin consists of an exterior narthex, a nave, two side aisles, transepts with absidioles, a central tower, a choir flanked by two lateral chambers not communicating with the transepts, and a semicircular apse. Although the existing clearstory windows are pointed, the edifice may be assigned to the last half of the XII century. The piers are rectangular; the archivolts are of a single order; and there is no system. Salient external buttresses exist on only one side, a disposition so much the more peculiar in that the choir is the only portion of the edifice vaulted. There is almost no decoration; were it not for the profiles of the mouldings and the stereotomy, the monument might pass for a Carolingian structure. (De Kersers I, 429.)

CHALIVOY-MILON, Cher. Église. This small monument consists of a semicircular apse; a choir formed of two distinct parts of which the westernmost, higher than the other, is barrel-vaulted; a south lateral tower; and a nave. Except

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