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re—elected either in the class of moral and political science, under which history and geography were included as sections, or more generally under the class of literature and fine arts, which embraced ancient languages, antiquities and monuments.

In 1816 the academy received again its old name. The Proceeding: of the society embrace a vast field, and are of very various merits. Perhaps the subjects on which it has shown most originality are comparative mythology, the history of science among the ancients, and the geography and antiquities of France. The old academy has reckoned among its members De Sacy the orientalist, Dansse de Villoison (1750—1805) the philologist, Anquetil du Perron the traveller, Guillaume J. de C. L. Sainte-Croix and du Theil the antiquaries, and Le Beau, who has been named the last of the Romans. The new academy has inscribed on its lists the names of Champollion, A. Rémusat, Raynouard, Burnouf and Augustin Thierry.

In consequence of the attention of several literary men in Paris having been directed to Celtic antiquities, a Celtic Academy was established in that city in r805. Its objects were, first, the elucidation of the history, customs, antiquities, manners and monuments of the Celts, particularly in France; secondly, the etymology of all the European languages, by the aid ofvthe Celto-British, Welsh and Erse ; and, thirdly, researches relating to Druidism. The attention of the memberswas also particularly called to the history and settlements of the Galatae in Asia. Lenoir, the keeper of the museum of French monuments, was appointed president. The academy still exists as La sociélé nationale dc: antiquaires dc France.

Great Britain—The British Academy was the outcome of a meeting of the principal European and American academies, held at Wiesbaden in October 1899. A scheme was drawn up for an

international association of the academies of the world under the I

two sections of natural science and literary science, but while the Royal Societyadequatelyrepresented Englandinscience there was then no existing institution that could claim to represent England in literature, and at the first meeting of the federated academies this chair was vacant. A plan was proposed by Professor H. Sidgwick to add a new section to the Royal Society, :but after long deliberation this was rejected by the president and council. The promoters of the plan thereupon determined to form a separate society, and invited certain persons to become the first members of a new body, to be called “The British Academy for the promotion of historical, philosophical and philological studies.” The unincorporated body thus formed petitioned for a charter, and on the 8th of August 1902 the royal- charter

was granted and the by-laws were allowed by order in Council. ‘ The objects of the academy are therein defined—“the promo-Q

tion of the study of the moral and political sciences, including

history, philosophy, law, politics and economics, archaeology.

and philology.” The number of ordinary fellows (so all members are entitled) is restricted to one hundred, and the academy is governed by a president (the first being Lord Reay) and a council of fifteen elected annually by the fellows. ‘ 7

Italy—Under this class the .4me Ercolanese (Academy of

Herculaneum) properly ranks. It was established at Naples.

about 17 5 5, at which period a museum was formed of the antiquities found at Herculaneum, Pompeii andlother places, by the marquis Tanucci, who was then minister of state. Its object was to explain the paintings, &c., discovered. at those places. For this purpose the members met every fortnight, and at each meeting three paintings were submitted to three academicians, 'who made their report at their next sitting. The first volume of their labours appeared in 177 5, and they have been continued under the title of A-ntichild di Ercolana. They contain engravings of the principal paintings, statues, bronzes, marble figures, medals, utensils, &c., with explanations. In the/year 1807 an academy of history and antiquities, on a new plan, was established at Naples by Joseph Bonaparte. The number of members was limited to forty, twenty of whom were to be appointed by the king; and these twenty were to present to him, for his choice, three names for each of those needed to complete the full number. Eight thousand ducats were to be annually allotted for the


current expenses, and two thousand for prizes to the authors of four works which should be deemed by the academy most deserving of such a reward. A grand meeting was to be held every year, when the prizes were to be distributed and analyses of the works read. The first meeting took place on the 2 5th of April 1807; but the subsequent changes in the political state of Naples prevented the full and permanent establishment of this institution. In the same year an academy was established at Florence for the illustration of Tuscan antiquities, which published some volumes of memoirs.


Austria—The defunct Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted in 1784 by the emperor Joseph II. under the direction of the distinguished surgeon, Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (1728—1800). For many years it did important work, and though closed in 1848 was reconstituted by the emperor Francis Joseph in 1854. In 1874 it ceased to exist; its functions had become mainly military, and were transferred to newer schools.

France—Academic de M édecine. Medicine is a science which has always engaged the attention of the kings of France. Charlemagne established a school of medicine in the Louvre, and various societies have been founded, and privileges granted to the faculty by his successors. The Academic de médecine succeeded to the old Académie royale de chirurgie el société royals de médecine. It was erected by a royal ordinance, dated December 20, 1820. It Was divided into three sections—medicine, surgery and pharmacy. In its constitution it closely resembled the Academic des sciences. Its function was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter, and answer inquiries addressed to it by the government on the subject of epidemics, sanitary reform and public health generally. It has maintained an enormous correspondence in all quarters of the globe and published extensive minutes.

Germany—The Academia N alurae C uriosi, afterwards called the Academia Caesaraea Leopoldina, was founded in 1662 by J. L. Bausch, a physician of Leipzig, who published a general invitation to medical men to communicate all extraordinary cases that occurred in the course of their practice. The works of the Naturae Curiosi were at first published separately; but in 1770 a new arrangement was planned for publishing a volume of observations annually. From some cause, however, the first volume did not make its appearance until 1784, when it was published under the title of Ephemerider. In 1687 the emperor Leopold took the society under his protection, and its name was changed in his honour. This academy has no fixed abode, but follows the home of its president. Its library remains at Dresden. By its constitution the Leopoldine Academy consists of a president, two adjuncts or secretaries and unlimited colleagues or members. At their admission the last come under a twofold obligation—first, to choose some subject for discussion out of the animal, vegetable or mineral kingdoms, not previously treated by any colleague of the academy ; and, secondly, to apply themselves to furnish materials for the annual Ephemerides.

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France.—The Academic royale de peinture et de sculpture at Paris was founded by Louis XIV. in 1648, under the title of Academic royale des beaux arts, to which was afterwards united the Academic d’architecturc, founded 1671. 'It is composed of painters, sculptors, architects, engravers and musical composers. From among the members of the society who are painters, is chosen the director of the French Academic des beam: arts at Berne, also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677. The director’s province is to superintend the studies of the painters, sculptors, &c., who, chosen by competition, are sent to Italy at the expense of the government, to complete their studies in that country. Most of the celebrated French painters have begun their career in this way.

The Académie nationale dc musique is the oflicial and administrative name given in France to the grand opera. In 1570 the poet Baif established in his house a school of music, at which ballets and masquerades were given. In 1645 Mazarin brought from Italy a troupe of actors, and established them in the rue du Petit Bourbon, where they gave Jules Strozzi’s Achille in Sciro, the first opera performed in France. After Moliére’s death in 1673, his theatre in the Palais Royal was given to Sulli, and there were performed all Gluck's great operas; there Vestris danced, and there was produced Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Devin du Village.

Great Brilain.—The Royal Academy of Arts in London, founded in 1768, is described in a separate article. (See ACADEMY, ROYAL.)

The Academy of Ancient Music was established in London in r7io, with the view of promoting the study and'practice of vocal and instrumental harmony. This institution had a fine musical library, and was aided by the performances of the gentlemen of the Chapel Royal and the choir of St Paul’s, with the boys belonging to each, and continued to flourish for many years. About 1734 the academy became a seminary for the instruction of youth in the principles of music and the laws of harmony. The Royal Academy of Music was formed for the performance of operas, composed by Handel, and conducted by him at the theatre in the Hay'market. The subscription amounted to £ 50,000, and the king, besides subscribing £1000, allowed the society to assume the title Royal. It consisted of a governor, deputy-governor and twenty directors. A contest between Handel and Senesino, one of the performers, in which the directors took the part of the latter, occasioned the dissolution of the academy after it had existed with honour for more than nine years. The present Royal Academy of Music datesifrom 1822, and was incorporated in 1830. It instructs pupils of both sexes in music. (See also the article CONSERVA— TOIRE for colleges of music.)

Italy—In 1778 an academy of painting and sculpture was established at Turin. The meetings Were held in the palace of the king, who distributed priZes among the most successful members. In Milan an academy of architecture was established so early as 1380, by Gian Galeazzo Visconti. About the middle of the 18th century an academy of the arts was established there, after the example of those at Paris and Rome. The pupils were furnished with originals and models, and prizes were distributed by competent judges annually. The prime for painting was a gold medal. Before the effects of the French Revolution reached Italy this was one of the best establishments of the kind in that kingdom. In the hall of the academy were some admirable examples of Correggio, as well as several statues of great merit, particularly a small bust of Vitellius, and a torso of Agrippina, of most exquisite beauty. The academy of the arts, which had been long established at Florence, fell into decay, but was restored in the end of the r8th century. In it there are halls for nude and plaster figures, for the use of the sculptor and the painter, with models of all the finest statues in Italy. But the treasures of this and the other institutions for the fine arts were greatly diminished during the occupancy of Italy by the French. The academy of the arts at Modena, after being plundered by the French, dwindled into a petty school for drawing from living models. There is also an academy of the fine arts in Mantua, and another at Venice.

Russian—The academy of St Petersburg was established in 17 57 by the empress Elizabeth, at the suggestion of Count Shuvalov, and annexed to the academy of sciences. The fund for its support was £4000 per annum,'and the foundation admitted forty scholars. Catherine II. formed it into a separate institution, augumented the annual revanue to £12,000, and increased the number of scholars to three hundred; she built for it a large circular building, which fronts the Neva. The scholars are admitted at the age of six, and continue until they have attained that of eighteen. They are clothed, fed and lodged at the expense of the crown; and are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, French, German and drawing. At the age of fourteen they are at liberty to choose any of the following arts; first, painting in all its branches, architecture, mosaic, 'e‘namelling, &c.; second, engraving on copper-plates, sealcutting, &c.; third, carving on wood, ivory and amber; fourth,


watch-making, turning, instrument-making, casting statues in bronze and other metals, imitating gems and medals in paste and other compositions, gilding and varnishing. Prizes are annually distributed, and from those who have obtained four prizes, twelve are selected, who are sent abroad at the charge of the crown. Acertain sum is paid to defray their travelling expenses; and when they are settled in any town, they receive during four years an annual salary of £60. The academy has a small gallery of paintings for the use of the scholars; and those who have made great progress are permitted to copy the pictures in the imperial collection. For the purpose of design, there are full-size models'of the best antique statues in Italy.

South America—There are several small academies in the various towns of South America, the only one of note being that of Rio de Janeiro, founded by John VI. of Portugal in r816 and now known as the Escola N acional dc Bella: Aries.

Spain.-—In Madrid. an academy for painting, sculpture and architecture, the Academia de Bella: Aries de San F emando, was founded by Philip V. The minister for foreign affairs is president. Prizes are distributed every three years. In Cadiz a few students are supplied by government with the means of drawing and modelling from figures; and such as are not able to purchase the requisite instruments are provided with them.

Sweden—An academy of the fine arts was founded at Stockholm in the year 1733 by Count Tessin. In its hall are the ancient figures of plaster presented by Louis XIV. to Charles XI. The works of the students are publicly exhibited, and prizes are distributed annually. Such of them as display distinguished ability obtain pensions from government, to enable them to reside in Italy for some years, for the purposes of investigation and improvement. In this academy, there are nine professors and generally about four hundred students. ' .

Austria.——In the year 1705 an academy of painting, sculptur and architecture was established at Vienna, with the view of encouraging and promoting the fine arts.

United States of America—In America the institution similar to the Royal Academy of Arts in London is the National Academy of Design (1826), which in 1906 absorbed the Society of American Artists, the members of the society becoming members of the academy. .

The volume of excerpts from the general catalogue of books in the British Museum, "Academies," 5 parts and index, furnishes a complete bibliography. (F. S.)

AOADEIY, GREEK or ACADEME (Gr. dxao'r'maa. or éxaonpia), the name given to the philosophic successors of Plato. The name is derived from a pleasure-garden or gymnasium situated in the suburb of the Ceramicus on the river Cephissus about a mile to the north—west of Athens from the gate called Dipylum. It was said to have belonged to the ancient Attic hero Academus, who, when the Dioscuri invaded Attica to recover their sister Helen, carried 05 by Theseus, revealed the place where she was hidden. Out of gratitude the Lacedaemonians, who reverenced the Dioscuri, always spared the Academy during their invasions of the country. It was walled in by Hipparchus and was adorned with walks, groves and fountains by Cimon (Plut. Cim. 13), who bequeathed it as a public pleasure-ground to his fellow-citizens. Subsequently the gaiden became the resort of Plato (q.v.), who had a' small estate in the neighbourhood. Here he taught for nearly fifty years till his death' in 348 13.0., and his followers continued to make it theirheadquarters. It was closed for teaching by Justinian in A». 529 along with the other pagan schools. Cicero borrowed the name. fer hisvilla near Puteoli, where he composed his dialogue The Academic Questions.

- The Platonic Academy (proper) lasted from the days of Plato to those of Cicero, and during its whole course there is traceable a distinct continuity of thought which justifies its examination as a real intellectual unit. On the other hand, this continuity of thought is by no means an identity. The Platonic doctrine was so far modified in the hantb of successive scholarchs that the Academy has been divided into either two, three or'five main sections (Sext. Empir. Pyrrh. Hyp. i. 220). Finally, in the days of Philo, Antiochus and Cicero, themetaphysical dogmatism of Plato had been changed into an ethical syncretism which combined elements from the Scepticism of Carneades and the doctrines‘of the Stoics; it was a change from a dogmatism which men found imposible to defend, to a probabilism which afforded a retreat from Scepticism and intellectual anarchy. Cicero represents at once the doctrine of the later Academy and the general attitude of Roman society when he says, “ My words do not proclaim the truth, like a Pythian priestess; but I conjecture what is probable, like a plain man; and where, I ask, am I to search for anything more than verisimilitude?” And again: “The characteristic of the Academy is never to interpose one’s judgment, to approve what seems most probable, to compare together different opinions, to see what may be advanced on either side and to leave one’s listeners free to judge without pretending to dogmatize.”

The passage from Sextus Empiricus, cited above, gives the general view that there were three academies: the first, or Old, academy under Speusippus and Xenocraxes; the second, or Middle, amdemy under Arcesilaus and Polemon; the third, or New, academy under Carneades and Clitomachus. Sextus notices also the theory that there was a fourth, that of Philo of Larissa and Charmidas, and a fifth, that of Antiochus. Diogenes Laertius says that Lacydes was the founder of the New Academy (i. 19, iv. 59). Cicero (dc Orat. iii. 18, 81c.) and Varro insist that there were only two academies, the Old and the New. Those who maintain that there is no justification for the five-fold division hold that the agnosticism of Carneades was really latent in Plato, and became prominent owing to the necessity of re— futing the Stoic criterion.

The general tendency of the Academic thinkers was towards practical simplicity, a tendency due in large measure to the inferior intellectual capacity of Plato’s immediate successors. Cicero (dc Fin. v. 3) says generally of the Old Academy: “ Their writings and method contain all liberal learning, all history, all polite discourse; and besides they embrace such a variety-of arts, that-no one can undertake any noble career without their aid. . . . In a word the Academy is, as it were, the workshop of every artist.” It is true that these men turned to scientific investigation, but in so doing'they-escaped from the high altitudes in which Plato thought, and tended to lay emphasis on the mundane side of philosophy. Of Plato’s originality and speculative power; of his poetry and enthusiasm they inherited nothing, f‘ nor amid all the learning which has been profusely lavished upon investigating their tenets'is there a single , deduction calculated vto elucidate distinctly ‘the character of their progress‘or regression” (Archer Butler, Last. on Ana. Phil. ii. 315). "

The modification'of Academic doctrine from Plato to Cicero may be indicated briefly under four heads.

(1) Plato’s own theory of Ideas was not accepted even by Speusippus and Xenocrates. They argued that the Good cannot be the origin of things, inasmuch as Goodness is only found as an attribute of things. Therefore, the idea of Good must be secondary to some'other more fundamental principle of existence. This unit Spcusippus attempted to find in the Pythagorean number-theory. From it-he deduoed three principles, one for numbers, one for magnitude, one for the soul. The Deity be conceived as that living force which rules all and resides everywhere. Xenocrates, though like Speusippus infected with Pythagoreanism, was the most faithful of Plato’s successors. He distinguist three spheres, the sensible, the intelligible, and a third compounded of the two, to which correspond respectively, sense, intellect and opinion (66£a). Cicero notes, however, that both speusippus and Xenocrates abandon the Socratic principle of hesitancy.

(2) Up to Arcesilaus, the Academy accepted the principle of finding a general unity in all things, by the aid of which a principle of certainty might -be found. ' Arccsilaus, however, broke new ground by attacking the very possibility of certainty. Socrates had said, “ This alone I know, that I know nothing." But Arcesilaus went farther and denied the possibility of even the Socratic minimum of certainty: “ I cannot know even


whether I know or not.” Thus from the dogmatism of the master the Academy plunged into the extremes of agnostic criticism.

(3) The next stage in the Academic succession was the moderate scepticism of Carneades, which owed its existence to his opposition to Chrysippus, the Stoic. To the Stoical theory of perception, the ¢avraaia Karahnrnm'], by which they expressed a conviction of certainty arising from impressions so strong as to amount to science, he opposed the doctrine of acatalepsia, which denied any necessary correspondence between perceptions and the objects perceived. He saved himself, however, from absolute scepticism by the doctrine of probability or verisimilitude, which may serve as a practical guide in life. Thus his criterion of imagination (¢av1'ao'ia) is that it must be credible, irrefutable and attested by comparison with other impressions; it may be wrong, but for the person concerned it is valid. In ethics he was an avowed sceptic. During his official visit to Rome, he gave public lectures, in which he successively proved and disproved with equal ease the existence of justice.

(4) In the last period we find a tendency not only to reconcile the internal divergences of the Academy itself, but also to con— nect it with parallel growths of thought. Philo of Larissa endeavours to show that Carneades was not opposed to Plato, and further that the apparent antagonism between Plato and Zeno was due to the fact that they were arguing from different points of view. From this syncretism emerged the prudent non-committal eclecticism of Cicero, the last product of Academic development.

For detailed accounts of the Academicians see SPEUSIPPUS, XENOCRATES, &c.; also Storm and NEOPLATONISM. Consult histories of philosophy by Zeller and Windelband, and Th. Gomperz, Greek, Thinkers, u. 270 (Eng. tr., London, 1905).

ACADEMY, ROYAL. The Royal Academy of Arts in London, to give it the original title in full, was founded in 1768, “ for the purpose of cultivating and improving the arts of painting, sculpture and architecture." Many attempts had previously been made in England- to form a society which should have for its object the advancement of the fine arts. Sir James Thornhill, his son-in-law Hogarth, the Dilettanti Society, made efforts in this direction, but their schemes were wrecked by want of means. Accident solved the problem. The crowds that attended an exhibition of pictures held in 1758 at the F oundling Hospital for the benefit of charity, suggested a way of making money hitherto unsuspected. Two societies were quickly formed, one calling itself the “ Society of Artists ” and the other the “ Free Society of Artists.” The latter ceased to exist in 1774. The former flourished, and in 1765 was granted a royal charter under the title of the “ Incorporated Society of Artists of Great Britain.” But though prosperous it was not united. _ A number of the members, including the most eminent artists of the day, resigned in 1768, and headed by William Chambers the architect, and Benjamin West, presented on 28th November in that year to George III., who had already shown his interest in the fine arts, a memorial soliciting his “ gracious assistance, patronage' and protection,” in “establishing a society for promoting the arts of design." The memorialists stated that the two principal objects they had in view were the establishing of “ a wellregulated school or academy of design for the use of students in the arts, and an annual exhibition open to all artists of distinguished merit; the profit arising from the last of these institutions ” would, they thought, “ fully answer all the expenses of the first,” and, indeed, have something over to be distributed “ in useful charities.” The king expressed his agreement with the proposal, but asked for further particulars. These were furnished to him on the 7th of December and approved, and on the 10th of December they were submitted in form, and the docu. ment embodying them received “his signature, with the words, ‘.‘ I approve of this plan; let it be put into execution.” This document, known as the “ Instrument,” defined under twentyseven heads the constitution and government of the Royal Academy, and contained the names of the thirty-six original members nominated by the king. Changes and modifications in the laws and regulations laid down in it have Of course been made, but none of them without the sanction of, the sovereign, and the “ Instrument ” remains to this day in all essential particulars the Magna Charta of the society. Four days after the signing of this document—on the 14th of December—twentyeight of the first nominated members met and drew up the Form of Obligation which-is still signed by every academician on receiving his diploma, and also elected a president, keeper, secretary, council and visitors in the schools; the professors being chosen at a further meeting held on the 17th. No time was lost in establishing the schools, and on the 2nd of January 1769 they ‘Were opened at some rooms in Pall Mall, a little eastward of the site now occupied by the‘Junior United Service Club, the president, Sir Joshua Reynolds, delivering on that occasion the first of his famous “ discourses.” The opening of the first exhibition at the same place followed on the 26th of April.

The king when founding the Academy undertook to supply out of his own privy purse any deficiencies between the receipts derived from the exhibitions and the expenditure incurred on the.schools, charitable donations for artists, &c. For twelve years he was called upon to do so, and contributed in all something over £5000, but in 1781 there was a surplus, and no further call has ever been made on the royal purse. gave the Academy rooms in what was then his own palace of Somerset House, and the schools and offices were removed there in 1771, but the exhibition continued to be held in Pall Mall, till the completion in 1780 of the new Somerset House, when the Academy took possession of the apartments in it which the king, on giving up the palace for government offices, had expressly stipulated should be provided. Here it remained till 183 7, when the government,requiring the use of these rooms, offered in exchange a portion of the National Gallery, then just erected in Trafalgar Square. _ The offer, which contained no conditions, was accepted. But it was not long before the necessity for a further removal became imminent. given by the government that the rooms occupied by the Arca

demy would be required for the purposes of the National Gallery,’ and that'they proposed to give the Academy £40,000 to provide,

themselves with a building elsewhere. Thematter slumbered, however, till 1858, when the question was raised in theHouse of Commons as to whether it would not be justifiable to turn the Academy out of the National Gallerywithoutimaking any provision for it elsewhere. Much discussion followed, and a royal commission was appointed in 1863 “to inquire into the present position of the Royal Academy in relation to the fine arts, and into the circumstances and conditions under which it occupies a portion of the National Gallery, &c.” In their report, which contained a large number of proposals and suggestions, some of them since carried out, the commissioners stated that they had ‘,‘ come to.the clear conclusion that the Royal Academy have no legal, but that they have a moral claim to apartments at the public expense." Negotiations had been already going on “between the government and the Academy for the appropriation to the latter of a portion of the site occupied by the recently

purchased Burlington House, on which the Academy offered to‘

erect suitable buildings at its own expense. The negotiations

' ware renewed in 1866, and in March in the following year a lease. , of old Burlington House, and a portion of the garden behind it,‘

was granted to the Academy for 999 years at a peppercorn rent, subject to the condition that “ the premises shall be at all times exclusively devoted to the purpose of the cultivation of the fine arts.” The Academy immediately proceeded to erect, on the garden portion of the site thus acquired, exhibition galleries and schools, which were opened in 1869, further additions being made in 1884. An Upper storey was also added to old Burlington . House, in which to place the diploma works, the Gibson statuary and other'works of art. Altogether the Academy, out of its accumulated savings, has spent on these buildings more than £160,000. They are its own property, and are maintained entirely at its expense. _ ,

The goVernment of the Academy was by the “ Instrument "_ vested in “ a president and eight other persons, who shall form

George III. also.

Already in 1850 notice was,


a council." Four of these were to retire every year, and the seats were to go by rotation to every academician. The number was increased in 1870 to twelve, and reduced to ten in 1875. The rules as to retirement and rotation are still in force. Newly elected academicians begin their two years’ service as soon as they have received their diploma. The council has, to quote the “Instrument,” “the entire direction and management of the business ” of the Academy in all its branches; and also the framing of new laws and regulations, but the latter, before coming into force, must be sanctioned by the general assembly and approved by the sovereign. The general assembly consists of the whole body of academicians, and meets on certain fixed dates and at such other times as the business may require; also at the request to the president of any five members. The principal executive officers of the Academy are the president, the keeper, the treasurer, the librarian and the secretary, all now elected by the general assembly, subject to the approval of the sovereign. The president is elected annually on the foundatfonday, 10th December, but the appointment is virtually for life. No change has ever been made in the conditions attached to this office, with the exception of its being now a salaried instead of an unsalaried post. The treasurership and librarianship, both oflices originally held not by election but by direct appointment from the sovereign, are now elective, the holders being subject to reLelection every five years, and the keepership is also held upon the same terms; while the secretaryship, which up to 1873 had always been filled like the other- ofiices by an academician, has since then been held by a layman. Other officers elected by the general assembly are the auditors (three academicians, one of whom retires every year), the visitors in the sch0015 (academicians and associates), and the professors of painting, sculpture and architecture—who must be members—and of anatomy and chemistry. There are also a registrar, and curators and teachers in the schools, who are appointed by the council. . ' i r The thirty-six original academicians Were named by George

‘III. Their successors have been elected, up to 1867, by academi

cians only—since that date by academicians and associates together. The original number was fixed in the “ Instrument " at forty, and has so remained. Each academician on his election has to present an approved specimen of his work—called his diploma work—before his diploma is submitted to the sovereign for signature. On receiving his diploma he signs the Roll of Institution as an academician, and takes his seat in the general assembly. The class of associates, out of whom alone the academicians can be elected, was founded in 1769—they were “to be elected from amongst, the exhibitors, and be entitled to every advantage enjoyed by the royal academicians, excepting that of having a voice in the deliberations or any share in the government of the Academy.” Those exhibitors who wished to become candidates had to give in their names at the close of the exhibition. This condition no longer exists, candidates having since 1867 merely to be proposed and seconded by members of the Academy. On election, they attend at a council meeting to sign the Roll of Institution as an associate, and receive a diploma signed by the president and secretary. In 1867 also associates were admitted to vote at all elections of members; in 1868 they were made eligible to serve as visitors in the schools, and in 1886 to become candidates for the professorships of painting, sculpture and architecture. At first the number of associates was limited to twenty; in 1866 the number was made indefinite with a minimum of twenty, and in 1876 the minimum was raised to thirty. Vacancies in the lists of academicians and associates caused by death or resignation can be filled up at any time within five weeks of the event, except in the months of August, September and October, but a vacancy in the associate list caused by election only dates from the day on which the new academician receives his diploma. The mode of election is the same in both cases, first by marked lists and afterwards by ballot. All who at the first marking have four or more votes are marked for again, and the two highest then go to the ballot. Engravers have always constituted a separate class, and up to 1855 they were admitted to the associateship only, the number, six, being in addition to the other associates; now the maximum is four, of whom not more than two may be academicians. A class of honorary retired academicians was established in 1862, and of honorary retired associates in 1884. The first honorary foreign academicians were elected in 1869. The honorary members consist of a chaplain, an antiquary, a secretary for foreign correspondence, and professors of ancient history and ancient literature. These posts, which date from the foundation of the Academy, have always been held by distinguished men.

Academy Schaols.—One of the most important functions of the Royal Academy, and one which for nearly a centur it dischar ed alone, was the instruction of students in art. The rat act, as as been shown, of the newly founded Academ was to establish schools —“ an Antique Academy," and a “ School or the Living Model " for painters, sculptors and architects. In the first year, 1769, no fewer than seventy-seven students entered. A school of painting was added in 1815, and special schools of scul ture and architecture in 1871. It would occu y too much space to ollow the various changes that have been ma e in the schools since their establishment. In one important respect, however, they remain the same, viz. in the instruction being gratuitous—no fees have ever been charged. U to the removal of the Academy to its present quarters the schoo s could not be kept permanently open, as the rooms occupied by them were wanted for the exhibition. They are now open all the year round with the exception of a fortnight at Christmas, and the months of August and September. They consist of an antique school, u per and lower schools of painting, a school of drawing from the liPe a school of modelling from the life and an architectural school. Admission is gained by submitting certain specimens of drawing or modelling, and the successful candidates, called probationers, have then to undergo a further test in the schools, on passing which they are admitted as students for three years. At the end of that time they are again examined, and if qualified admitted for a further term of two years. These examinations are held twice a year, in anuary and July. Female students were first admitted in 1860. T ere are many scholarshi 5, money prizes and medals to be gained by the various classes oFstudents during the time of studentship, includin travelling studentships of the value of £200 for one ear, gold an silver medals, and prizes varying from £50 to £10. here are permanent curators and teachers in all the schools, but the principal teaching is done by the visitors, academicians and associates, elected to serve in each school. The average cost of maintaining these schools, including salaries, fees, cost of models, prizes, books, maintenance of building, &c., is from £5000 to £6000 a year, apart from certain scholarships and prizes derived from moneys iven or be

ueathed for this purpose, such as the Landseer scho arshi s, the Creswick prize, the Armitage prizes and the Turner scho arship and gold medal.

Charities—Another of the principal objects to which the profits of the Royal Academy have been devoted has been the relief of distressed artists and their families. From the commencement of the institution a fund was set apart for this purpose, and subsequently a further sum was allotted to rovide pensions for necessitous members of the Academy and their widows. Both these funds were afterwards merged in the general fund, and various changes have from time to time been made in the conditions under which pensions and donations have been granted and in their amount. At the present time pensions not exceeding a certain fixed amount may be given to academicians and associates, sixty years of age, who have retired and whose circumstances show them to be in need, provided the sum given does not make their total annual income exceed a certain limit, and the same amounts can be given to their widows subject to the same conditions. No pensions are granted without very strict in uiry into the circumstances of the applicant, who is obliged to ma e a yearly declaration as to his or her income. The average annual amount of these pensions has been latterly about £2000. Pensions are also given according to the civil service scale to certain officers on retirement. It may be stated here that with the exception of these pensions and of salaries and fees for official services, no member of the Academy derives any pecuniary benefit from the funds of the institution. Donations to distressed artists who are or have been exhibitors at the Royal Academy, their widows and children under twenty-one years of age, are made twice a year in February and August. The maximum amount that can be granted to any one applicant in one donation is £100, and no one can receive a grant more than once a year. The average yearly amount thus expended is from £1200 to £1500. In addition to these charities from its general funds, the Academy administers for the benefit of artists, not members of the Academy, certain other funds which have been bequeathed to it for charitable pur oses, viz. the Turner fund, the Cousins fund, the Cooke fund, the Nliawton bequest and the Edwards fund (see below).

Exhibitions—The source from which have been derived the funds for carrying on the varied work of the Royal Academy, its schools, its charities and general cost of administration, and which has


enabled it to spend large sums on building, and provided it with the means of maintaining the buildings, has been the annual exhibitions. With the exception of the money eft by John Gibson, R.A., some of which was spent in building the gallery containing the statues and has-reliefs be ueathed by him, these exhibitions have provided the sole source 0 revenue, all other moneys that have come to the Academy having been either left in trust, or been constituted trusts, for certain s ecific purposes. The first exhibition in 1769 contained 136 works, 0 which more than one-half were contributed by members, and brought in £639: 17: 6. In 1780, the first year in which the recei ts exceeded t e expenditure, the number of works was 489, of whic nearly one-third were by members, and the sum received was £3069: Is. This increase continued raduall with fluctuations, and in 1836, the last year at Somerset ouse, t e number of works was 115 , and the recei ts were £5179: 195. No great addition to the num er of works ex ibited took place at Trafalgar Square, but the recei ts steadily grew, and their careful management enabled the Aca emy, when the time came for moving, to erect its own buildings and become no Ion er dependent on the government for a home. The greater space a orded by the galleries at Burlington House rendered it possible to increase t e number of works exhibited, which of late years has reached a total of over 2000, while the receipts have also been such as to provide the means for further building, and for a largely increased expenditure of all kinds. It may be noted that the number of works sent for exhibition soon began to exceed the space available. In 1868, the last year at Trafalgar Square, the number sent was 3011. This went on increasing, with occasional fluctuations, at Burlington House, and in the year 1900 it reached the number of 13,462. The annual winter exhibition of works by old masters and deceased British artists was begun in 1870. It was never intended to be a source of revenue, but ap reciation by the public has so far revented it from being a cause 0 {355. The summer exhibition of worlis by living artists opens on the first Monday in May, and closes on the first Monday in August. The winter exhibition of works by deceased artists opens on the first Monda in January, and closes on the second Saturday in March. The ga leries containing the di loma works, the Gibson statuary and other works of art are open aily, free.

Presidents of the Royal Academ .—Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1768— 1792; Benjamin West (resign ), 1792—1805; James Wyatt (president-elect), 1805; Benjamin West (re-elected), 1806—1820; Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1820—18 0; Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1830— 1850; Sir Charles Lock Eastla c, 1850—1865; Sir Francis Grant, 1866—1878; Frederick, Lord Lei hton of Stretton, 1878—1896; .Sir John Everett Millais, 1886; Sir dward John Poynter, 1896.

The library contains a out 7000 volumes, dealing with the history, the theory and the practice of the various branches of the fine arts, some of them of great rarity and value. It is open daily to the students and members, and to other persons on a proper introduction.

The trust funds administered by the Royal Academy are:—

The Turner and (J. M. W. Turner, R.A.), which provides sixteen annuities of 50 each, for artists of re ute not members of the Academy, also a biennial scholarship of 50 and a gold medal for a landscape painting. _ _

The Chantrey fund (Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A.), the income of which, paid over by the Chantrey trustees, is spent on pictures and scul ture. (See CHANTREY.)

T e Creswick and (Thomas Creswick, R.A.), which provides an annual rize of 30 for a landsca painting in oil.

The ooke fund (E. W. Cooke, .A.), which provides two annuities of £35 each for painters not members of the Academy, over sixty years of age and in need.

The Landseer fund (Charles Landseer, R.A.), which provides four scholarships of £40 each, two in inting and two in sculpture, tenable for two years, open, to stu ents at the end of the first two years of studentship, and given for the best work done during the second year.

The Armitage and (E. Armitage, R.A.), which providestwo annual prizes of £30 an £10, for a design in monochrome for a figure picture.

The Cousins fund (S. Cousins, R.A.), which providessevenannuities of £80 each for deserving artists, not members of the Academy, in need of assistance. ‘

The Newton bequest (H. C. Newton), which provides an annual sum of £60 for the indi ent widow of a inter.

The Bizo fund ( ohn izo), to be used in the scientific investigation into the nature 0 pigments and varnishes, &c.

The Edwards fund (W. J. Edwards), producing £40 a year for the benefit of poor artists or artistic engravers.

The Leighton bequest (Lord Leighton, P.R.A.), received from Mrs Orr and Mrs Matthews in memory of their brother, the income from which, about £300, is expendedon the decoration of public places and buildings.

The literature concerning the Royal Academy consists chiefly of pamphlets and articles of more or less ephemeral value. More serious works are: William Sandb , The History of the Royal Academy of Art: (London, 1862) (with rawn from circulation on a question of copyright); Rep0rt from the Select Committee on Arts and their Connexion with M anu actures, with the M inutcs of Evidence and Appendix (London, 1836) ; eport ojthe Royal Commission on the RoyalAcadcmy, with Minutes of Evidence and Appendix (London, 1863); Martin

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