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made her his concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef a “ fetva ” authorizing him to remove them in the interest of religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. El Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa. in 1095.
AUTHORITIES.—DOZ , Histoirc dc: Musulmans d'Espagne, Leiden,
1861; and Hisloria bbadidarum (Scriptorum Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. H.)
ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D' (1810—1897), and ARNAUD MICHEL D’ (1815—1893), two brothers notable for their travels in Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century. They were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815. The parents removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received a careful scientific education. In 18 3 5 the French Academy sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results being published at a later date (1873) under the title of Observations relatives a la physique du globe faites au Brésil el en Ethiopia The younger Abbadie spent some time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838. They visited various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known districts of Ennarea and Kafla, sometimes together and sometimes separately. They met with many difficulties and many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries. After collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their materials for publication. The younger brother, Arnaud, paid another visit to Abyssinia in 18 5 3. The more distinguished brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies relating both to his geographical results and his political intrigues. He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to Kaffa. But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, though wrong in his contention—hotly contested by Bekehthat the Blue Nile was the main stream. The topographical results of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in Géodésie d’Elhiopie, full of the most valuable information and illustrated by ten maps. 0f the Geographic de l’Ethiopie (Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published. In U n Catalogue raisorméde manuscrils éthiopicns (Paris, 18 59) is a. description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by Antoine. He also compiled various vocabularies, including a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the Latin version, in 1860. He published numerous papers dealing with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient inscriptions. Under the title of Rewnnaissances magnéliques he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red Sea and the Levant. The general account of the travels of the two brothers was published b Arnaud in 1868 under the title of Douze ans dam la H aute
lhiopie. Both brothers received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 18 50. Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in 1897, and bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million stars. His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.)
ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654P—1727), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Nay in Bern. He studied at Sedan, Saumur and Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of doctor in theology at the age of seventeen. After spending some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, where he had great success as a preacher, be accompanied Marshal
. Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became minister
of the French church in the Savoy, London. His strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Defense de la nation britannique, 1692) as well as in his history of the conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grands conspiration d’A nglelerre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe in Ireland. He died in London in 1727. Abbadie was a man of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known by his religious treatises, several of which were translated from the original French into other languages and had a wide circulation throughout Europe. The most important of these are T raité de la verité de la religion chrélienne (1684); its continuation, Traité de la divinité dc Jesus-Chris! (1689); and L’Arl de se connailre soi-méme (1692).
'ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian ’amora (q.v.) who flourished a. 279—320. ’Abbahu encouraged the study of Greek by Jews. He was famous as a collector of traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud.
ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of the 13th century. He is_also known as Yarhi from his birthplace (Heb. Yerah, Le. moonJune), and he further took the name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel. The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud. In Montpellier, where he lived from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and revelation. He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards collected under the title M inhal Kenaot, i.¢. “ Jealousy Offering ”) called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy. Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305. The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish rabbis. On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Phili IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he publishe the letters connected with the controversy. His subsequent history is unknown. Beside the letters, he was the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law.
Aurnon1r1ss.—Edition of the Minhal Kmaat by M. L. Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Le: rabbins francais, pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abraham ben Aderelh, pp. 15-54; Jewish EncycloPacdia, s.v. “ Abba Mari."
ABBAS I. (1813—1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty. As a. young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha (q.v.), his real or supposed uncle. The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali—who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,—Abbas succeeded to the pashalik. He has been generally described as a mere voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish gentleman of the old school. He was without question a reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his time shut up in his palace. He undid, as far as lay in his power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad. Among other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 men. He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering Egypt, but at the instance of the British government allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to Cairo. In July 18 54 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha.
ABBAS H. (1874- ), khedive of Egypt. Abbas Hilmi Pasha, great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892. When a boy he visited England, and he had an English tutor for some time in Cairo. He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna. In addition to Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic, and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and German. He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority at eighteen in cases of succession to the
throne. For some time he did not co~operate very cordially with Great Britain. He was young and eager to exercise his new power. His throne and life had not been saved for him by the
British, as was the case with his father. He was surrounded by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt to understand the importance of British counsels. He paid a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt, and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian affairs. The establishment of a sound system of native justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education, each received his approval and all the assistance he could give. He displayed more interest in agriculture than in statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah, near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created a similar establishment. He married the Princess Ikbal Hanem and had several children. Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899.
ABBAS I. (c. 1557—1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. r 586). In the midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in 1586. Determined to‘raise the fallen fortunes of his country, he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs, who occupied and harassed Khorasan. After a long and severe struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle near Herat in r 597, and drove them out of his dominions. In the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, or regained, a large extent of territory. By the victory he gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in r6rr; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year’s siege in 1623. In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah. When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus. Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in the administration of his kingdom. He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it. To foreigners, especially Christians, he showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his confidence. His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds of tyranny and cruelty. His own family, especially, suffered from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders.
See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir Robert Sherley, t‘s'c. (London, 1825); Sir C. R. Markham, General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, I874).
ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, the second‘of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan em
pire. The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D. 566—652), the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya. Throughout the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, their moral character and their administration in general, and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine jealousies among the Arabic and nonArabic subjects of the empire. In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD. 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu’l-Abbas as-Safl'fih, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab (750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph.
The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and manners. Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786—809) and Mamun (813— 8 3 3) were periods of extraordinary splendour. But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed rapidly. Independent monarchs established themselves in Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout), and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached. The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim (8 3 3—84 2). Their power steadily grew until Radi (934—941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b. Raik. Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258). The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Momwakkil III., who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.
See CALIPHATE (Sections B, 14 and C), where a detailed account of the dynasty will be found.
ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783—1833), prince of Persia, was a younger son of the shah, F eth All, but on account of his mother’s royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him. Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed ofiicers to reorganize his army. He was soon at war with Russia, and his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, anxious to checkmate one another in the East. Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous peace. He gained some successes during a war between Turkey and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his army, and a treaty was signed in 1823. His second war with Russia, which began in 182 5, was attended with the same want of success .as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some territory. When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the task died at Meshed in 1833. In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed Mirza, succeeded F eth Ali as shah. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of Tifiis, 50 m. S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65 m. E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped valley. It has hot sulphur baths (93§°—118§° Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.).
ABBAZIA, a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in tria, 56 m. S.E. of Trieste by rail. Pop. (1900) 2343. It is ;uated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at the at of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded by autiful woods of laurel. The average temperature is 5o° Fahr. winter, and 77° Fahr. in summer. The old abbey, San Giacomo lla Priluca, from which the place derives its name, has been nverted into a villa. Abbazia is frequented annually by about ,000 visitors. The whole sea-coast to the north and south of )bazia is rocky and picturesque, and contains several smaller nter-resorts. The largest of them is-Lovrana (pop. 513), situzd 5 m. to the south. ABBESS (Lat. abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot), the female perior of an abbey or convent of nuns. The mode of election, sition, rights and authority of an abbess correspond generally th those of an abbot ((1.1).). The office is elective, the choice ng by the secret votes of the sisters from their own body. The bess is solemnly admitted to her office by episcopal benediction, gather with the conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and ds for life, though liable to be deprived for misconduct. The mcil of Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years profession. Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedite of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending :n to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. a female an abbess is incapable of performing the spiritual ctions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot. She canordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate. In England vesses attended ecclesiastical councils, e.g. that of Becanfield 394, where they signed before the presbyters. ly Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks l nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions Trance and Spain, and even to Rome itself. At a later period, 1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the ernment of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female error. n the German Evangelical church the title of abbess (Aebtissin) in some cases—cg Itzehoe—survived to designate the heads bbeys which since the Reformation have continued as Slifle, collegiate foundations, which provide a home and an income unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, called canonesses monissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen. This office of abbess 1' considerable social dignity, and is sometimes filled by prines of the reigning houses. BBEVILLE. a town of northern France, capital of an arronement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 m. 1 its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m. N.W. of Amiens .he Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906) 18,971. ies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is built partly in island and partly on both sides of the river, which is .lized from this point to the estuary. The streets are narrow, the houses are mostly picturesque old structures, built of d, with many quaint gables and dark archways. The most irkable building is the church of St Vulfran, erected in the , 16th and 17th centuries. The original design was not pleted. The nave has only two bays and the choir is insigant. The facade is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant iic style, flanked by two Gothic towers. Abbeville has ral other old churches and an hetel-de-ville, with a belfry of : 3th century. Among the numerous old houses, that known 1e liaison de Francois I", which is the most remarkable, 5 from the 16th century. There is a statue of Admiral bet ((1. 1885) in the chief square. The public institutions dc tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of r-arbitrators, and a communal college. Abbeville is an rtant industrial centre; in addition to its old-established ifacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, sugar-making, ship-building locksmiths’ work are carried on; there is active commerce ain, but the port has little trade. Ibeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first 1rs in history during the 9th century. At that time belong) the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards governed by the ts of Ponthieu. Together with that county, it came into the ssion of the Alencon and other French families, and after
wards into that of the house of Castille, from whom by marriage it fell in 1 272 to Edward 1., king of England. French and English were its masters by turns till 143 5 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of Burgundy. In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XL, king of France, and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown.
ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (18 52— ), American painter, was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the rst of April 18 52. He left the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an illustrator. In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert Herrick. These, published in 1882, attracted much attention, and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith’s Slie Stoops to Conquer (1887), for a volume of Old Songs (1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of Shakespeare. His water-colours and pastels were no less successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink. Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours in 188 3. Among his water-colours are “ The Evil Eye ” (1877); “ The Rose in October” (1879); “ An Old Song ” (1886); “The Visitors "-(1890), and “ The Jongleur ” (1892). Possibly his best known pastels are “ Beatrice, ” “Phyllis,” and “ Two Noble Kinsmen." In 1890 he made his first appearance with an oil painting, “A May Day Mom,” at the Royal Academy in London. He exhibited “ Richard duke of Gloucester and the Lady Anne ” at the Royal Academy in 1896, and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in 1898. Apart from his other paintings, special mention must be made of the large frescoes entitled “The Quest of the Holy Grail,” in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many portraits elaborately grouped. The dramatic subjects, and the brilliant colouring of his oil pictures, gave them pronounced individuality among the works of contemporary painters. Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society, etc. He received first class gold medals at the International Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898, at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in 1905; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour.
ABBEY (Lat. abbatia; from Syr. abba, father), a monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A priory only differed from an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead of abbot. This was the case in all the English conventual cathedrals, e.g. Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot’s place, the superior of the monastery being termed prior. Other priories were originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost.
The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MONASTIcrsm) with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement. The formation of such communities in the East does not date from the introduction of Christianity. The example had been already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt.
In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the poor. Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution, drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The deserts of Egypt swarmed with the “cells” or huts of these anchorites. Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was the most celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and his power as an exorcist. His fame collected round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. The deeper he withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples became. They refused to be separated from him, and built their cells round that of their spiritual father. Thus arose the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living each in his own little dwelling, united together under one superior. Anthony,as Neander remarks (Church History, vol. iii. p. 316, Clark’s trans), “ without any conscious design of his own, had become the founder of anew mode of living in common, Coenobitism.” By degrees order was introduced in the groups of huts. They were arranged in lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a street. From this arrangement these lines of single cells came to be known as Laurae, Aaiipat, “ streets ” or “lanes. ”
The real founder of coenobian (Kowés, common, and files, life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 4th century. The first community established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt. Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 monks. Within fifty years from his death his societies could reckon 50,000 members. These coenobia resembled villages, peopled by a hard-working religious community, all of one sex. The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest character. Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H .12. iii. 14). contained three monks. They took their chief meal in a common refectory at 3 2.11., up to which hour they usually fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table before them. The monks spent all the time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual labour. Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 camel-drivers and I 5 tanners. Each separate community had its own oeconomus or steward, who was subject to a chief oeconomus stationed at the head establishment. All the produce of the monks’ labour was committed to him, and by him shipped to Alexandria. The money raised by the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the communities, and what was over was devoted to charity. Twice in the year the superiors of the several caenabia met at the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite (“ the chief of the fold,” from pévdpa, a fold), and at the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the year. The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian institution. We learn many details concerning those in the vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom’s writings. The monks lived in separate huts, Kakbfita, forming a religious hamlet on the mountain side. They were subject to an abbot, and observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their common meal, of bread and water only, when the day’s labour was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors.) Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms.
The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of space and convenience of access from one part of the community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium. Large piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls, capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which all the neces
area of between 3 and 4 acres. The longer side extends to a length of about 500 feet. There is only one main entrance, on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron doors. Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the Levant. There is a small poster-n gate at L. The enceinle comprises two large open courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister galleries of wood or stone. The outer court, which is much the larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory (G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a. two-storied guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks’ cells (II). In the centre of this court stands the catholicon or conventual church, a square building with an apse of the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed narthex. In front of the church stands a marble fountain (F), covered by a dome supported on columns. Opening from the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semicircular recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace
at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the hegumenos or abbot. This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells. St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede, also on Mount Athos. This enormous establishment covers at least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town. It lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince. The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables.
The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir, shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery.
Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development to Benedict of Nursia (born AD. 480). His rule was diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and s lendour. Few great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in England, France and Spain. The number of these monasteries founded between AD. 520 and 700 is
amazing. Before the Council of Constance, A.D. r415, no fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order alone. The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly arranged after one plan, modified where necessary (as at Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local circumstances. We 13VOJ10 existing examples of the earlier monasteries of the Benedictine order. They have all yielded to the ravages of time ind the violence of man. But we have fortunately preserved to “a.” us an elaborate plan of the great Swiss monastery of
St Gall, erected about AD. 820, which puts us in posiession of the whole arrangements of a monastery of the first :lass towards the early part of the 9th century. This curious and interesting plan has been made the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 1844) and by Professor Robert Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. v. pp. 86-117. To the latter we are indebted for the substance of the following description, as well as for the plan, reduced from his elucidated transcript of the original preserved in the archives of the convent. The general appearance of the convent is that of a town of isolated houses with treets running between them. It is evidently planned in com»liance with the Benedictine rule, which enjoined that, if possible, he monastery should contain within itself every necessary of life, 5 well as the buildings more intimately connected with the eligious and social life of its inmates. It should comprise a mill, bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accommodaion for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts within the VillIS, so as to obviate the necessity of the monks going outside ,5 limits.
FIG. 2.—Plan of Coptic Monastery.
A. Narthcx. B. Church.
The general distribution of the buildings may be thus described :— 'he church, with its cloister to the south, occupies the centre of a uadrangular area, about 430 feet square. The buildings, as in all reat monasteries, are distributed into groups. The church forms 1e nucleus, as the centre of the religious life of the community. n closest connexion with the church is the group of buildings p ropriated to the monastic life and its daily requirements—the rectory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room )r social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary )nference. These essential elements of monastic life are ranged bout a cloister court, surrounded by a covered arcade. aflording )mmunication sheltered from the elements between the various uildings. The infirmary for sick monks, with the physician's house nd physic garden, lies to the east. In the same group with the inrmary is the school for the novices. The outer school, with its headlaster's house against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside to convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, that u might have a constant eye over them. The buildings devoted to aspitality are divided into three groups,—one for the reception of istin uis ed guests, another for monks visiting the monastery, a lll'd or oor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are placed ) the rig t and left of the common entrance of the monastery,—the aspitium for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of re church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the r on the Hill] side next to the farm buildings. The monks are odged in a test-house built against the north wall of the church. The group of uildings connected with the material wants of the establishment is need to the south and west of the church, and is distinct] se arated om the monastic buildings. The kitchen, buttery andlofiihes are ached by a passage from the west end of the refectory, and are con:ctcd With the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still rther away. The whole of the southern and western sides is devoted r workshops, stables and farm-buildings. The buildin s, with some tceptions. seem to have been of one story only, an all but the lurch were probably erected of wood. The whole includes thirtyIree separate blocks. The church (D) is cruciform, with a nave of no bays, and a semicircular apse at either extremity. That to the est is surrounded by a semicircular colonnade, leavin an open paradise " (E) between it and the wall of the church. The whole
CHURCH. U. House for blood-letting. A. High altar. V. School. B. Altar of St Paul. W. Schoolmaster's lodgings. C. Altar of St Peter. X1X1. Guest-house for those of D. Nave. superior rank. E. Paradise. X,X,. Guest-house for the poor. FF. Towers. Y. Guest-chamber for strange monks. MONASTIC BUILDINGS. G_ (Homer~ MENIAL DEPARTMENT. H. Calefactory, with dormitory Z. Factory. over. a. Threshing-floor. I. Necessar . b. Workshops. k. Abbot's ouse. c, c. Mills. . Refectory. d. Kiln. L. Kitchen. e. Stables. M. Bakehouse and brewhouse. f. Cow-sheds. N. Cellar. g. Goat-sheds. O. Parlour. [over. h. Pig-sties. 1'. Sheep-folds. Pl. Scriptorium with library k, k, k. Servants' and workmen's P1. Sacrlsty and vestry. sleepin -chambers. Q. House of Novices—Lchapel; l. Gardener 5 house. 2. refectory; 3. calefac- m.m. Hen and duck house. tory; 4. dormitory; 5. n. Poultry-keeper's house. master’s room; 6. cham- 0. Garden. bers. p. Cemetery. [bread R. lnfirmary—I—6 as above in q. Bakehouse for sacramental the house of novices. 1. Unnamed in plan.
S. Doctor‘s house. T. Physic garden.
church has on its east side the " pisalis " or “ caleiacto " (H), the common sitting-room o! the brethren, warmed b flues neath the floor. On this side in later monasteries we invariab y find the chapterhouse, the absence of which in this plan is somewhat sur rising. lt appears, however, from the inscriptions on the plan itse i, that the north walk of the cloisters served for the pur ses of a chapter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long sides. Above the calefactory is the "dormitory" opening into the south transept oi the church, to enable the monks to attend the nocturnal services with