صور الصفحة

Archer Shee, The Life of Sir M. A. Shae, F.R.A. (London, 1860); C. R. Leslie, R.A., and Tom Taylor, Life and Times 0 Sir Joshua Reynolds, F.R.A. (London, 1865) hr]. E. Hodgson, R. ._ (the late), and Fred. A. Eaton, Sec. R.A., “ he Royal Academy in the Last Century," Art Journal, 1882—189}. But the chief sources of information on the sublect are t e minute-books of the council 'and of the general assembly, and the annual reports, which, however, only date from I859. (F. A. E.

ACADIAN, in geology, the name given by Sir I. W. Dawson in 1867 to a series of black, red and green shales and slates, with dark grey limestones, which are Well developed at St John, New Brunswick; Avalon in E. Newfoundland, and Braintree in E. Massachusetts. These rocks are of Middle Cambrian age and possess a Paradoxides fauna. They have been correlated with limestone beds in Tennessee, Alabama, Central Nevada and British Columbia (St Stephen).

See CAMBRIAN Svsram; also C. D. Walcott, Bull. U.S. Gaol. Surve , No. 81, 1891; and Sir J. W. Dawson, Acadian Geology, Ist e . 1855, 3rd ed. 1878.

ACADlE, or ACADIA, a name given by the French in 1603 to that part of the mainland of North America lying between the latitudes 40° and 46°. In the treaty of Utrecht (1713) the words used in transferring the French possessions to Britain were “ Nova Scotia or Acadia." See NOVA SCOTIA for the limits included at that date under the term.

ACANTHOCEPHALA. a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom. Its members are quite devoid of any mouth or alimentary canal, but have a well-developed body cavity into which the eggs are dehisced and which communicates with the exterior by

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

means of an oviduct. The size of the animals varies greatly, from forms a few millimetres in length to Giganlarhynchus gigar, which measures from IO to 65 cms. The adults live in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate, usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or crustacean, more rarely a small fish. ' The body is divisible into a. proboscis and a trunk with sometimes an intervening neck region. The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these books that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host. The hooks may be of two or three shapes. Like the body, the proboscis is hollow, and its cavity is separated from the body cavity by a. septum or proboscis sheath. T raversing the cavity of the proboscis are muscle-strands inserted into the tip of the proboscis at one end and into the septum at the other. Their contraction causes the proboscis to be invaginated into its cavity (fig. 2). But the whole proboscis apparatus can also be, at least partially, withdrawn into the body cavity, and this is efiected by two retractor muscles which run from the posterior aspect of the septum to the body wall (fig. 3).


The skin is peculiar. Externally is a thin cuticle; this covers the epidermis, which consists of a syncytium with no cell limits. The syncytium is traversed by a series of branching tubules containing fluid and is controlled by a few wandering, amoeboid nuclei (fig. 2). Inside the syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle fibres, and within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium. In their minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of Nematodes. Except for the absence of the longitudinal fibres the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but the fluid-containing tubules of the latter are shut off from those of the body. The canals of the proboscis open ultimately into a circular vessel which runs round its base. From the circular canal two sac-like diverticula called the

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

“ lemnisci ” depend into the cavity of the body (fig. 2). Each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty muscular coat. They seem to act as reservoirs into which the fluid of the tense, extended proboscis can withdraw when it is retracted, and from which the fluid can be driven out when it is wished to expand the proboscis.

There are no alimentary canal or specialized organs for circulation or for respiration. Food is imbibed through the skin from the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala live.

J. Kaiser has described as kidneys two organs something like minute shrubs situated dorsally to the generative ducts into which they open. At the end of each twig is a membrane pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.

The central ganglion of the nervous system lies in the proboscissheath or ~septum. It supplies the proboscis with nerves and gives 06 behind two stout trunks which supply the body (fig. 2). Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the complex retains the old name of “ retinaculum.” In the male at

a, The proboscis not fully exb, Proboscis-sheath. [panded. c, Retractor muscles of the prod, Cerebral ganglion. [boscis. e, Retinaculum enclosing a nerve. One of the retractors of the g, A lemniscus. (sheath.

least there is also a genital ganglion. Some scattered papillae may possibly be sense-organs.

The Acanthocephala are dioecious. There is a “stay " called the “ligament” which runs from the hinder end of the proboscissheath to the posterior end of the body. In this the two testes lie (fig. 3). Each opens in a vas deferens which bears three diverticula or vesiculae seminales, and three pairs of cement glands also are found which pour their secretions through a duct into the vasa deferentia. The latter unite and end in a penis which opens posteriorly.

The ovaries arise like the testes as rounded bodies in the ligament. From these masses of ova dehisce into the body cavity and float in its fluid. Here the eggs are fertilized and here they segment so that the young embryos are formed within their mother’s body. The embryos escape into the uterus through the “ bell,” a funnellike opening continuous with the uterus. Just at the junction of the “bell” and the uterus there is a second small opening situated dorsally. The “ bell ” swallows the matured embryos and passes them on into the uterus, and thus out of the body via the oviduct, which opens at one end into the uterus and at the other on to the exterior at the posterior end of the body. But should the “bell” swallow any of the ova, or even one of the younger embryos, these are passed back into the body cavity through the second and dorsal opening.

The embryo thus passes from the body of the female into the alimentary canal of the host and leaves this with the faeces. It is then, if lucky, eaten by some crustacean, or insect, more rarely by a fish. In the stomach it casts its membranes and becomes mobile, bores through the stomach walls and encysts usually in the bodycavity of its first and invertebrate host. By this time the embryo has all the organs of the adult perfected save only the reproductive; these'develop only when the first host is swallowed by the second or final host, in which case the parasite attaches itself to the wall of the alimentary canal and becomes adult. ' '

A curious feature shared by both larva and adult is the large size of many of the cells, e.g». the nerve cells and the bell.

O. Hamann has divided the group into three families, to which a fourth must be added. '

(i.) Fam. Echinorhynchidae. This is by far the largest family and contains the commonest species; the larva of Echinorhynchus proteus lives in Gammarus jmlcx and in small fish, the adult is common in many fresh-water fish: E. Polymorphus, larval host the crayfish, adult host the duck: E. angustatu: occurs as a larva in Asellus aquaticus, as an adult in the perch, pike and barbel: E. mriiliformis has for its larval host the larvae of the beetle Blap: mucronata, for its final host certain mice, if introduced into man it lives Well: E. acus is common in whiting: E. jamrigeus in the fin-whale, and E. strumnsus in the seal. A species named B. hominis has been described from a boy. ‘ ‘ ~ ~ 1

[ocr errors]

Fro. 3.—An optical section through a male Nearhynchu's clavaeceps, Zed. (from Hamann).

a, Proboacis.

b, Proboscis sheath.

c, Retractor of the pro


d, Cerebral ganglion.

f, f, Retracturs of the proboscis sheath._

g,’ g, Lemnisci, each- with two giant nuclei.

h, Space in sub-cuticular layer of the skin.

1, Ligament. '

m, m, Testes.

0, Glands on vas deferens.

p, Giant nucleus in skin.

9, Openingof vas deferens.

[merged small][graphic][merged small][ocr errors]

A, The larva of Echinorhynchur proleus from the body cavity of Phoxinus lawis, with the proboscis retracted and the whole still enclosed in a capsule.

B, A section through the same; a, the invaginated proboscis; b, proboscis sheath; c, beginning of the neck; d, lemniscus. Highly magnified (both from Hamann). king vulture, Sarcorhampus papa, and G. taeniodes in Dichelopus cristalus, a cariama. ‘

(iii.) Fam. Ncorhynchidae. Sexually mature whilst still in the larval stage. Neorhynchus clavaecepa in Cyprinus carpio has its larval form in the larva of Sialis lutaria and in the leech Nephelis octocula: N. agilis is found in Mugil auralus and M. cephalur.

(iv.) A pororhynchidae. With no proboscis. This family contains the single species Apororhynchus hemignalhi, found near the anus of Hemignalhus procerus, a Sandwich Island bird.

AUTHORITIES.—O. Hamann, 0. Jen. Zeitschr. xxv., 1891, p. r 13; 2001. Ana. xv., 1892, I ; J. Kaiser, Bibi. Z001. ii., 1893; A E. ghipley, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. xxxix., 1896; ibid, xlii., I899, p. 361; Villot, Zaal. Ans..viii., 1885, p. 19. ‘

(A. E. S.)

ACANTHUS (the Greek and. Latin name for the plant, connected with 6.x1'1, a sharp point), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Acanthaceae. The .species are natives of the southern parts of Europe and the warmer parts of Asia and Africa. The best-known is Acanlhus mollis (brankursine,"or bears’ breech), a common species throughout the Mediterranean

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

thus spinosus, is so called from its spiny mm“ from the body leaves. They are bold, handsome cavity of Phoxinushum plants, with stately spikes, 2 to 3 ft. (from_Hamann). Highly high, of flowers with spiny bracts. A. germ? 2' P523??? "toms, A. Ian/aims and A. longtfolms dunk; 8"" [immiin ' are broad-leaved species; A. spinasu:

and A. spinosissimus have narrower, spiny toothed leaves. In decoration, the acanthus was first reproduced in metal, and subsequently carved in stone by the Greeks. It was afterwards, with various changes, adopted in all succeeding styles of architecture as a basis of ornamental decoration. There are two types, that found in the Acanthux spinorus, which was followed by the Greeks, and that in the Acanthus mollis, which seems to have been preferred by the Romans.

' ACAPULCO, a city and port of the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 190 m. S.S.W. of the city of Mexico, Pop. (1000) 4032. It is located on a deep, semicircular bay, almost land-locked, easy of access, and with so secure an anchor. age that vessels can safely lie alongside the rocks that fringe the shore. It is thebest harbour on the Pacific coast of Mexico, . and it is a port of call for steamship lines running between Panama and San Francisco. The town is built on anarrow strip of low land, scarcely half a mile wide, between the shore line and the lofty mountains that encircle the bay. There is great natural beauty in the surroundings, but the mountains render the town difiicult of access from the interior, and give it an exceptionally hot and unhealthy climate. The effort to admit the cooling sea breezes by cutting through the mountains a passage called the Abra de San Nicolas had some beneficial effect. Acapulco was long the most important Mexican port on the Pacific,'and the only depot for the Spanish fleets plying between Mexico and Spain’s East Indian colonies from 1778 until the independence of Mexico, when this tradetwas‘lost. The town has been chosen as the terminus for two railway lines Seeking a Pacific port— the Interoceanic and the Mexican Central. The town suffered considerably from earthquakes in July and August 1909. There are exports of hides, cedar and fruit, and the adjacent district of ‘ Tabares produces cotton, tobacco, cacao, sugar cane, Indian corn, beans and coffee.

ACARNANIA, a district of ancient Greece, bounded on the W. by the Ionian Sea, on the N. by the Ambracian Gulf, on the E. and S. by Mt. Thyamus and the Achelous. The Echinades islands, off the S.W. coast, are gradually being joined up to

' the mainland. Its most populous region was the plain of the .Achelous, commanded by the principal town Stratus; communication with the coast was impeded by mountain ridges and lagoons. Its people long continued in semi-barbarism, having little intercourse with the rest of Greece. In the 5th century 13.0. with the aid of Athens they subdued the Corinthian factories on their coast. In 391 they submitted to the Spartan king Agesilaus; in 371 they passed under Thcban control. In the Hellenistic age the Acarnanians were constantly assailed by their Aetolian neighbours. On the advice of Cassander they made effective their ancient cantonal league, apparently after the pattern of Aetolia. In the 3rd century they obtained assistance from theIIllyrians, and formed a close alliance with Philip V. of Macedonia, whom they supported in his Roman wars, their new federal capital, Leucas, standing a siege in his interest. For their sympathy with his successor Perseus they were de— prived of Leucas and required to send hostages to Rome (167). The country was finally desolated by Augustus, who drafted its inhabitants into Nicopolis and Patrae. Acarnania took a prominent part in the national uprising of 1821; it is now joined with Aetolia as a nome. The sites of several ancient towns in Acarnania are marked by well-preserved walls, especially those of Stratus, Oeniadae and Limnaea.

AUTHonirrEs.—-Strabo vii. 7, x. 2; Thucydides; Polybius iv. 0; Livy xxXiii. 16-17; Corpus Inscr. Graerarum, no.~1" 9; .

bcrhummer, Akamanien im Allerlum (Munich, 1887); cuzay, Ml. Olympe e! l'Acamanle (Paris, 1860). (M. O. B. C.; E. GR.) ‘

ACARUS (from Gr. (impt, a mite), a genus of Arachnids, represented by the cheese mite and other forms.

ACASTUS, in Greek legend, the son of Pelias, king of‘Iolcus

‘in Thessaly (Ovid, M clam. viii. 306; Apollonius Rhodius i. 224; Pindar, Nemea, iv. 54, v. 26). He was a great friend of Jason, and took part in the Calydonian boar-hunt and the Argonautic expedition. After his father’s death be instituted splendid funeral games in his honour, which were celebrated by artists and poets, such as Stesichorus. His wife Astydameia (called Hippolyte in Horace, Odes, iii. 7. r7) fell in love with Peleus (qua), who had taken refuge at Iolcus, but when her advances were rejected accused him falsely to her husband. Acastus, to avenge his fancied wrongs, left Peleus asleep on Mount Pelion, having first hidden his famous sword. On awaking, Peleus was attacked by the Centaurs, but saved by Cheiron. Having rccovered his sword he returned to Iolcus and slew Acastus and Astydameia. Acastus was represented with his famous horses in the painting of the Argonautic expedition by Micon in the temple of the Dioscuri at Athens.


AGATALEPSY (Gr. &-, privative, and xdmhanfilivew', to seiZe), a term used in Scepticism to denote incomprehensibility.

ACAULESCENT (Lat. acaulescms, becoming stemless, from a, not, and audit, a stem), a term used of a plant apparently stemless, as dandelion, the stem being almost suppressed.

AOCA LARENTIA (not Laurentia), in Roman legend;v \. the wife of the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives ofhthe twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown intothe Tiber. She had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them Rom'ulus took his place, and with the remaining eleven founded the college of the Arval brothers (F ratres Arvales). The tradition that Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf has been explained by the suggestion that Larentia was called lupa (“ courtesan,” literally “ she-wolf ”) on accountvof her immoral character (Livy i. 4; Ovid, Farli, iii. 55). According to another account, Larentia was a beautiful girl, whom Hercules won in a game of dice (Macrobius i. 1'0; Plutarch, Romulus; 4, 5, Quaerl. Rom. 3 5; Aulus Gellius vi. 7). The god advised her to marry the first man she met in the street, who proved to be a wealthy Etruscan named Tarutius. She inherited all his property and bequeathed it to the Roman people, who out of‘ gratitude instituted in her honour a yearly festival called Larentalia (Dec. 2 3). According to some, Acca Larentia was the mother of the Lares, and, like Ceres, Tellus, Flora and others, symbolized the fertility of the earth—in particular the city lands and their cro s. .

Side M-ommsen, “ Die echte und die falsche Larentia," in Rb'mische Forsahungen, ii. 1879; E. Pals, Ancient Legends of Roman Hislvry (En . trans. 1906), whose views on the subject are criticized by W. Fowler in W. H. D. Rouse's The Year's Work in Classical Studies (1907); C. Pascal, Sludii di antichitd e Mitologia (1896).

ACCELERATION (from Lat. accelerarc, to hasten, ccler, quick), hastening or quickening; in mechanics, a term employedlto denote the rate at which the velocity of a body, whose motion is not uniform, either increases or decreases. (See Mecmmcs and HooocRAPn.)

ACCENT. The word “accent” has its origin in the Lat. accenlus, which in its turn is a literal translation of the Gr. 1rpoo'tg6la. The early Greek grammarians used this term for the musical accent which characterized their own language, but later the term became specialized for quantity in metre, whence comes the Eng. prosody. Besides various later developments of usage it is important to observe that “ accent ” is used in two different and often contrasted senses in connexion with language. In all languages there are two kinds of accent: (1) musical chromatic or pitch accent; (2) emphatic or' stress accent. The-former indicates differences in musical pitch between one soundrand another in speech, the latter the difference between one syllable and another which is occasioned by emitting the breath in the production of one syllable with greater energy than is employed for the other syllables of the same word»; These two senses, it is to be noticed, are difierent from the cemmon usage of the word in the statement thatsome one talks with a foreign or vwith a vulgar accent. In these cases, no doubt, both differences of intonation and difierences of stress may be included in the statement, but other elements are frequently no less marked, e.g. the pronunciation of t and d as real dentals, whereas the English sounds so described are really produced not against the teeth but against their sockets, the inability to produce the interdental lh whether breathed as in thin or voic'cd as in this and its representation by d or z, the production of 0:15 a'uniform sound instead of one ending as in English in a slight a sound, or such dialect changes as lydy (laidy) for lady. or loime for time (mime).

In different languages the relations between pitch and stress differ very greatly. In some the pitch or musical accent predominates. In such languages if signs are employed to mark the position of the chief accent in the word it will be the pitch and not the stress accent which will be thus indicated. Amongst the languages of ancient times Sanskrit and Greek both indicate by signs the position of the chief pitch accent in the word, and thesarne method has been employed in modern times for lan~ guages in which pitch accentis well marked, as it is, for example. in Lithuanian, the language still spoken by some two millions of people on the frontier between Prussia and Russia. in the neighbourhood of Konigsberg and Vilna. Swedish also has a well-marked musical accent. Modern Greek has changed from pitch to stress, the stress being generally laid upon the same syllable in modern as bore the pitch accent in ancient Greek.

In the majority of European languages, however, stress is more conspicuous than pitch, and there is plenty of evidence to show that the original language from which Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic and other languages of Europe are descended, possessed stress accent also in a marked degree. To the existence of this accent must be attributed a large part of the phenomena known as Ablaut or Gradation (see INDOEunorsau LANGUAGES). In modern languages we can see the same principle at work making Acton out of the 0. Eng. (AngloSaxon) 66-111" (oak-town), and in more recent times producing the contrast between New Town and Newton. In French, stress is less marked than it is in English, but here also there is evidence to show that in the development from Latin to French a very strong stress accent must have existed. The natural result of producing one syllable of a word with greater energy than the others is that the other syllables have a less proportion of breath assigned to them and therefore tend to become indistinct or altogether inaudible. Thus the strong stress accent existing in the transition period between Latin and French led to the curtailing of long Latin words like latroctnium or hospitdle into the words which we have borrowed from French into English as larceny and hotel. It will be observed that the first syllable and that which bears the accent are the two which best withstand change, though the strong tendency in English to stress heavily the first syllable bids fair ultimately to oust the e in the pronunciation of larceny. No such changes arise when a strong pitch accent is accompanied by a weaker stress accent, and hence languages like ancient Sanskrit and ancient Greek, where such conditions existed, preserve fuller forms than their sister languages or than even their own descendants, when stress takes the place of pitch as the more important element in accent.

In both pitch and stress accent different gradations may be observed. In pitch, the accent may be uniform, rising or falling. Or there may be combinations of rising and falling or of falling and rising accents upon the same syllable. In ancient Greek, as is well known, three accents are distinguished—(r) the acute ('), a rising accent; (2) the grave ('), apparently merely the indication that in particular positions in the sentence the acute accent is not used where it would occur in the isolated word; and (3) the circumflex, which, as its form (‘) shows, and as the ancient grammarians inform us, is a combination of the rising and the falling accent upon the same syllable, this syllable being always long. Different Greek dialects, however, varied the syllables of the word on which the accent occurred, Aeolic Greek, for example, never putting the acute on the last syllable of a word, while Attic Greek had many words so accented.

The pitch accent of the Indo-European languages was originally free, Le. might occur on any syllable of a word, and this condition of things is still found in the earliest Sanskrit literature. But in Greek before historical times the accent had become limited to the last three syllables of a word, so that a long word like the Homeric genitive ¢epopévoto could in no circumstances be accented on either of its first two syllables, while if the final syllable was long, as in the accusative plural ¢epoaévow, the accent could go back only to the second syllable from the end. As every vowel has its own natural pitch, and a frequent interchange between e (a high vowel) and o (a low vowel) occurs in the Indo-European languages, it has been suggested that e originally went with the highest pitch accent, while a appeared in syllables of a lower pitch. But if there is any foundation for the theory, which is by no means certain, its effects have been distorted and modified by all manner of analogical processes. Thus roun'w with acute accent and dalan with the acute accent on the preceding syllable would correspond to the rule, so would ahndés and thros, but there are many exceptions like 666s where the acute accent accompanies an 0 vowel. Somewhat similar


distinctions characterize syllables which are stressed. The strength of the expiration may be greatest either at the beginning, the end or the middle of the syllable, and, according as it is so, the accent is a falling, a rising, or a rising and falling one. Syllables in which the stress is produced continuously whether increasing or decreasing are called single-pointed syllables, those in which a variation in the stress occurs without being strong enough to break the syllable into two are called doublepointed syllables. These last occur in some English dialects, but are commonest in languages like Swedish and Lithuanian, which have a “ sing-song ” pronunciation. It is often not easy to decide whether a syllable is double-pointed or whether what we hear is really two-single-pointed syllables. There is no separate notation for stress accent, but the acute (’) is used for the increasing, the grave (‘) for the decreasing stress, and the circumflex (') for the rising and falling (increasing and decreasing) and (') for the opposite. A separate notation is much to be desired, as the nature of the two accents is so different, and could easily be devised by using 5 for the falling, (') for the rising stress, and '0' for the combination of the two in one syllable. This Would be clearer than the upright stroke ( ) preceding the stressed syllable, which is used in some phonetic works.

The relation between the two accents in the same language at the same time is a subject which requires further investigation. It is generally assumed that the chief stress and the chief pitch in a word coincide, but this is by no means certain for all cases, though the incidence of the chief stress accent in modern Greek upon the same syllable as had the chief pitch accent in ancient times suggests that the two did frequently fall upon the same syllable. On the other hand, in words like the Sanskrit saptd, the Gr. bra-6., the pitch accent which those languages indicate is upon a syllable which certainly, in the earliest times at least, did not possess the principal stress. For forms in other languages, like the Lat. septem or the Gothic sibun, show that the a of the final syllables in Sanskrit and' Greek is the representative of a reduced syllable in which, even in the earliest times, the nasal alone existed (see under N for the history of these so-called sonant nasals). It is possible that sporadic changes of accent, as in the Gr. m'yrryp compared with the Sanskrit mold, is owing to the shifting of the pitch accent to the same syllable as the stress occupied.

There is no lack of evidence to show that the stress accent also may shift its position in the history of a language from one syllable to another. In prehistoric times the stress in Latin must have rested upon the first syllable in all cases. Only on this hypothesis can be explained forms like peperci (perfect cf parco) and collido (a compound of loedo). In historical times, when the stress in Latin was on the second syllable from the end of the word if that syllable was long, or on the third syllable from the end if the second from the end was short, we should have expected to find ‘peparci and 'collaedo, for throughout the historical period the stress rested in these words upon the second syllable from the end. The causes for the change of position are not always easy to ascertain. In words of four syllables with a long penult and words of five syllables with a short penult there probably developed a secondary accent which in course of time replaced the earlier accent upon the first syllable. But the number of such long words in Latin is comparatively small. It is no less possible that relations between the stress and pitch accents were concerned. For unless we are to regard the testimony of the ancient Latin grammarians as altogether untrustworthy there was at least in classical Latin a well-marked pitch as well as a stress accent. This question, which had long slumbered, has been revived by Dr J. Vendryes in his treatise entitled Recherche: sur l’histoire et les efl'ets de l’intensité initiale en latin (Paris, 1902).

In English there is a tendency to throw the stress on to the first

llable, which leads in time to the modification of borrowed words.

hus throughout the 18th century there was a struggle going on over the word balcony, which earlier was pronounced balcony. Swift is the first author quoted for the pronunciation bdlcony, and

Cowper's balcény in “Igohn Gil in" is among the latest instancesof the old pronunciation. isregar ing the Latin quantity of ordtor and senator, En lish by throwing the stress on the first syllable has converted t em into érdtor and séndtor, while Scots la ers speak also of a crirdtor. How far French influence plays a part ere is not eas to say.

ides the accent of the syllable and of the word, which have been already discussed, there remains the accent of the sentence. Here the problem is much more complicated. The accent of a word, whether pitch or stress, may be considerably modified in the sentence. From earliest times some words have become parasitic or enclitic upon other words. Pronouns more than most words are modified from this cause, but conjunctions like the Gr. 're (“and "), the Lat. que, have throughout their whole history been enclitic upon the preceding word. A very im ortant word may be enclitic, as in English don t, shan't. It is to Be remembered that the unit of language is rather the sentence than the word, and that the form which is given to the word in the dictionary is very often not the form which it takes in actual speech. The divisions of words in speech are quite different from the divisions on the printed page. Sanskrit alone amongst languages has consistentl recognized this, and preserves in writin the exact combinations t at are spoken.

Accent, whether pitc or stress, can be utilized in the sentence to express a great variety of meanings. Thus in English a sentence like You rode to Newmarket yesterday, which contains five words, may be made to express five different statements by putting the stress upon each of the words in turn. By putting the stress on you the person addressed is marked out as distinct from certain others, by puttin it upon rode other means of locomotion to Newmarket are exclu ed, and so on. With the same order of words five interrogative sentences may also be expressed, and a third series of exclamatory sentences expressing anger, incredulity, &c., may be obtained from the same words. It is to be noticed that for these two series a different intonation, a different musical (pitch) accent appears from that which is found in the same words when employed to make a matter-of-fact statement.

In languages like Chinese, which have neither com und words nor inflection, accent plays a very important part. 5 the words are all monosyllabic, stress could obviously not be so important as pitch as a help to distinguish different senses attached to the same vocable, and in no other language is variety of pitch so well developed as in Chinese. In languages which, like English, show‘comparatively little pitch accent it is to be noticed that the sentence tends to develop a more musical character under the influence of emotion. The voice is raised and at the same time greater stress is generall employed when the speaker is carried away by emotion, thoug the connexion is not essential and strong emotion ma be expressed by a lowering as well as by a raisin of the voice. n either case, however, the stress will be greater t an the normal.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-—H. Sweet, Primer o Phonetics (r890, now in 3rd edition), § 6 5., History of English ound: (1888), § no ff., and other Works; . Sievers, Grundzdge der Phonetik (1893), 5832 ff.; 0. jespersen, Lehrbuch der Phonetik (1906 , an abbreviated erman translation of the author's larger work in anish, § 216 Ff. The books of Sievers and Jes rsen give (especially Sievers) full references to the literature of t e subject. For the accent system of the IndoEuropean languages see ' Betonung " in Brugmann's Grundn's: der vergleichenden Grammalik der indogermanischen Spwchemvolj. (1897) , or, with considerable modifications, his K was vergleichendc Grommahk der idg. Sprachcn (1902), §§ 32-65 and 343-350. (P. Gr.)

ACCEPTANCE (Lat. acceptors, frequentativc form of acciperc, to receive), generally, a receiving or acknowledgment of receipt; in law, the act by which a person binds himself to comply with the request contained in a bill of exchange (q.r.), addressed to him by the drawer. In all cases it is understood to be a promise to pay the bill in money, the law not recognizing an acceptance in which the promise is to pay in some other way, e.g. partly in money and partly by another bill. Acceptance may be' either general or qualified. A general acceptance is an engagement to pay the bill strictly according to its tenor, and is made by the drawee subscribing his name, with or without the word “ accepted,” at the bottom of the bill, or across the face of it. Qualified acceptance may be a promise to pay on a contingency occur— ring, ¢.g. on the sale of certain goods consigned by the drawer to the acceptor. No contingency is allowed to be mentioned in the body of the bill, but a. qualified acceptance is quite legal, and equally binding with a general acceptance upon the acceptor when the contingency has occurred. It is also qualified acceptance where the promise is to pay only part of the sum mentioned in the bill, or to pay at a different time or place from those specified. As a qualified acceptance is so far a disregard of the drawer's order, the holder is not obliged to take it; and if he chooses to take it he must give notice to antecedent parties, acting at his own risk if they dissent. In all cases acceptance involves the signature of the acceptor either by himself or by


some person duly authorized on his behalf. A bill can be accepted in the first instance only by the person or persons to whom it is addressed; but if he or they fail to do so, it may, after being protested for non-acceptance, be accepted by some one else “supra protest,” for the sake of the honour of one or more of the parties concerned in it, and he thereupon acquires a claim against the drawer and all those to whom he could have resorted.

ACCEPTILATION (from Lat. acceplilalio), in Roman and Scots law, a verbal release of a verbal obligation. This formal mode of extinguishing an obligation contracted verbally received its name from the book-keeping term acceplilatio, entering a receipt, Le. carrying it to credit. The words conveying the release had to correspond to, or strictly cover, the expressed obligation. Figuratively, in theology, the word acceptilation means free remission or forgiveness of sins.

ACCES (Lat. accessus), approach, or the means of approaching. In law, the word is used in various connexions. The presumption of a child’s legitimacy is negatived if it be proved that a husband has not had access to his wife within such a period of time as would admit of his being the father. (See LacrrrMACY.) In the law of easements, every person who has-land adjoining a public road or a public navigable river has a right of access to it from his land. So, also, every person has a right of access to air and light from an ancient window. For the right of access of parents to children under the guardianship of the court, see INFANT.

ACCESSION (from Lat. accedere, to go to, to approach), in law, a method of acquiring property adopted from Roman law, by which, in things that have a close connexion with or dependence on one another, the property of the principal draws after it the property of the accessory, according to the principle, accessio cede! principali. Accession may take place either in a natural way, such as the growth of fruit or the pregnancy of animals, or in an artificial way. The various methods may be classified as (1) land to land by accretion or alluvion; (2) moveables to land (see Fix-mass); (3) moveables to moveables; (4) moveables added to by the art or industry of man; this may be by specification, as when wine is made out of grapes, or by confusion, or commixture, which is the mixing together of liquids or solids, respectively. In the case of industrial accession ownership is determined according as the natural or manufactured substance is of the more importance, and, in general, compensation is payable to the person who has been dispossessed of his property.

In a historical or constitutional sense, the term “ accession ” is applied to the coming to the throne of a dynasty or line of sovereigns or of a. single sovereign.

“ Accession ” sometimes likewise signifies consent or acquiescence. Thus, in the bankruptcy law of Scotland, where there is a. settlement by a trust-deed, it is accepted on the part of each creditor by a “ deed of accession.”

ACCESSORY, a person guilty of a felonious offence, not as principal, but by participation; as by advice, command, aid or concealment. In certain crimes, there can be no accessories; all concerned being principals, whether present or absent at the time of their commission. These are treason, and all offences below the degree of felony, as specified in the ()fl'ences against the Person Act 1861.

There are two kinds of accessories—before the fact, and after it. The first is he who commands or procures another to commit felony, and is not present himself; for if he be present, he is a principal. The second is he who receives, harbours, assists, or comforts any man that has done murder or felony, whereof he has knowledge. An accessory before the fact is liable to the same punishment as the principal; and there is now indeed no practical difference between such an accessory and a principal in regard either to indictment, trial or punishment. Accessories after the fact are in general punishable with imprisonment (with or without hard labour) for a period not exceeding two years, but in the case of murder punishable by penal servitude for life, or not less than three years, or by imprisonment (with or without hard labour) to the extent of two years.

« السابقةمتابعة »