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readiness. A passage at the other end leads to the “ necessarium " (I), a portion of the monastic buildings always planned With extreme care. The southern side is occupied by the “ refectory " (K), from the west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen (L) is reached, This is separated from the main buildin s of the monastery, and is connected by a long passa e with a buil ing containing the bakehouse and brewhouse (M), and t e sleeping-rooms of the servants._ The upper story of the refectory is the “ vestiarium," where the ordinary clot es of the brethren were kept. On the western side of the cloister is another two-story building (N). The cellar is below, and the larder and store-room above. Between this buildin and the church, opening by one door into the cloisters, and by anot er to the outerpart of the monastery area, is the “ rlour " for interviews with visitors from the external world (0). n the eastern side of the north transept is the “ scriptorium " or writing-room (Pl)| with the library above:

To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprisin two miniature conventual establishments. each complete in itsel . Each has a covered cloister surrounded by the usual buildings, 1.e. refecto , dormitory, &c., and a church or chapel on one side, placed back to ack. A detached building belonging to each contains a bath and a kitchen. One of these diminutive convents is appropriated to the “ oblati " or novices (Q), the other to the sick monks as an “ infirmary " (R). _

The “ residence of the physicians " (S) stands contiguous to the infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east corner of the monastery. Besides other rooms, it contains a drug store, and a chamber for those who are dangerously ill. The “ house for bloodletting and purging " adjoins it on the west (U). _

The “ outer sch001." to the north of the convent area, contains a lar e schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's house (W) is o posite, built against the side wall of the church. The two “ hospitia ' or “ guest-houses " for the entertainment of strangers of different degrees (X, X,) comprise a large common chamber or refectory in the centre, surrounded by sleeping-apartments. Each is rovided with its own brewhouse and bakehouse, and that for travel ers of a superior order has a kitchen and storeroom, with bedrooms for their servants and stables for their horses. There is also an “ hospitium " for strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y).

Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the convent area to the south. stands the “ factory " (Z), containing workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, sellarii), cutlets and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, curriers, fullers, smiths and goldsmiths, with their dwellings in the rear. On this side we also find the farmbuildin s, the large granary and threshin -floor (a), mills (c), malthouse d). Facing the west are the stab es (e), ox-sheds (f), goatstables (g), piggeries (h), sheep-folds (1'), together with the servants' and labourers quarters (It). At the south—east corner we find the hen and duck house, and poultry- ard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (1:). Hard by is the kitchen garden (a), the beds bearing the names of the vegetables rowing in them, onions, garlic, celery, lettuces, poppy, carrots, ca bages, &c., eighteen in all. ln the same way the physic garden presents the names of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery (9) those of the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there.

A curious bird’s-eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and its annexed conventual buildings, taken about I 16 5, is preserved in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College, Camisg'fi bridge. As elucidated by Professor Willis,l it exhibits Cathedral, the plan of a great Benedictine monastery in the 12th century, and enables us to compare it with that of the 9th as seen at St Gall. We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to determine with precision the disposition of the various buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist. From some local reasons, however, the cloister and monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more commonly the case, on the south of the church. There is also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at St Gall.

The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate groups. The church forms the nucleus. In immediate contact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the group of buildings devoted to the monastic life. Outside of these, to the West and cast, are the “ halls and chambers devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, travellers, pilgrims or paupers.” To the north a large open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, intentionally placed as remote as possible from the

l The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of the

Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury. By the Rev. Robert Willis. Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, l869.


conventual buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bake— house, brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay servants of the establishment. At the greatest possible distance from the church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is the eleemosynary department. The almanry for the relief of the poor, with a great hall annexed, forms the paupers’ hospitium.

The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted to monastic life. This includes two cloisters, the great cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with the daily life of the monks,——the church to the south, the refectory or fratcr-house here as always on the side opposite to the church, and farthest removed from it, that no sound or smell of eating might penetrate its sacred precincts, to the east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer to the west. To this officer was committed the provision of the monks’ daily food, as well as that of the guests. He was, therefore, appropriately lodged in the immediate vicinity of the refectory and kitchen, and close to the guest-hall. A passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm monks. Eastward of this cloister extend the hall and chapel of the infirmary, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking out into the green court or herbarium, lies the “ pisalis ” or “ calefactory,” the common room of the monks. At its north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman hall, 14 5 ft. long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats. It was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and health, a stream of water running through it from end to end. A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, but outside the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected with it: to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft. square, surmounted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the butteries, pantrics, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and after taking food.

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three groups. The prior’s group “ entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him.” The cellarer's buildings were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors of the middle class were hospitany entertained. The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two.

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they can be traced, with those described above. The cloister and

monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. min Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, Abbey,

was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the

eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south transcpt. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the cloister. The small cloister lies to the south-east of the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the remains of the infirmary with the table hall, the refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers. The abbot’s house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance, close to the inner gateway. Considerable portions of this remain, including the abbot’s parlour. celebrated as “ the Jerusalem Chamber,” his hall, now used for the Westminster King’s Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond.

St Mary’s Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed. exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three York, sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the fourth side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now the rch of St Olaf (W), in which the new-comers paid their devo5 immediately on their arrival. Near the gate to the south the guest-hall or hospitium (T). The buildings are comely ruined, but enough remains to enable us to identify the 1d cruciform Church (A), the Cloister-court with the chapterse (B), the refectory (I), the kitchen-court with its offices 0, O) and the other principal apartments. The infirmary perished completely.

)me Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements, :ndent upon local circumstances, e.g. the dormitory of "cester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the iter, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of

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ial, over the east walk; but, as a general rule, the arrange; deduced from the examples described may be regarded 'ariable.

: history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay evival. With growth in popular esteem came increase in 'ial wealth, leading to luxury and worldliness. The first nus ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was relaxed, Dy the 10th century the decay of discipline was so complete Ince that the monks are said to have been frequently uninted with the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that vvere bound by any rule at all. The reformation of abuses Illy took the form of the establishment of new monastic ;, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modificaIf the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of


these reformed orders was the Clum'ac. This order took its name from the little village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W. of MACon, near which, about A.D. 909, a reformed Benedictine abbey was founded by William, duke of Aquitaine and count of Auvergne, under Berno, abbot of Beaume. He was succeeded by Odo, who is often regarded as the founder of the order. The fame of Cluny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in large numbers, all owing allegiance to the “ archabbot,” established at Cluny. By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000. The monastic establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, A.D. 124 5, Pope Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve cardinals,


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a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), and three of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, count of Flanders and emperor of Constantinople, the duke of Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the whole party, with their attendants, were lodged within the monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 in number. Nearly the whole of the abbey buildings, including the magnificent church, were swept away at the Close of the 18th century. When the annexed ground-plan was taken, shortly before its destruction, nearly all the monastery, with the exception of the church, had been rebuilt.

The Church, the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast dimensions. It was 656 ft. by 130 ft. wide. The nave was 102 ft. and the aisles 60 ft. hi h. The nave (G) had double vaulted aisles on either side. Like incoln, it had an eastern as well as a western transept, each ‘ furnished with apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 ft. long, and the eastern 12 ft. The choir terminated in a semicircular apse (F), surround by five chapels, also semicircular. The western entrance was a proached by an ante-church, or narlhex (B), itself an aislcd church an0 mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately fli ht of steps bearing a large stone cross. To the south of the church ay the Cloister-court (H), of immense size, placed much farther to the west than is usually the

case. On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an immense building, 100 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, accommodatin six ion ‘tudinal and three transverse rows of tables. It was adorne with t e portraits of the chief benefactors of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects. The end wall displayed the Last Judgment. We are unhappil unable to identiiy any other of the principal buildings (N). The a bot's residence ( ), still partly standin , ad'oined the entrance-gate. The guest-house (L) was close by. The akehouse (M), also remaining, is a detached building of immense size.

The first English house of the Cluniac order was that of Lewes, founded by the earl of Warren, c. AD. 1077. Of this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist. The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, Shropshire. Ground-plans of both are given in Britton's Architectural Antiquities. They show several departures from the Benedictine arrangement. In each the prior’s house is remarkably perfect. All Cluniac houses in England were French colonies, governed by priors of that nation. They did not secure their independence nor become “ abbeys ” till the reign of Henry VI. The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short-lived. The celebrity of this, as of other orders, worked its moral ruin. With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac foundations became as worldly in life and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed.

The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, and a cubm"_ longer and more honourable existence. Owing its real

origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a. native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), AD. 1116. The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself 'to the churches and other buildings erected by them. The characteristic of the Cistercian abbeys was the extremest simplicity and a studied plainness. Only one tower—a central one —was permitted, and that was to be very low. Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets were prohibited. The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with stained glass. All needless ornament was proscribed. The crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of iron. The renunciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that met the eye. The same spirit manifested itself in the choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the more did it please their rigid mood. But they came not merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cistercian monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered valleys. They always stand on the border of a stream; not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend over it. These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep morasscs, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features. The “ bright valley,” Clara Valli: of St Bernard, was known as the “valley of Wormwood,” infamous as a den of robbers. “ It was a savage dreary solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his companions were reduced to live on beech lcaves."—(Milman’s Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.)

All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan. The mlrvmx_ general arrangement and distribution of the various

buildings, which went to make up one of these vast establishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's own abbey of Clairvaux, which is here given. It will be observed that the abbey precincts are surrounded by a strong wall, fur~


Baglllh (Janina.


nished at intervals with watch-towers and other defensive works. The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the use of the oflices and workshops.

The precincts are divided across the centre by a wall, running from N. to S., into an outer and inner ward,—the former containing the menial, the latter the monastic buildings. The precincts are entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower ward. Here the barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops and workmen's lodgings were placed, without may regard to symmetry, convenience being the only consideration. A vancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separatlng the

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outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording communication between the two. On passing through the gateway, the outer court of the inner ward was entered, with the western facade of the monastic church in front. Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot's house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house (F). On the other side of the court Were the stables, for the accommodation of the horses of the guests and their attendants (H). The church occupied a central position. To the south was the great Cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to the east the smaller Cloister, opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged monks. Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish. The large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct toany ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these vast establishments, were placed outsidetthe abbey walls.

Plan No. 2 furnishes the ichnography of the distinctly monastic buildings on a larger scale. _ The usually unvarying arran ement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept this as a type of t e monasteries of this order. The church (A) is'the chief feature. It consists vast nave of eleven ba s, entered by a narthex, with a transept short apsidal choir. ( t ma be remarked that the eastern limb ll unaltered Cistercian churc es is remarkably short, and usually are.) To the east of each limb of the transept are two 5 uare )els, divided accordin to Cistercian rule b solid walls. ciqine ating chapels, similarFy divided, surround t e apse. The stalls 10 monks, forming the ritual choir, occup the four eastern bays 1e nave. There was a second range oystalls in the extreme ern bays of the nave for the fratres conversi, or lay brothers. To south of the church, so as to secure as much sun as possible, :loister was invariably placed, except when local reasons forbade Round the cloister (B) were ranged the buildings connected with nonks’ daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened out of :ast walk of the cloister in a line with the south transept. In

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:ian houses this was quadrangular, and was divided by pillars ches into two or three aisles. Between it and the transept we 0 sacristy (X), and a small book-room (Y), armariolum, where ithers deposited the volumes borrowed from the library. On ler side of the chapter-house, to the south, is a passage (D) micating with the courts and buildings beyond. This was mes known as the Parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the {e of conversation here. Here also, when discipline became , traders, who had the liberty of admission, were allowed to ‘ their goods. Beyond this we often find the calefaclon'um or 'm—an apartment warmed by flues beneath the pavement, 1he brethren, half frozen during the night offices, betook them1fter the conclusion of lauds, to ain a little warmth, grease indals and get themselves ready or the work of the day. In n before us this apartment (E) opens from the south cloister idjoining the refectory. The place usually assigned to it is rd by the vaulted substructure of the dormitory (Z). The dormi


tory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the cole actory and chapter-house, and joined the south transe t, where a flig t of steps admitted the brethren into the church or nocturnal services. Opening out of the dormitory was alwa s the necessarium, planned with the greatest re ard to health and c eanliness, a water-course invariabl running rom end to end. The refectory opens out of the south cloister at G. The position of the refectory is usually a marked oint of difference between Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys. In t e former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister farthest removed from it. In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles. Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at dinner-time. The buildings belonging to the material life of the monks la near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to the S.\V. \ ’ith a distinct entrance from the outer court was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery and larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running water. Farther to the west, projecting beyond the line of the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments (SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was the dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various workshops, which convenience required to be banished to the outer precincts. a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.

Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to the small cloister (l), o ening from the north side of which were eight small cells, assi ne to the scribes employed in copying works for the library, w ich was placed in the up er story, accessible by a turret staircase. To the south of the small c oistera long hall will be noticed. This was a lecture-hall, or rather a hall for the religious disputations customary amon the Cistercians. From this cloister opened the infirmary (K), With its hall, chapel, cells, blood-letting house and other dependencies. At the eastern verge of the vast roup of buildings we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third 0 oister near the novices’ quarters and the original uest-house (M). Detached from the great mass of the monastic edi ces was the original abbot's house (N), with its dining-hall (P). Closel adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of the whole establishment should be constantly over those who stood the most in need of his watchful care,——those who were training for the monastic life, and those who had worn themselves out in its duties,—was a fourth cloister (O), with annexed buildings, devoted to the aged and infirm members of the establishment. The cemetery, the last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H). _

It will be seen from the above account that the arrangement of a Cistercian monastery was in accordance with a clearly defined system, and admirably adapted to its purpose. The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriculturists and employers of labour. Advancing into the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren, —the kitchen, cellars, &c.,—form a court of themselves outside the cloister and quite detached from the church. The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging to the professional life of the brethren surround the great cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes’ cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the literary life of the community. The requirements of sickness and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary cloister and that for the aged and infirm members of the establishment. The same group contains the quarters of the novices.

This stereotyped arrangement is further shown by the illustration of the mother establishmet of Citeaux.

A cross (A), planted on the high road, directs travellers to the te of the monastery, reached by an avenue of trees. On one side 0 the gate-house (B) isa long buildin (C), probably the almonry, mm with a dormitory above for the ower class of guests. On the ' other side is a chapel(D). As soon as the porter heard a stranger knock at the gate,he rose, saying, Deo grotias,the opportunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he welcomed the new arrival with a blessing—Benedicile. He fell on his knees before him, and then went to inform the abbot. However important the abbot's occupations might be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent. He also threw himself at his guest's feet, and conducted him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gate. After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to the care of the brother hospitaller, whOse duty It was to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the inner gatehouse (E). ThlS inner ate conducted into the base court (T), round which were placed the Earns, stables, cow-sheds, &c. On the eastern side stood the dormitory of the lay brothers, fratres conversi (G), detached from the cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At H, also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest-house. For these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into the church (5). The large cloister, with its surrounding arcades, is seen at V. On the south end

rojects the refectory (K), with its kitchen at l, accessible from the Base court. The long gabled building on the east side of the cloister contained on' the ground floor the chapter-house and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above (M), communicating with the south transept of the church. At L was the staircase to the dormitory. The small cloister is at W, where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase. At R we see a portion of the infirmary. The whole precinct is surrounded by a strong buttressed wall (XXX), pierced with arches,

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throu h which streams of water are introduced. It will be noticed that t e choir of the church is short, and has a square end instead of the usual apse. The tower, in accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very low. The windows throughout accord with the studied simplicity of the order.

The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, Kirkstall, Tintern, Netley, &c., were mainly arranged after the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example, we give the ground" plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one of the best pre

served. The church here is of the Cistercian type,

with a short chancel of two squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most studied plainness. The windows are unornamented, and the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the south (4) occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter-house (5), between which and the south transept is a small sacristy (3),

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and on the other side two small apartments, one of which was probably the parlour (6). Beyond this stretches southward the calefactory or day-room of the monks (X4). Above this whole range of building runs the monks’ dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the other end were the necessaries. On the south side of the cloister we have the remains of the old reiectory (11), running, as in Benedictine houses from east to west, and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual in Cistercian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to this apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry and buttery. The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is, as usual, 'occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Extending from the

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south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary group of considerable extent. These have been identified either with the hospitium or with the abbot’s house, but they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more usually found. The hall was a very spacious apartment, measuring 83 ft. in length by 48 ft. 9 in. in breadth, and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds lay between the monastery and the river to the south. The abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west. The millpool may be distinctly traced, together with the gowt or mill stream.

Fountains Abbey, first founded AD. 1132, is one of the largest_ and best preserved Cistercian houses in England. But the earlier buildings received considerable additions and P

. . . . onntalal alterations in the later perlod of the order, causmg Am” deviations from the strict Cistercian type. The church stands a short distance to the north of the river Shall, the

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