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“ boiled " after being formed. It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself. In breaking up and sending out the carbide for commercial work, packed in air-tight drums, the crust is removed by a sand blast. A statement of the amount made per kilowatt hour may be misleading, since a certain amount of loss is of necessity entailed during this process. For instance, in practical working it has been found that a furnace return of 0-504 lb per kilowatt hour is brought down to 0-406 lb per kilowatt hour when the material has been broken up, sorted and packed in air-tight drums. In the tapping process a fixed crucible is used, lined with carbon, the electrode is nearly as big as the crucible and a much higher current density is used. The carbide is heated to complete liquefaction and tapped at short intervals. There is no unreduced material, and the process is considerably simplified, while less expensive plant is required. The run carbide, however, is never so rich as the ingot carbide, since an excess of lime is nearly always used in the mixture to act as a flux, and this remaining in the carbide lowers its gasyielding power. Many attempts have been made to produce the substance without electricity, but have met with no commercial success.
Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2-22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent colours. It can be kept unaltered in dry air, but the smallest trace of moisture in the atmosphere leads to the evolution of minute quantities of acetylene and gives it a distinctive odour. It is infusible at temperatures up to 2000“ C., but can be fused in the electric arc. When heated to a temperature of 245° C. in a stream of chlorine gas it becomes . incandescent, forming calcium chloride and liberating carbon, and it can also be made to burn in oxygen at a dull red heat, leaving behind a residue of calcium carbonate. Under the same conditions it becomes incandescent in the vapour of sulphur, yielding calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide; the vapour of phosphorus will also unite with it at a red heat. Acted upon by water it is. at once decomposed, yielding acetylene and calcium hydrate. Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5~8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation. The volume of gas obtained, however, depends very largely upon the form of apparatus used, and while some will give the full volume, other apparatus will only yield, with the same carbide, 3% feet. The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high prolmm. portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from
it. Although at the present time a marvellous im— provement has taken place all round in the quality of the carbide produced, the acetylene nearly always contains minute traces of hydrogen, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, phos— phuretted hydrogen, silicon hydride, nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes minute traces of carbon monoxide and dioxide. The formation of hydrogen is caused by small traces of metallic calcium occasionally found free in the carbide, and cases have been known where this was present in such quantities that the evolved gas contained nearly 20 % of hydrogen. This takes place when in the manufacture of the carbide the material is kept too long in contact with the arc, since this overheating causes the dissociation of some of the calcium carbide and the solution of metallic calcium in the remainder. The presence of free hydrogen is nearly always accompanied by silicon hydride formed by the combination of the nascent hydrogen with the
Proper-II” or calcium carbide.
silicon in the carbide. The ammonia found in the acetylene is probably partly due to the presence of magnesium nitride in the carbide.
On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed. The formation of nitrides and cyanamides by actions of this kind and their easy conversion into ammonia is a useful method for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere and rendering it available for manurial purposes. Sulphuretted hydrogen, which is invariably present in commercial acetylene, is formed by the decomposition of aluminium sulphide. A. Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen. In the early samples of carbide this compound used to be present in considerable quantity, but now rarely more than 11;; % is to be found. Phosphuretted hydrogen, one of the most important impurities, which has been blamed for the haze formed by the combustion of acetylene under certain conditions, is produced by the action of water upon traces of calcium phosphide found in carbide. Although at first it was no uncommon thing to find k % of phosphuretted hydrogen present in-the acetylene, this has now been so reduced by the use of pure materials that the quantity is rarely above 0-15 %, and it is often not one-fifth of that amount.
In the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide and water, all that has to be done is to bring these two
Generacompounds into contact, when they mutually react lion 0! upon each other with the formation of lime and acety- acetylene lene, while, if there be sufficient water present, the lime "0"” dc
combines with it to form calcium hydrate.
The decomposition of the carbide by water may be brought about either by bringing the water slowly into contact with an excess of carbide, or by dropping the carbide into an excess of water, and these two main operations again may be varied by innumerable ingenious devices by which the rapidity of the contact may be modified or even eventually stopped. The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation. '
In attempting to classify acetylene generators some authorities have divided them into as many as six different classes, but this is hardly necessary, as they may be divided into two main classes—first, those in which water is brought in contact with the carbide, the carbide being in excess during the first portion of the operation; and, second, those in which the carbide is thrown into water, the amount of water present being always in excess. The first class may again be subdivided into generators in which the water rises in contact with the carbide, in which it drips upon the carbide, and in which a vessel full of carbide is lowered into water and again with— drawn as generation becomes excessive. Some of these generators are constructed to make the gas only as fast as it is consumed at the burner, with the object of saving the expense and room which would be involved by a storage-holder. Generators with devices for regulating and stopping at will the action going on are generally termed “ automatic.” Another set merely aims at developing the gas from the carbide and putting it into a storageholder with as little loss as possible, and these are termed
“ non-automatic." The points to be attained in a good generator are:—
. Low temperature of generation.
. Complete decomposition of the carbide.
. Maximum evolution of the gas.
. Low pressure in every part of the apparatus.
. Ease in charging and removal of residues.
. Removal of all air from the apparatus before generation of the gas.
When carbide is acted upon by water considerable heat is evolved; indeed, the action develops about one-twentieth of the heat evolved by the combustion of carbon. As, however, the temperature developed is a function of the time needed to complete the action, the degree of heat attained varies with every form of generator, and while the water in one form may never reach the boiling-point, the carbide in another may become red-‘iot and give a temperature of over 800° C. Heating in a generator is not only a source of danger, but also lessens the yield of gas and deteriorates its quality. The best forms of generator are either those in which water rises slowly in contact with the carbide, or the second main division in which the carbide falls into excess of water.
It is clear that acetylene, if it is to be used on a large scale as a domestic illuminant, must undergo such processes of purification as will render it harmless and innocuous to health and property, and the sooner it is recognized as absolutely essential to purify acetylene before consuming it the sooner will the gas acquire the popularity it deserves. The only one of the impurities which offers any difliculty in removal is the phosphuretted hydrogen. There are three substances which can be relied on more or less to remove this compound, and the gas to be purified may be passed either through acid copper salts, through bleaching powder or through chromic acid. In experiments with these various bodies it is found that they are all of them effective in also ridding the acetylene of the ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen, provided only that the surface area presented to the gas is sufficiently large. The method of washing the gas with acid solutions of copper has been patented by A. Frank of Charlottenburg, who finds that a concentrated solution of cuprous chloride in an acid, the liquid being made into a paste with kieselgiihr, is the most effective. Where the production of acetylene is going on on a small scale this method of purification is undoubtedly the most convenient one, as the acid present absorbs the ammonia, and the copper salt converts the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen into phosphates and sulphides. The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamclled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas. The second process is one patented by Fritz Ullmann of Geneva, who utilizes chromic acid to oxidize the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen and absorb the ammonia, and this method of purification has proved the most successful in practice, the chromic acid being absorbed by kieselgiihr and the material sold under the name of “Heratol.”
The third process owes its inception to G. Lunge, who recommends the use of bleaching powder. Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus. If, however, the gas be first passed through a scrubber so as to wash out the ammonia this danger is avoided. Dr Wolfl employs purifiers in which the gas is washed with water containing calcium chloride, and then passed through bleaching-powder solution or other oxidizing material.
When acetylene is burnt from a 000 union jet burner, at all ordinary pressures a smoky flame is obtained, but on the pres— sure being increased to 4 inches a magnificent flame results, free from smoke, and developing an illuminating value of 240 candles
per 5 cubic feet of gas consumed. Slightly higher values have been obtained, but 240 may be taken as the average value under these conditions. When acetylene was first introduced as a commercial illuminant in England, very small union jet nipples were utilized for its consumption, but after burning
for a short time these nipples began to carbonize, same“ the flame being distorted, and then smoking occurred with the formation of a heavy deposit of soot. While these troubles were being experienced in England, attempts had been made in America to use acetylene diluted with a certain proportion of air which permitted it to be burnt in ordinary flat flame nipples; but the danger of such admixture being recognized, nipples of the same class as those used in England were employed, and the same troubles ensued. In France, single jets made of glass were first employed, and then P. Résener, H. Luchaire, G. Ragot and others made burners in which two jets of acetylene, coming from two tubes placed some little distance apart, impinged and splayed each other out into a butterfly flame. Soon afterwards, I. S. Billwiller introduced the idea of sucking air into the flame at or just below the burner tip, and at this juncture the Naphey or Dolan burner was introduced in America, the principle employed being to use two small and widely separated jets instead of the two openings of the union jet burner, and to make each a minute bunsen, the acetylene dragging in from the base of the nipple enough air to surround and protect it while burning from contact with the steatite. This class of burner forms a basis on which all the later constructions of burner have been founded, but had the drawback that if the flame was turned low, insufficient air to prevent carbonization of the burner tips was drawn in, owing to the reduced flow of gas. This fault has now been reduced by a cage of steatite round the burner tip, which draws in sufficient air to prevent deposition.
When acetylene was first introduced on a commercial scale attempts were made to utilize its great heat of combustion by using it in conjunction with oxygen in the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. It was found, however, that when 0”"
. . acetylene usmg acetylene under low pressures, the burner tip blown,“ became so heated as to cause the decomposition of some of the gas before combustion, the jet being choked up by the carbon which deposited in a very dense form; and as the use of acetylene under pressures greater than one hundred inches of water was prohibited, no advance was made in this direction. The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
ACHAEA, a district on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the S. to a narrow strip of fertile land on the N., bordering the Corinthian Gulf, into which the mountain Panachaicus projects. Achaea is bounded on the W. by the territory of Elis, on the E. by that of Sicyon, which, however, was sometimes included in it. The origin of the name has given rise to much speculation; the current theory is that the Achaeans (q.v.) were driven back into this region by the Dorian invaders of the Peloponnese. Another Achaea, in the south of Thessaly, called sometimes Achaea Phthiotis, has been supposed to be the cradle of the race. In Roman times the name of the province of Achaea was given to the whole of Greece, except Thessaly, Epirus, and Acarnania. Herodotus (i. 14 5) mentions the twelve cities of Achaea; these met as a religious confederacy in the temple of Poseidon Heliconius at Helice; for their later history see ACHAEAN LEAGUE. During the middle ages, after the Latin conquest of the Eastern Empire, Achaea was a Latin principality, the first prince being William de Champlitte (d. 1209). It survived, with various dismemberments, until 1430, when the last prince, Centurione Zaccaria, ceded the remnant of it to his son-in-law, Theodorus II., despot of Mistra. In 1460 it was conquered, with the rest of the Morea, by the Turks. In modern times the coast of Achaea is mainly given up to the currant industry; the currants are shipped from Patras, the second town of Greece, and from Aegion (Vostitza).
ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of the ancient towns of Achaea. Standing isolated on their narrow strips of plain, these towns were always exposed to the raids of pirates issuing from the recesses of the north coast of the Corinthian Gulf. It was no doubt as a protection against such dangers that the earliest league of twelve Achaean cities arose, though we are nowhere explicitly informed of its functions other than the common worship of Zeus Amarius at Aegium and an occasional arbitration between Greek belligerents. Its importance grew in the 4th century, when we find it fighting in the Theban wars (368— 362 8.0.), against Philip (338) and Antipater (330). About 288 Antigonus Gonatas dissolved the league, which had furnished a useful base for pretenders against Cassander’s regency; but by 280 four towns combined again, and before long the ten surviving cities of Achaea had renewed their federation. Antigonus’ preoccupation during the Celtic invasions, Sparta’s prostration after the Chremonidean campaigns, the wealth amassed by Achaean adventurers abroad and the subsidies of Egypt, the standing foe of Macedonia, all enhanced the league’s importance. Most of all did it profit by the statesmanship of Aratus (q.v.), who initiated its expansive policy, until in 228 it comprised Arcadia, Argolis, Corinth and Aegina.
Aratus probably also organized the new federal constitution, the character of which, owing to the scanty and somewhat perplexing nature of our evidence, we can only approximately determine. The league embraced an indefinite number of citystates which maintained their internal independence practically undiminished, and through their several magistrates, assemblies and law-courts exercised all traditional powers of self-government. Only in matters of foreign politics and war was their competence restricted.
The central government, like that of the constituent cities, was of a democratic cast. The chief legislative powers resided in a popular assembly in which every member of the league over thirty years of age could speak and vote. This body met for three days in spring and autumn at Aegium to discuss the league’s policy and elect the federal magistrates. Whatever the number of its attendant burgesses, each city counted but one on a division. Extraordinary assemblies could be convoked at any time or place on special emergencies. A council of no unpaid delegates, selected from the local councils, served partly as a committee for preparing the assembly's programme, partly as an administrative board which received embassies, arbitrated between contending cities and exercised penal jurisdiction over offenders against the constitution. But perhaps some of these duties concerned the dicastae and gerousia, whose functions are nowhere described. The chief magistracy was the strategia (tenable every second year), which combined with an unrestricted command in the field a large measure of civil authority. Besides being authorized to veto motions, the strategus (general) had practically the sole power of introducing measures before the assembly. The ten elective dcmiurgi, who presided over this body, formed a kind of cabinet, and perhaps acted as departmental chiefs. We also hear of an under-strategus, a secretary, a cavalry commander and an admiral. All these higher officers were unpaid. Philopoemen (q.'v.) transferred the seat of assembly from town to town by rotation, and placed dependent communities on an equal footing with their former suzerains.
The league prescribed uniform laws, standards and coinage; it summoned contingents, imposed taxes and fined or coerced refractory members.
The first federal wars were directed against Macedonia; in 266— 263 the league fought in the Chremonidean league, in 243—241 against Antigonus Gonatas and Aetolia, between 239 and 229 with Aetolia against Demetrius. A greater danger arose (227—223) from the attacks of Cleomenes III. (q.v.). Owing to Aratus's irresolute generalship, the indolence of the rich burghers and the inadequate provision for levying troops and paying mercenaries, the league lost several battles and much of its territory; but rather than compromise with the Spartan Gracchus the assembly negotiated with Antigonus Doson, who recovered the lost districts but retained Corinth for himself (223—221). Similarly the Achaeans could not check the incursions of Aetolian adventurers in 220—218, and when Philip V. came to the rescue he made them tributary and annexed much of the Peloponnese. Under Philopoemen the league with a reorganized army routed the Aetolians (210) and Spartans (207, 201). After their benevolent neutrality during the Macedonian war the Roman general, T. Quinctius Flamininus, restored all their lost possessions and sanctioned the incorporation of Sparta and Messene (191), thus bringing the entire Peloponnese under Achaean control. The league even sent troops to Pergamum against Antiochus (190). The annexation of Aetolia and Zacynthus was forbidden by Rome. Moreover, Sparta and Messene always remained unwilling members. After Philopoemcn's death the aristocrats initiated a strongly philo-Roman policy, declared war against King Perseus and denounced all sympathizers with Macedonia. This agitation induced the Romans to deport IOOO prominent Achaeans, and, failing proof of treason against Rome, to detain them seventeen years. These hostages, when restored in 150, swelled the ranks of the proletariate opposition, whose leaders, to cover their maladministration at home, precipitated at war by attacking Sparta in defiance of Rome. The federal troops were routed in central Greece by Q. Caecilius Metellus M: ‘edonicus, and again near Corinth by L. Mummius Achaicus (146). The Romans now dissolved the league (in effect, if not in name), and took measures to isolate the communities (see POLYBIUS). Augustus instituted an Achaean synod comprising the dependent cities of Peloponnese and central Greece; this body sat at Argos and acted as guardian of Hellenic sentiment.
The chief defect of the league lay in its lack of proper provision for securing efficient armies and regular payment of imposts, and for dealing with disaffected members. Moreover, owing to difficulties of travel, the assembly and magistracies were practically monopolized by the rich, who shaped the federal policy in their own interest. But their rule was mostly judicious, and when at last they lost control the ensuing mob-rule soon ruined the country. On the other hand, it is the glory of the Achacan league to have combined city autonomy with an organized central administration, and in this way to have postponed the entire destruction of Greek liberty for over a. century.
CHIEF SOURCES.—Polybius (esp. bks. ii., iv., v., xxiii., xxviii.),wh0 is followed by Livy (bks. xxxii.-xxxv., xxxviii., &c.); Pausanias vii.
-24; Strabo viii. 384; E. Freeman, Federal Government, i. (ed. 1893, ondon), chs. v.-ix.; M. Dubois, Les Iigucs Elolic’mc at Achéerme (Paris, 1885); A. llolm, Gmrk History, iv.; G. Hertzberg, Ccschichle Gnechenlands unlcr den Ro'mem, i. (Lei zig, 1866); L. Warren, Greek Federal Coinage (London, 1863); ‘. Hicks, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 18 2), 169, 187, 198, 201; W. Dittenberger, Syllo e Inscriptionum Gg'aecarum (Lei zig, 1898—1901), 2_ 6, 282, 316; H. rancotte in Muse’s Edge (1906 , . 4-20. See a so art. Rona, History, ii. “ The Republic,” sect. B(lii). ‘ (M. O. B. C.)
ACHAEANS ('Axatof, Lat. Achivi), one of the four chief divisions of the ancient Greek peoples, descended, according to legend, from Achaeus, son of Xuthus, son of Hellen. This Hesiodic genealogy connects the Achaeans closely with the Ionians, but historically they approach nearer to the Aeolians. Some even hold that Aeolus is only a form of Achaeus. In the Homeric poems (rooo B.C.) the Achaeans are the master race in Greece; they are represented both in Homer and in all later traditions as having come into Greece about three generations before the Trojan war (1184 B.C.), i.e. about 1300 13.0. They found the land occupied by a people known by the ancients as Pelasgians, who continued clown to classical times the main element in the population even in the states under Achaean and later under Dorian rule. In some cases it formed a sari class, e.g. the Penestae in Thessaly, the Helots in Laconia and the Gymnesii at Argos, whilst it practically composed the whole population of Arcadia and Attica, which never came under either Achaean or Dorian rule. This people had dwelt in the Aegean from the Stone Age, and, though still in the Bronze Age at the Achaean conquest, had made great advances in the useful and ornamental arts. They were of short stature, with dark hair and eyes, and generally dolichocephalic. Their chief centres were at Cnossus (Crete), in Argolis, Laconia and Attica, in each being ruled by ancient lines of kings. In Argolis Proetus built Tiryns, but later, under Perseus, Mycenae took the lead until the Achaean conquest. All the ancient dynasties traced their descent from Poseidon, who at the time of the Achaean conquest was the chief male divinity of Greece and the islands. The Pelasgians probably spoke an Indo-European language adopted by their conquerors with slight modifications. (See further PELASGIANS for a discussion of other views.)
The Achaeans, on the other hand, were tall, fair-haired and.
grey-eyed, and their chiefs traced their descent from Zeus, who with the Hyperborean Apollo was their chief male divinity. They first appear at Dodona, whence they crossed Pindus into Phthiotis. The leaders of the Achaean invasion were Pelops, who took possession of Elis, and Aeacus, who became master of Aegina and was said to have introduced there the worship of Zeus Panhellenius, whose cult was also set up at Olympia. They brought with them iron, which they used for their long swords and for their cutting implements; the costume of both sexes was distinct from that of the Pclasgians; they used round shields with a central boss instead of the 8-shaped or rectangular shields of the latter; they fastened their garments with brooches, anc' burned their dead instead of burying them as did the Pelasgians. They introduced a special style of ornament (“ geo— metric ”) instead of that of the Bronze Age, characterized by spirals and marine animals and plants. The Achaeans, or Hellencs, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into thesouthem lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale. The culture of the Homeric Achaeans corresponds to a large extent with that of the early Iron Age of the upper Danube (Hallstatt) and to the early Iron Age of upper Italy (Villanova).
See \V. Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece (1901), for a detailed discussion of the evidence; articles by Ridgeway and J. L. Myres in the Classical Review, vol. xvi., 1902, pp. 68-93, 135. See also I. B. Bury's History of Greece (1902), and art. in Journal of Hellenic Studies, xv., 1895, pp. 217 foll.; G G. A. Murray, Rise of the Greek Epic (1907), chap. 1i.; Andrew Lang, Homer and his Age (1906); G. Busolt, Griech. Gesch. ed. 2, vol. i. p. 190 (1893); D. B. Monro’s ed. of the Iliad (1901), pp. 484-488. (W. R1.)
ACHAEMENES (HAKHAMANI), the eponymous ancestor of the royal house of Persia, the Achaemenidae, “ a clan ¢p1'7'rp17 of the Pasargadae ” (Herod. i. 125), the leading Persian tribe. According to Darius in the Behistun inscription and Herod. iii. 75, vii. 1 1, he was the father of Teispes, the great-grandfather of Cyrus. Cyrus himself, in his proclamation to the Babylonians after the conquest of Babylon, does not mention his name. Whether he really was a historical personage, or merely the mythical ancestor of the family, cannot be decided. According to Aelian (Hist. anim. xii. 21), he was bred by an eagle. We learn from Cyrus’s proclamation that Teispes and his successors had become kings of Anshan, i.e. a part of Elam (Susiana), where they ruled as vassals of the Median kings, until Cyrus the Great in 550 B.C. founded the Persian empire. After the death of Cambyses, the younger line of the Achaemenidae came to the throne with Darius, the son of Hystaspes, who was, like Cyrus, the great-grandson of Teispes. Cyrus, Darius and all the later kings of Persia call themselves Achaemenides (Hakkamom's/1i ya). With Darius III. Cadomannus the dynasty became
extinct and the Persian empire came to an end (330). The adjective Ac/iaemenius is used by the Latin poets as the equivalent of “Persian” (Horace, Odes, ii. 12, 21). See PERSIA.
The name Achaemenes is borne by a son of Darius I., brother After the first rebellion of Egypt, he became satrap of Egypt (484 B.C.); he commanded the Persian fleet at Salamis, and was (460 13.0.) defeated and slain by Inarus, the leader of the second rebellion of Egypt. ,
ACHARD, FRANZ CARL (1753—1821), Prussian chemist, was born at Berlin on the 28th of April 1753, and died at Kunern, in Silesia, on the 20th of April 1821. He was a pioneer in turning to practical account A. S. Marggraf’s discovery of the presence of sugar in beetroot, and by the end of the 18th century he was producing considerable quantities of beet-sugar, thoughby a very imperfect process, at Kunern, on an estate which was granted him about 1800 by the king of Prussia. There too he carried on a school of instruction in sugar-manufacture, which had an international reputation. For a time he was director of the physics class of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and he published several volumes of chemical and physical resea‘ches, discovering among other things a method of working platinum.
ACHARIUS, ERIK (1757—1819), Swedish botanist, was born on the 10th of October 1757, and in 1773 entered Upsala University, where he was a pupil of Linnaeus. He graduated M .D. at Lund in 1782, and in 1801 was appointed professor of botany at Wadstena Academy. He devoted himself to the study of lichens, and all his publications were connected with that class of plants, his Lichcnographia U niversalis (Gottingen, 1804) being the most important. He died at Wadstena on the 13th of August 1819.
ACHATE-S, the companion of Aeneas in Virgil’s Aeneid. The expression “ fidus Achates ” has become proverbial for a loyal and devoted companion.
ACHELOUS (mod. AsProPolamo, “ white river ”), the largest river in Greece (130 m.). It ri5es in Mt. Pindus, and, dividing Aetolia from Acarnania, falls into the Ionian Sea. In the lowar part of its course the river winds through fertile, marshy plains. Its water is charged with fine mud, which is deposited along its banks and at its mouth, where a number of small islands (Echinades) have been formed. It was formerly called Thoas, from its impetuosity; and its upper portion was called by some Inachus, the name Achelous being restricted to the shorter eastern branch. Achelous is coupled with Ocean by Homer ([1. xxi. 193) as chief of rivers, and the name is given to several other rivers in Greece. The name appears in cult and in mythology
, as that of the typical river~god; a familiar legend is that of his ‘t contest with Heracles for Deianira.
ACHENBACH, ANDREAS (1815— ), German landscape painter, was born at Cassel in 1815. He began his art education in 1827 in Dusseldorf under W. Schadow and at the academy. In his early work he followed the pseudo-idealism of the German romantic school, but on removing to Munich in 18 3 5, the stronger influence of L. Gurlitt turned his talent into new channels, and he became the founder of the German realistic school. Although his landscapes evince too much of his aim at picture-making and lack personal temperament, he is a master of technique, and is historically important as a reformer. A number of his finest works are to be found at the Berlin National Gallery, the New Pinakothek in Munich, and the galleries at Dresden, Darmstadt, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Leipzig and Hamburg.
His brother, OSWALD Acnnnnscn (1827—1905), was born at Dusseldorf and received his art education from Andreas. His landscapes generally dwell on the rich and glowing effects of colour which drew him to the Bay of Naples and the neighbourhood of Rome. He is represented at most of the important German galleries of modern art.
ACHENWALL, GOTTFRIED (1719—1772), German statistician, was born at Elbing, in East Prussia, in October 1719. He studied at Jena, Halle and Leipzig, and took a degree at the last-named university. He removed to Marburg in 1746, where for two years he read lectures on history and on the law of nature and of nations. Here, too, he commenced those inquiries in statistics by which his name became known. In 1748 he was given a professorship at Gettingen, where he resided till his death in 1772. His chief works were connected with statistics. The Slaatsverfassung der heuligen vorrwhmslen europa'ischen Reiche appeared first in 1749, and revised editions were published in r762 and r768. _
ACHERON, in Greek mythology, the son of Gaea or Demeter. As a punishment for supplying the Titans with water in their contest with Zeus, he was turned into a river of Hades, over which departed souls were ferried by Charon. The name (meaning the river of “ woe ”) was eventually used to designate the whole of the lower world (Stobaeus, Ed. Phys. i. 41, §§ 5o, 54).
ACHIACHARUS, a name occurring in the book of Tobit (i. 21 f.) as that of a nephew of Tobit and an ofiicial at the court of Esarhaddon at Nineveh. There are references in Rumanian, Slavonic, Armenian, Arabic and Syriac literature to a legend, of which the hero is Ahikar (for Armenian, Arabic and Syriac, see The Story of Ahikar, F. C. Conybeare, Rendel Harris and Agnes Lewis, Camb. 1898), and it was pointed out by George Hoffman in x880 that this Ahikar and the Achiacharus of Tobit are identical. It has been contended that there are traces of the legend even in the New Testament, and there is a striking similarity between it and the Life of. Aesop by Maximus Planudes (ch. xxiii.-xxxii.). An eastern sage Achaicarus is mentioned by Strabo. It would seem, therefore, that the legend was undoubtedly oriental in origin, though the relationship of the various versions can scarcely be recovered.
See the Jewish EncyclaPaedia and the Encycloflaedia Biblica; also M. R. James in The Guardian, Feb. 2, 1898, p. 163 f.
ACHILL (“ Eagle ”), the largest island off Ireland, separated from the Curraun peninsula of the west coast by the narrow Achill Sound. Pop. (r901) 4929. It is included in the county Mayo, in the western parliamentary division. Its shape is triangular, and its extent is 15 m. from E. to W. and 12 from N. to S. . The area is 57 sq. m. The island is mountainous, the highest points being Slieve Croaghaun (2:92 ft.) in the west, and Slievemore (2204 ft.) in the north; the extreme western point is the bold and rugged promontory of Achill Head, and the north— western and south-western coasts consist of ranges of magnificent cliffs, reaching a height of 800 ft. in the clitis of Minaun, near the village of Keel on the south. The seaward slope of Croaghaun is abrupt and in parts precipitous, and its jagged flanks, together with the serrated ridge of the Head and the view over the broken coast-line and islands of the counties Mayo and GalwayA attract many visitors to the island during summer. Desolate bogs, incapable of cultivation, alternate with the mountains; and the inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence by fishing and tillage, or by seeking employment in England and Scotland during the harvesting. The Congested Districts Board, =however,,have made efforts to improve the condition of the people, and a branch of the Midland Great Western railway to Achill Sound, together with a swivel bridge acros the sound, improved communications and make for prosperity. Dugort, the principal village, contains several hotels. Here is a Protestant colony, known as “ the Settlement ” and founded in 1834. There are antiquarian remains (cromlechs, stone circles and the like) at'Slievemore and elsewhere.
ACHILLES (Gr. ’Axthheils), one of the most famous of the legendary 'heroes of ancient Greece and the central figure of Homer’s Iliad. He was said to have been the son of Peleus, king of the Myrmidones of Phthia in Thessaly, by T hetis, one of the Nereids. His grandfather Aeacus was, according to the legend, the son of Zeus himself. The story of the childhood of Achilles in Homer differs from that given by later writers. According to Homer, he was brought up by his mother at Phthiawith his Cousin and intimate friend Patroclus, and learned the arts of war and eloquence from Phoenix, while the Centaur Chiron taught him music and medicine. When summoned to the war against Troy, he set sail at once with his Myrmidones in fifty ships.
Post'Homeric sources add to the legend certain picturesque details which bear all the evidence of their primitive origin, and
which in some cases belong to the common stock of Indo~Germanic myths. According to one of these stories Thetis used to lay the infant Achilles every night under live coals, anointing him by day with ambrosia, in order to make him immortal. Pelcus, having surprised her in the act, in alarm snatched the boy from the flames; whereupon Thetis fled back to the sea in anger (Apollodorus iii. 13; Apollonius Rhodius iv. 869). According to another story Thetis dipped the child in the waters of the river Styx, by which his whole body became invulnerable, except that part of his heel by which she held him; whenCe the proverbial “ heel of Achilles ” (Statius, Achilleis, i. 269). With this may be compared the similar story told of the northern hero Sigurd. The boy was afterwards entrusted to the care of Chiron, who, to give him the strength necessary for war, fed him with the entrails of lions and the marrow of bears and wild boars. ' To prevent his going to the siege of Troy, Thetis disguised him in female apparel, and hid him among the maidens at the court of King Lycomedes in Scyros; but Odysseus, comingto the island in the disguise of a pedlar, spread his wares, including a spear and shield, before the king’s daughters, among. whom was Achilles. Then he caused an alarm to be sounded; whereupon the girls fled, but Achilles seized thearms, and so revealed himself, and was easily persuaded to follow the Greeks (Hyginus, Fab. 96; Statius, Ash. i.; Apollodorus, 1.0.). This story may be compared with the Celtic legend of the boyhood of Peredur or Perceval. . .
During the first nine years of the war as described in the Iliad, Achilles ravaged the country round Troy, and t00k twelve' cities. In the tenth year occurred the quarrel with Agamemnon. In order to appease the wrath of Apollo, who had visited the camp with a pestilence, Agamemnon had restored Chryseis, his prize of war, to her father, a priest of the god, but as a compensation deprived Achilles, who had openly demanded this restoration, of his favourite slave Briseis. Achilles withdrew in wrath to his tent, where he consoled himself with music -'and singin'g,‘and refused to take any further part in the war. During his absence the Greeks were hard pressed, and at last he so far relaxed his anger as to allow his friend Patroclus to personate himrlending him his chariot and amour. The slaying of Patroclus by the Trojan hero Hector roused Achilles from his indiflerence; eager to avenge his beloved comrade, he sallied forth, equipped with new armour fashioned by Hephaestus, slew Hector, and, after dragging his body round the walls of Troy, restored it to the aged King Priam at his earnest entreaty. The Iliad concludes with the funeral rites of Hector. It makes no mention of the death of Achilles, but hints at its taking place “before the Scaean gates.” In the Odyssey (xxiv. 36. 72) his ashes are said to have been buried in a golden urn, together with those of Patroclus, at a place on the Hellespont, where a temb was erected to his memory; his soul dwells in the lower world, where it is seen by Odysseus. The contest between Ajax and Odysseus for his arms is also mentioned. The Aethiopis of Arctinus of Miletus took up the story of the Iliad. It told how Achilles, having slain the Amazon Penthesileia and Memnon, king of the Aethiopians, who had come to the assistance of the Trojans, was himself slain by Paris (Alexander), whose arrow was guided by Apollo to his vulnerable heel (Virgil, Am. vi. 57; Ovid, M cl. 600). Again, it is said that Achilles, enamoured of Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, offered to join the Trojans on condition that he received her hand in marriage. This was agreed to; Achilles went unarmed to the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, and was slain by Paris (Dictys iv. rt). According to some, he was slain by Apollo himself (Quint. Smym. iii. 61; Horace. Odes, iv. 6, 3). Hyginus (Fab. r07) makes Apollo assume the form of- Paris.
Later stories say that Thetis snatched his body from the pyre and conveyed it to the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube, where he ruled with Iphigeneia as his wife; or that he was carried to the Elysian fields, where his wife was Medea or Helen. He was worshipped in many places: at Leuke, when. he was honoured with offerings and games; in Sparta, Elis. and especially Sigeum on the Hellcspent, where his famous tumulus was erected.