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fruit would have to be constantly renewed. Only thus could even the gods escape death.1

6. The Divine Command broken—The serpent has gone the right way to work; he comprehends woman’s nature better than Adam comprehends that of the serpent. By her curiosity Eve is undone. She looks at the fruit; then she takes and eats; her husband does the same (iii. 6). The consequence (ver. 7)

' may seem to us rather slight: “they knew (became sensible) that they were naked, and sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles (aprons).” But the real meaning is not slight; the sexual distinction has been discovered, and a new sense of shame sends the human pair into the thickest shades, when Yahweh-Elohim walks abroad. The God of these primitive men is surprised: “ Where art thou? ” By degrees, he obtains a full confession—not from the serpent, whose speech might not have been edifying, but from Adam and Eve. The sentences which he passes are decisive, not only for the human pair and the serpent, but for their respective races. Painful toil shall be the lot of man; subjection and pangs that of woman.2 The serpent too (whose unique form preoccupied the early men) shall be humiliated, as a perpetual warning to man—who is henceforth his enemy—of the danger of reasoning on and disobeying the will of God.

7. Versions of the Adam-story.-—Theologians in all ages have allegorized this strange narrative.“ The serpent becomes the inner voice of temptation, and the saying in iii. i5 becomes an anticipation of the final victory of good over evil—a view which probably arose in Jewish circles directly or indirectly affected by the Zoroastrian eschatology. But allegory was far from the thoughts of the original narrators. Another version of the Adam-story is given by Ezekiel (xxviii. rr-ro), for underneath the king of Tyre (or perhaps Missor)‘ we can trace the majestic figure of the first man. This Adam, indeed, is not like the first man of Gen. ii.-iii., but more like the “bright angel” who is the first man in the Christian Book of Adam (i. to; Malan, p. 12). He dwells on a glorious forest-mountain (cp. Ezekiel xxxi. 8, i8), and is led away by pride to equalize himself with Elohim (cp. xxviii. 2, 2 Thess. ii. 4), and punished. And with this passage let us group Job xv. 7, 8, where Job is ironically described as vying with the first man, who was “ brought forth before the hills” (cp. Prov. viii. 25) and “drew wisdom to himself ” by “ hearkening in the council of Elohim.” No reference is made in Job to this hero’s fall. The omission, however, is repaired, not only in Ezek. xxviii. 16, but also in Isa. xiv. 12-15, where the king, whose name is given in the English Bible as “ LuCifer ” (or margin, “ day-star ”), “ son of the morning,” and who, like the other king in Ezekiel, is threatened with death, is a copy of the mythical Adam.

The two conceptions of the first man are widely different. The nassages last referred to harmonize with the account given in Gen. i. 26, for “ in our image ” certainly suggests a being equal in brightness and in capacities to the angels—a view which, as we know, became the favourite one in apocryphal and Haggadic descriptions of the Adam before the Fall. And though the priestly writer, to whom the first Creation-story in its present form is due, says nothing about a sacred mountain as the dwelling-place of the first-created man, yet this mountain belongs to the type of tradition which the passage, Gen. i. 26-28, imperfectly but truly represents. The glorious first man of Ezekiel, and the god-like first men of the cosmogony (cp. Ps. viii. 5) who held the regency of the earth,5 require a dwelling-place as far above the common level of the earth as they are themselves above the childlike Adam of the second creation-narrative (Gen. ii.). On this

sacred mountain, see Cosuooomr.

‘ Note the food and drink of the gods in the Babylonian Adapa (or Adamu?) myth.

' The mortality of man forms no part of the curse (cp. iii. 19, “ dust thou art ' ).

' See H. Schultz, Alliest. Theologie, ed. 4, pp. 679 ff., 720 ; Driver, Genesis, p. 44..

‘ See Cheyne, Genesis and Exodus.

‘ Cp. the “ fair shepherd " Yima of the Avesta (Vend. ii.), the first man and the founder of civilization to the lranians,though not like the Yama of the Vedas.


8. Origin of the Adam-story.—That the Hebrew story of the first man in both its forms is no mere recast of a Babylonian myth, is generally admitted. The holy mountain is no doubt Babylonian, and the plantations of sacred trees, one of which at least has magic virtue, can be paralleled from the monuments (see EDEN). But there is no complete parallel to the description of Paradise in Gen. ii., or to the story of the rib, or to that of the serpent. The first part of the latter has definite Arabian affinities; the second is as definitely Hebrew. We may now add that the insertion of iii. 7 (from “ were opened ”) to it;— a passage which has probably supplanted a more archaic and definitely mythological passage—may well have been the consequence of the change in the conception of the first man referred to above. Still there are four Babylonian stories which may serve as partial illustrations of the Hebrew Adam-story.

The first is contained in a fragment of a cosmogony in Berossus, now confirmed in the main by the sixth tablet of the Creationepic. It represents the creation of man as due to one of the inferior gods who (at Bel’s command) mingled with clay the blood which flowed from the severed head of Bel (see COSMOGONY). The three others are the myths of Adapa,6 Ea-bani and Etana. As to Adapa, it may be mentioned here that Fossey has shown reason for holding that the true reading of the name is Adamu. It thus becomes plausible to hold that “ Adam ” in Gen. ii.-iii. was originally a proper name, and that it was derived from Babylonia. More probably, however, this is but an accidental coincidence; both adam and adamu may come from the same Semitic root meaning “ to make.” Certainly Adamu (if it is net more convenient to write “Adapa”) was not regarded as the progenitor of the human race, like the Hebrew Adam. He was, however, Certainly a man—one of those men who were not, of course, rival first-men, but were specially created and endowed. Adamu or Adapa, we are told, received from his divine father the gift of wisdom,’ but not that of everlasting life. He had a chance, however, of obtaining the gift, or at least of eating the food and drinking the water which makes the gods ageless and immortal. But through a deceit practised upon him by his divine father Ea, be supposed the food and drink offered to him on a certain occasion by the gods to be “ food of death,” “ water of death,” just as Adam and Eve at first believed that the fruit of the magic tree would produce death (Gen. iii. 4, 5).

The second story is that of Ea-bani,‘ who was formed by the goddess Arusu (=the mother-goddess Ishtar) of a lump of clay (cp. Gen. ii. 7). This human creature, long-haired and sensual, was drawn away from a savage mode of life by a harlot, and Jastrow, followed by G. A. Barton, Worcester and Tenant, considers this to be parallel to the story which may underlie the account of the failure of the beasts, and the success of the woman Eve, as a “ help-meet ” for Adam. This, however, is most uncertain.

The third is that of Etana.“ Here the main points are that Etana is induced by an eagle to mount up to heaven, that he may win a boon from the kindly goddess Ishtar. Borne by the eagle, he soared high up into the ether, but became afraid. Downward the eagle and his burden fell, and in the epic of Gilgamesh we find Etana in the nether world. According to Jastrow, this attempted ascension was an offence against the gods, and his fall was his punishment. We are not told, however, that Etana had the impious desire of Ezekiel’s first man, and if he fell, it was through his own timidity (contrast Ezek. xxviii. 16). But certainly the myth does help us to imagine a story in which, for some sin against the gods, some favoured hero was hurled down from the divine abode, and such a story may some day be discovered.

To these illustrations it is unsafe to add the scene on a cylinder preserved in the British Museum, representing two, figures, a

‘See Jastrow, Rel. of Bob. and Ass. pp. 548-554; R. J. Harper, in Academy, May 30, 1891; Jensen, Keilmschr. Biblialhek, vr. .93 ff.

" The Wisdom. was probab y to qualify him as a ruler. It l5 too much to say With Hommel that ‘ Adapa is the archetype of the Johannine Logos."

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man (with'horns) and perhaps a woman, both clothed, on either side of a fruit-tree, towards which they stretch out their hands.1 For the meaning of this is extremely problematical. Some better monumental illustration may some day be found, for it is clear that the Babylonian sacred literature had much to tell of offences against the gods in the primeval age.

The student may naturally ask, Whence did the Israelites (a comparatively young people) obtain the original myth? It is most probable that they obtained it through the mediation either of the Canaanites or of the North Arabians. Babylonian influence, as is now well known, was strongly felt for many centuries in Canaan, and even the cuneiform script was in common use among the high officials of the country. When the Israelites entered Canaan, they_would learn myths partly of Babylonian origin. North Arabian influence must also have been strong among the Israelites, at least while they sojourned in North Arabia. From the Kenites, at any rate, they may have received, not only a strong religious impulse, but a store of tales of the primitive age, and these stories ‘too may have been partly influenced by Babylonian traditions. We must allow for stages of development both among the Israelites and among their tutors.

9. Biblical References to the Adam-story.—It is remarkable how little influence the Adam-story has had on the earlier parts of the Old Testament. The garden of Eden is referred to in Isa. ll. 3, Ezek. xxxvi. 35, Joel ii; 5; cp. Ezek. xxviii. r3, xxxi. 8, 9, 16, 18, all of which are later. And it is mostly in the “ humanistic ” book of Proverbs that we find allusions to the “tree of life ” (Prov. iii. 18, xi. 30, xii. 12, xv. 4), and to the “fountain of life ”—perhaps (see § 4) an omitted portion of the old Paradisestory (Prov. x. 11, xiii. 14, xiv. 27, xvi. 22),—the only other Biblical reference (apart from Rev. xxi. 6) being in that exquisite passage, Ps. xxxvi. 9. One can hardly be surprised at this. The Adam-story is plainly of foreign origin, and could not please the greater pre-exilic prophets. In late post-exilic times, however, foreign tales, even if of mythical origin, naturally came into favour, especially as religious symbols. If even now philosophers and theologians cannot resist the temptation to allegorize, how inevitable was it that this course should be pursued by early Jewish theologians!

1o. Incipient Reflexion on the S tary.-—Let us give some instances of this. In Enoch lxix. 6 we find the story of Eve’s temptation read in the light of that of the fallen angels (Gen. vi. 1, 2, 4) who conveyed an evil knowledge to men, and so subjected mankind to mortality. Evidently the writer fears culture. Elsewhere eating the fruit of the “ tree of wisdom ” is given as the cause of the expulsion of the human pair. In the Wisdom of Solomon (x. 1, 2) we find another view. Here, as in Ezekiel, the first man is pre-eminently wise and strong; though he transgressed, wisdom rescued him, i.e. taught him repentance (cp. Life of Adam and Eve, §§ 1-8). Elsewhere (ii. 24; cp. Jos. Ant. i. 1, 4) death is traced to the envy of the devil, still implying an exalted view of Adam. It is held that, but for his sin, Adam would have been immortal. Clearly the Jewish mind is exposed to some fresh foreign influences. As in the Talmud and the Jerusalem Targum, the serpent has even become the devil, i.e. Satan. The period of syncretism has fully come, and Zoroastrianism in particular, more indirectly than directly, is exercising an attractive power upon the Jews. For all that, the theological thinking is characteristically Jewish, and such guidance as Jewish thinkers required was mainly given by Greek culture. On this subject see further EVE,§ 5~

1 1. Growth of a Theology.-—Let us now turn to the Apocalypses of Baruch and of Ezra (both about 70 A.D.). Different views are here expressed. According to one (xvii. 3, xix. 8, xxiii. 4) the sin of Adam was the cause of physical death; according to another (liv. 15, lvi. 6), only of premature physical death, while according to a third (xlviii. 42, 43) it is spiritual death which is to be laid to his account. Of these three views, it is only the

1 See Smith and Sayce. Chaldaean Genesis, p. 88; Delitzsch, W0 lag dos Parodies ? p. 90; Babel and Bible, En . trans, p. 56, With note on pp. 114-118; Zimmern, Die Keilinsc r. and do: A.T., ed. 3, p- 529; J eremias, Das Alte Test. im Lichte d. Alton Orient. pp. 104-106.


second which harmonizes with Gen. ii.-iii. In one of the two passages which express it we are also told that each member of the human race is “ the Adam of his own soul.” Adam, like Satan in Ecclus. xxi. 27, has become a psychological symbol. Truly, a worthy development of the seed-thoughts of the original narrator, and (must we not add P) entirely opposed to any doctrine of Original Sin.

In 4 Ezra, too, we find no real endorsement of such a doctrine. It is true, not only physical death (iii. 7), but spiritual, is traced to the act of Adam (iii. 21, 22, iv. 30, 31, vii. 118-121). But two modifying facts should be noticed. One is that Adam is said to have had from the first a wicked heart, owing to which he fell, and his posterity likewise, into sin and guilt. All men have the same seed of evil in them that Adam had; they sin and die, like him. The other is that, according to iii. 7-12, there are at least two ages of the world. The first ended with the Flood, so that any consequences of Adam’s sin were, strictly speaking, of limited duration. The second began with righteous _ Noah and his household, “ of whom came all righteous men.” It was the descendants of these who “ began again to do ungodliness more than the former ones.” Doubtless the problem of evil is most imperfectly treated, even from the writer’s point of view. But it would be cruel to pick holes in a writer whose thinking, like that of St Paul, is coloured by emotion.

At this point we might well make more than a passing reference to St Paul (Rom. v. 14; 1 Cor. xv. 22, 45, 47), whose doctrine of sin is evidently of mixed origin. But we cannot find space for this here. In compensation let it be mentioned that in Rev. xii. 9 (cp. xx. 2) the “ great dragon,” who persecuted the woman “ clothed with the sun,” is identified with “ the old serpent, that is called the Devil and Satan.” The identification is incorrect. But it may be noticed here that the phrase “ the old serpent” sheds some light on the Pauline phrases “ the first man Adam ” and “ the last Adam ” (1 Cor. xv. 45, 47). The underlying idea. is that the new age (that of the new heaven and earth) will be opened by events parallel to those which opened the first age. As the old serpent deceived man of old, so shall it be again. And as at the head of the first age stands the first Adam, whose doings affected all his descendants to their harm, so at the head of the second shall stand the second Adam, whose actions shall be potent for good. There is reason to suspect that the expression “ the second Adam ” is the coinage either of St Paul or of some one closely connected with him (as Prof. G. F. Moore has shown), for there is no proof that such terms as “ the last," or “ the second Adam,” were generally current among the Jews.

12. Jewish Legends—The parallelism between the first and second Adam in 1 Cor. xv. 45 is a parallelism of contrast. Jewish legends, however, suggest another sort of parallelism. The Haggadah gives the most extravagant descriptions of the glory of Adam before his fall‘. The most prominent idea is that being in the image of God—the God whose essence is light—he must have had a luminous body (like the angels). “ I made thee of the light,” says God in the Book of Adam and Eve (Malan, p. 16), “ and I willed to bring children of light from thee.’ ’ Similarly in Baba batra, 580, we read, “ he was of extraordinary beauty and sun-like brightness.” So glorious was he that even the angels were commanded through Michael to pay homage to Adam. Satan, disobeying, was cast out of heaven; hence his ill-will towards Adam (Life of Adam and Eve, §§ 13-17; cp. Koran, xvii. 63, xx. 115, xxxviii. 74).

It only remains to give due honour to one of the most beautiful of legends, that of the deliverance of Adam’s spirit from the nether world by the Christ, the earliest form of which is a Christian interpolation inA poc. Moses, § 42 (cp. Malan, Adam and Eve, iv. 15, end). We may compare a partly parallel passage in § 37, where the agent is Michael, and notice that such legendary

developments were equally popular among Jews and Christians.

AUTHORITIES—On the apocryphal Books of Adam, see Hort, Diet. of Chr. Biography, i. 37 ff. In English we have Malan's translation of the Ethiopic Book of Adam (1882), and lssaverden's translation of another Book of Adam from the Armenian (Venice, [90]). In German, see Fuchs's translations in Kautzsch's Die Apokryphen, ii. 506 ff. For full bibliography see Schiirer, Gerch.

do: jit'd. Volkes, ed. , iii. 288 f. On Jewish and Mahommedan legends, see Jewish éyclopaedia, “ Adam." On the belief in the Fall, see Tennant, The Sources of the Doctrine of the Fall and Original Sin (1903). (T. K. C.)

ADAM OF BREMEN, historian and geographer, was probably born in Upper Saxony (at Meissen, according to one tradition) before 1045. He came to Bremen about 1067—1068, most likely on the invitation of Archbishop Adalbert, and in the 24th year of the latter’s episcopate (1043 ?—107 2); in 1069 he appears as a canon of this cathedral and master of the cathedral school. Not long after this he visited the king of Denmark, Sweyn Estrithson, in Zealand; on the death of Adalbert, in 1072, he began the H istoria H ammaburgensis Ecclesiae, which he finished about 1075. He died on the 12th of October of a year unknown, perhaps 1076. Adam's H istoria—known also as Gesta H ammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, Bremensium praesulum Historia, and H istoria ecclesiastica—is a primary authority, not only for the great diocese of Hamburg-and-Bremen, but for all North German and Baltic lands (down to 1072), and for the Scandinavian colonies as far as America. Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam’s own day (before 1066). Adam’s account of North European trade at this time, and especially of the great markets of Jumne at the mouth of the Oder, of Birka in Sweden and of Ostrogard (Old Novgorod?) in Russia, is also of much value. His work, which places him among the first and best of German annalists, consists of four books or parts, and is compiled partly from written records and partly from oral information, the latter mainly gathered from experience or at the courts of Adalbert and Sweyn Estrithson. Of his minor informants he names several, such as Adelward, dean of Bremen, and William the Englishman, “ bishop of Zealand,” formerly chancellor of Canute the Great, and an intimate of Sweyn Estrithson. The fourth (perhaps the most important) book _of Adam’s History, variously entitled Libellus de Situ Daniae et reliquarum quae trans Daniam sunt regionum, Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis, &c., has often been considered, but wrongly, as a separate work.

Ten MSS. exist, of which the chief are (1-2) Copenhagen, Royal Library, Old Royal Collection, No. 2296, of 12th to 13th cents.; No. 718, of 15th cent.; (73) _Leyden_ University, Voss. Lat. 12 , of 11th cent.; (4) Rome, \atican Library, 2010; (5) Vienna, ofu. Staatsbibliothek, 413, of 13th cent.; (6) Wolfenbiittel, Ducal Library, Gud. 83, of 15th cent.

There are 15 editions of the Historia, in whole or part; the first

ublished at Copenhagen, 1579 (the first of the Libellus or Descriptio Ens. Aquil. appeared at Stockholm in 1615), the best at Hanover, 1846 (by Lappenberg, in Scriptores Rerum Germanicarurn; reissued by L. Weiland, 1876), and at Paris, 1884 (in Migne's Patrologia Latina, cxlvi.). There are also three German versions, and one Danish; the best is b j. C. M. Laurent (and W. Wattenbach) in Geschichtsschreiber d. eutsch. Vorzeit, part vii. (1850 and 1888). See also J. Asmussen, De fontibus Adami Bremensis, 18 4; Lappenberg in Pertz, Archie, vi, 770; Aug. Bernard, De Adamo remensi (Paris, 1895); Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, ii. 514-548 (1901).

ADAM (or ADAN) DB LE HALE (died 0. 1288), French trouvére, was born at Arras. His patronymic is generally modernized to La Halle, and he was commonly known to his contemporaries as Adam d’Arres 01 Adam le Bossu, sometimes simply as Le Bossu d’Arras. His father, Henri de le Hale, was a well-known citizen of Arras, and Adam studied grammar, theology and music at the Cistercian abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambrai. Father and son had their share in the civil discords in Arras, and for a short time took refuge in Douai. Adam had been destined for the church, but renounced this intention, and married a certain Marie, who figures in many of his songs, rondeaux, motets and jeux-partis. Afterwards he joined the household of Robert 11., count of Artois; and then was attached to Charles of Anjou, brother of Charles IX., whose fortunes he followed in Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Italy. At the court of Charles, after he became king of Naples, he wrote his hit de Robin et M arion, the most famous of his works. He died between 1285 and 1288. Adam’s shorter pieces are accompanied by music, of which a


transcript in modern notation, with the original score, is given in Coussemaker’s edition. His J at de Robin et M arion is cited as the earliest French play with music on a secular subject. The pastoral, which tells how Marion resisted the knight, and remained faithful to Robert the shepherd, is based on an old chanson, Robin m’aime, Robin m’a. It consists of dialogue varied by refrains already current in popular song. The melodies to which these are set have the character of folk-music, and are more spontaneous and melodious than the more elaborate music of his songs and motets. A modern adaptation, by Julien Tiersot, was played at Arms by a company from the Paris Opéra Comique on the occasion of a festival in 1896 in honour of Adam de le Hale. His other play, Le jeu Adan or Lejcu de la Feuitlee (c. 1262), is a satirical drama in which he introduces himself, his father and the citizens of Arras with their peculiarities. His'works include a Congé, or satirical farewell to the city of Arras, and an unfinished chanson de geste in honour of Charles of Anjou, Le roi de Sicile, begun in 1282; another short piece, Le jeu du peterin, is sometimes attributed to him.

The only MS. which contains the whole of Adam's work is the La Valllére MS. (No. 25.566) in the Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris, datin from the latter half of the 13th century. Many of his pieces are 1150 contained in Douce MS. 308, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. His Guvres com‘pletes (1872) were edited by E. de Coussemaker. See also an artic e by Paulin Paris in the Ilistoire littéraire de la Ifrance (vol. 638-675); C. Raynaud, Recueil des motcts franqais des XII' et 11’ siéoles (1882); Canchons et Partures dcs . . . Adan'delle Hale (Halle, 1900), a critical edition by Rudolf Berger; an edition of Adam's two jewt in Monmerqué and Michel's Thc'dtre frangais au moycn dge (1842); E. Langlois, Le jeu de Robin et Marion (1896), with a translation in modern French; A. Gucsnon, La Satire a Arras au XIIIa siécle (1900); and a full bibliography of works on the subject in No. 6 of the Bibliothéque de bibliographies critiques, by Henri Guy.

ADAM, ALEXANDER (1741—1809), Scottish writer on Roman antiquities, was born on the 24th of June 1741, near Forrcs, in Morayshire. From his earliest years he showed uncommon diligence and perseverance in classical studies, notwithstanding many difficulties and privatious. In 17 57 he went to Edinburgh,

‘ where he studied at the university. His reputation as a classical

scholar secured him a vpost as assistant at Watson’s Hospital and the headmastership in 1761. In 1764 he became private tutor to Mr Kincaid, afterwards Lord Provost of Edinburgh, by whose influence he was appointed (in 1768) to the rectorship of the High School on the retirement of Mr Matheson, whose substitute he had been for some time before. From this period he devoted himself entirely to the duties of his office and to the preparation of his numerous works on classical literature. His popularity and success as a teacher are strikingly illustrated by the great increase in the number of his pupils, many of whom subsequently became distinguished men, among them being Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham and Jefirey. He succeeded in introducing the study of Greek into the curriculum of the school, notwithstanding the opposition of the university headed by Principal Robertson. In 1780 the university of Edinburgh conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. He died on the 18th of December 1809, after an illness of five days, during which he occasionally imagined himself still at work, his last words being, “ It grows dark, boys, you may go." Dr Adam’s first publication was his Principles of Latin and English Grammar (1772), which, being written in English instead of Latin, brought down a storm of abuse upon him. This was followed by his Roman Antiquities (1791), A Summary of Geography and History (1704) and a Compcndio'us Dictionary of the Latin Tongue (1805). The MS. of a projected larger Latin dictionary, which he did not live to complete, lies in the library of the High School. His best work was his Roman Antiquities, which has passed through a large number of editions and received the unusual compliment of a German translation.

( 8See)An Account of the Life and Character of A. A ., by A. Henderson 1 [O .

ADAM, SIR FREDERICK (1781—1853), British general, was the son of the Rt. Hon. W. Adam of Blair-Adam, lord-lieutenant of Kinross-shire. He was gazetted an ensign at the age of fourteen and was subsequently educated at Woolwich. He became captain in 1799, and served with the Coldstream Guards in Egypt (1801). In 1805, having purchased the intermediate steps of promotion, he obtained command of the 2rst Foot, with which regiment he served in the Mediterranean from 1805 to 1813, taking part in the battle of Maida in 1806. In 1813 he accompanied the British corps sent to Catalonia, in which he commanded a brigade. He fought a gallant action at Biar (April 12, 1813), and on the following day won further distinction at Castalla. In the action of Ordal, on the 12th of September, Adam received two severe wounds. He returned to England to recover, and was made a major-general in 1814. At Waterloo, Adam’s brigade, of which the 52nd under Colborne (see SEATON, LORD) formed part, shared with the Guards the honour of repulsing the Old Guard. For his services he was made a K.C.B., and received also Austrian and Russian orders. During the long peace which followed, Sir Frederick Adam was successively employed at Malta, in the Ionian Islands as lord high commissioner (1824—1831) and from 1832 to 1837 as governor of Madras. He became K.C.M.G_. in 1820, G.C.M.G. four years later, lieutenant-general in 1830, a privy councillor in 1831, G.C.B. in 1840, and full general in 1846. He died suddenly on the 17th of August 1853.

ADAM, JULIEl‘TE (1836— ), French writer, known also by her maiden name of Juliette Lamber, was born at Verberie (Oise) on the 4th of October 1836. She has given an account of her childhood, rendered unhappy by the dissensions of her parents, in Le roman de mon enfance et de ma jeunesse (Eng. trans, London and New York, 1902). In 1852 she married a doctor named La Messine, and published in 1858 her Idées antiproudhoniennes sur I’amour, la femme et le mariage, in defence of Daniel Stern (Mme. d’Agoult) and George Sand. On her husband’s death she married in 1868 Antoine Edmond Adam (1816—1877), prefect of police in 1870, and subsequently lifesenator; and she established a salon which was frequented by Gambetta and the other republican leaders against the conservative reaction of the ’seventies. In the same interest she founded in 1879 the N ouvelle Revue, which she edited for the first eight years, and in the administration of which she retained a preponderating influence until 1899. She wrote the notes on foreign politics, and was unremitting in her attacks on Bismarck and in her advocacy of a policy of revanche. Mme. Adam was also generally credited with the authorship of papers on various European capitals signed “ Paul Vasili,” which were in reality the work of various writers. The most famous of her numerous novels is Paienne (1883). Her reminiscences, M es premieres armes littéraires et politiques (1904) and Mes sentiments et nos idées avant 1870 (1905), contain much interesting gossip about her distinguished contemporaries. ,

ADAM. LAMBERT SIGISBERT (1700—17 59), French sculpto known as Adam l’ainé, was born in Nancy, son of Jacob Sigisbert Adam, a sculptor of little repute. Adam was thirty-seven when, on his election to the Academy, he exhibited at the Salon the model of the group of “ Neptune and Amphitrite ” for the centre of the fountain at Versailles, and thereafter found much employment in the decoration of the royal residences. Among his more important works are “ Nymphs and Tritons,” “ The Triumph of Neptune stilling the Waves,” “ Hunter with Lion in his Net,” a relief for the chapel of St Adelaide, “ The Seine and the Marne ” in stone for St Cloud, “ Hunting ” and “ Fishing,” marble groups for Berlin, “ Mars embraced by Love " and “ The enthusiasm of Poetry.” Adam restored with much ability the twelve statues (Lycomedes) found in the so-called Villa of Marius at Rome, and was elected a member of the Academy of St Luke. Several of his most important works were executed for Frederick the Great in Prussia.

His brother, also a sculptor, Nrcous SimsrmN ADAM (1705— 1778), known as Adam le jeune, born in Nancy, worked under equal encouragement. His first work of importance was his “ Prometheus chained, devoured by a Vulture,” executed in plaster in 1738, and carved in marble in 1763 as his “ reception piece ” when he was elected into the Academy. He produced the reliefs of the “ Birth ” and “ Agony of Christ ” for the Oratory


in Paris, but his chief works are the “ Mausoleum of Cardinal de Fleury ” and, in particular, the tomb of Catherine Opalinska, queen of Poland (wife of King Stanislaus), at Nancy.

A third brother, angors GASPARD Burn/151m ADAM (17101761), born in Nancy, became the first sculptor of Frederick the Great and the head of the atelier of sculpture founded by that monarch, and passed the greater part of his life in Berlin. His chief works adorn the gardens and palaces of Sans Souci and Potsdam.

The work of the brothers Adam was too ornate in style to win the approval of the school that immediately followed them, and found its principal opponents in Bouchardon and Pigalle.

See Dussieux, Artistes frangais d l'élranger (Paris, 1855, 8vo); Archives de l'art frangais, documents, vol. i. p . 117-180, chiefly for; works executed for the king of Prussia; il)\/Iariette, Abecedario; Emile de la Chavignerie and Auvray, Dictionnaire general drs artistes dc l'école franyaise (Paris, 1882), mainly for works executed; Lady Dilke, French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th century (London, 4to, 1900).

ADAM, MELCHIOR (d. 1622), German divine and biographer, was born at Grotkau in Silesia after 1550, and educated in the college of Brieg, where he became a Protestant. In 1 598 he went to Heidelberg, where he held various scholastic appointments. He wrote the biographies of a number of German scholars of the 16th century, mostly theologians, which were published in Heidelberg and Frankfort (5 vols., 1615—1620). He dealt with only twenty divines of other countries. All his divines are Protestants. His industry as a biographer is commended by P. Bayle, who acknowledges his obligations to Adam’s labours; and his biographies, though they have faults, are still useful.

ADAM, PAUL (1862— ), French novelist, was born in Paris on the 7th of December 1862. He was prosecuted for his first novel, Chair molle (1885), but was acquitted. He collaborated with Jean Moréas in Le lhé chez Miranda (1886), and with Moréas and Gustave Kahn he founded the Symboliste, coming forward as one of the earliest defenders of symbolism. Among his numerous novels should be noted Le mystere des foules (2 vols., 1895), a study in Boulangism, Lettres de Malaisie (1897), a fantastic romance of imaginary future politics. In 1899 he began a novelsequence, giving the history of the Napoleonic campaigns, the restoration and the government of Louis Philippe, comprising Laforce (1899), L’enfant d’Austerlitz (1901), La ruse (1902), and Au soleil de J uillet (1903). In 1900 he wrote a Byzantine romance, Basile 0! Sophia.

ADAM, ROBERT (1728—1792), British architect, the second son of William Adam of Maryburgh, in Fife, and the most celebrated of four brothers, John, Robert, James and William Adam, was born at Kirkcaldy in 1728. For few famous men have we so little biographical material, and contemporary references to him are sparse. He certainly studied at the university of Edinburgh, and probably received his first instruction in architecture from his father, who gave proofs of his own skill and taste in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (now demolished). His mother was the aunt of Dr W. Robertson, the first English historian of Charles V., and in 1750 we find Robert Adam living with her in Edinburgh, and making one of the brilliant literary coterie which adorned it at that period. Somewhere between 17 50 and 1754 he visited Italy, where he spent three years studying the remains of Roman architecture. There he was struck with the circumstance that practically nothing had survived of the Greek and Roman masterpieces except public buildings, and that the private palaces, which Vitruvius and Pliny esteemed so highly, had practically vanished. One example of such work, however, was extant in the ruins of Diocletian’s palace at Spalato, in Dalmatia, and this he visited in July 1757, taking with him the famous French architect and antiquary, C. L. Clérisseau, and two experienced draughtsmen, with whose assistance, after being arrested as a spy, he managed in five weeks to accumulate a sufficient number of measurements and careful plans and surveys to produce a restoration of the entire building in a fine work which he published in 1764, The Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian, é'e. Considering the shortness of the time occupied and the obstacles placed in his way by the Venetian governor and the population of the place, the result was amazing. The influence of these studies was apparent directly and indirectly in much of his subsequent work, which, indeed, was in great measure founded upon them.

After his return to England he seems to have come rapidly to the front, and in 1762 he was appointed sole architect to the king and the Board of Works. Six years later he resigned this office, in which he was succeeded by his brother James,—who however, held the office jointly with another,—and entered parliament as member for the county of Kinross. In 1768 he and his three brothers leased the ground fronting the Thames, upon which the Adelphi now stands, for {1200 on a ninety-nine years’ lease, and having obtained, with the assistance of Lord Bute, the needful act of parliament, proceeded, in the teeth of public opposition, to erect the ambitious block of buildings which is imperishably associated with their name, indicating its joint origin by the title Adelphi, from the Greek doeMSoi, the Brothers. The site presented attractive possibilities. A steep hill led down Buckingham Street to the river-side, and the plan was to raise against it, upon a terrace formed of massive arches and vaults and facing the river, a dignified quarter of fine streets and stately buildings, suggestive of the Spalato ruins. In spite of many difiiculties, pecuniary and otherwise (the undertaking was completed from the proceeds of a lottery), money was raised and the work pushed on; in five years the Adelphi terrace stood complete, and the fine houses were eagerly sought after by artists and men of letters. Splendid, however, as the terrace and its houses are, both in conception and execution, the underground work which upholds them ‘is perhaps more remarkable still. The vast series of arched vaults has been described by a modern writer as a very town, which, during the years that they were open, formed subterranean streets leading to the river and its wharves. In many places the arches stand in double tiers. In time these “ streets " obtained a bad name as the haunt of suspicious characters, and they have long been enclosed and let as cellars. Between 1773 and 1778 the brothers issued a fine series of folio engravings and descriptions of the designs for many of their most important works, which included several great public buildings and numberless large private houses; a fine volume was published in 1822. For the remaining years of Robert’s life the practice of the firm was the most extensive in the country; his position was unquestioned, and when he died in 1792 he was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey almost as a matter of course.

The art of Robert Adam was extraordinarily many-sided and prolific, and it is diflicult to give a condensed appreciation of it. As an architect he was strongly under Roman and Italian influences, and his style and aims Were exotic rather than native. But this does not detract from their merit, nor need it diminish our estimate of his genius. It was, indeed, the most signal triumph of that genius that he was able so to mould and adapt classical models as to create a new manner of the highest charm and distinction. Out of simple curvilinear forms, of which he principally preferred the oval, he evolved combinations of extraordinary grace and variety, and these entered into every detail of his work. In his view the architect was intimately concerned with the furniture and the decorations of a building, as well as with its form and construction, and this view he carried rigorously into practice, and with astonishing success. Nothing was too small and unimportant for him—summer-houses and dogkennels came as readily to him as the vast facades of a terrace in town or a great country house. But he never permitted minute details to obscure the main lines of a noble design. Whatever care he might have expended upon the flowing curves of a moulding or a decoration, it was strictly kept in its place; it contributed its share and no more to the total eflect. He made a distinct step forward in giving shape to the idea of imparting the unity of a single imposing structure to a number of private houses grouped in a block which is so characteristic a feature of modern town building, and though at times he failed in the breadth of grasp needful to carry out such an idea on a large scale, he has left us some fine examples of what can be accom


plished in this direction. A delightful but theoretically undesirable characteristic of his work is the use of stucco. Upon it he moulded delicate forms in subtle and beautiful proportions. His “ compo ” was used so successfully that the patent was infringed: many of his moulds still exist and are in constant use. That most difficult feature, the column, he handled with enthusiasm and perfect mastery; he studied and wrote of it with minute pains, while his practice showed his grasp of the subject by all avoidance of bare imitation of the classic masters who first brought it to perfection. His work might be classic in form, but it was independently developed by himself. It would be impossible here to give a list of the innumerable works which he executed. In London, of course, the Adelphi stands pre-eminent; the screen and gate of the Admiralty and part of Fitzroy Square are by him, Portland Place, and much of the older portion of F insbury Circus, besides whole streets of houses in the west end. There are the famous country houses of Lord Mansfield at Caen Wood, Highgate and Luton H00, and decorations and additions to many more.

Robert Adam—with, there is reason to suspect, some help from his brother James—has left as deep and enduring a mark upon English furniture as upon English architecture. Down to his time carving was the dominant characteristic of the mobiliary art, but thenceforward the wood-worker declined in importance. French influence disposed Robert Adam to the development of painted furniture with inlays of beautiful exotic woods, and many of his designs, especially for Sideboards, are extremely attractive, mainly by reason of their austere simplicity. Robert Adam was no doubt at first led to turn his thoughts towards furniture by his desire to see his light, delicate, graceful interiors, with their large sense of atmosphere and their refined and finished detail, filled with plenishings which fitted naturally into his scheme. His own taste developed as he went on, but he was usually extremely successful, and cabinetmakers are still reproducing his most effective designs. In his furniture he made lavish use of his favourite decorative motives—wreaths and paterae, the honeysuckle, and that fan ornament which he used so constantly. Thus an Adam house is a unique product of English art. From facade to fire-irons, from the chimneys to the carpets, everything originated in the same order of ideas, and to this day an Adam drawing~room is to English what a Louis Seize room is to French art. In nothing were the Adams more successful than in mantelpieces and doors. The former, by reason of their simplicity and the readiness with which the “ compo ” ornaments can be applied and painted, are still made in cheap forms in great number. The latter were most commonly executed in a rich mahogany and are now greatly sought after. The extent to which the brothers Worked together is by no means clear— indeed, there is an astonishing dearth of information regarding this remarkable family, and it is a reproach to English art literature that no biography of Robert Adam has ever been published. John Adam succeeded to his father’s practice as an architect in Edinburgh. James Adam studied in Rome, and eventually was closely associated with Robert; William is variously said to have been a banker and an architect. (J. P.-B.)

ADAM, WILLIAM (1751—:839), British lawyer and politician, eldest son of John Adam of Blair-Adam, Kinross-shire, and nephew of the architect noticed above, was born on the 2nd of August 1751, studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and passed at the Scottish bar in 1773. Soon afterwards he removed to England, where he entered parliament in 1774, and in 1782 was called to the common law bar. He withdrew from parliament in 1795, entered it again in 1806 as representative of the united counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and continued a member, with some interruptions, till r811. He was a Whig and a supporter of the policy of Fox. At the English bar he obtained a very considerable practice. He was successively attorney and solicitor-general to the prince of Wales, one of the managers of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, and one of the counsel who defended the first Lord Melville when impeached. During his party’s brief tenure of office in r806 he was chancellor of the duchy of Cornwall, and

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