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was afterwards a privy councillor and lord-lieutenant of Kinrossshire. . In 1814 he became a baron of Exchequer in Scotland, and was chief commissioner of the newly established jury-court for the trial of civil causes, from 181 5 to 1830, when it was merged in the permanent supreme tribunal. He died at Edinburgh on the 17th of February 1839.
ADAMANT (from Gr. 6.56.7103, untameable), the modern diamond (q.v.), but also a name given to any very hard substance. The Greek word is used by Homer as a personal epithet, and by Hesiod for the hard metal in armour, while Theophrastus applies it to the hardest crystal. By an etymological confusion with the Lat. adamare, to have an attraction for, it also came to be associated with the loadstone; but since the term was displaced by “ diamond ” it has had only a figurative and poetical use.
ADAMAWA, a country of West Africa, which lies roughly between 6° and 11° N., and 11° and 15° E., about midway between the Eight of Biafra and Lake Chad. It is now divided between the British protectorate of Nigeria (which includes the chief town Yola, q.v.) and the German colony of Cameroon. This region is watered by the Benue, the chief affluent of the Niger, and its tributary the Faro. Another stream, the Yedseram, llows north-east to Lake Chad. The most fertile parts of the country are the plains near the Benue, about 800 ft. above the sea. South and east of the river the land rises to an elevation of 1600 ft., and is diversified by numerous hills and groups of mountains. These ranges contain remarkable rock formations, towers, battlements and pinnacles crowning the hills. Chief of these formations is a gigantic pillar some 450 ft. high and 150 ft. thick at the base. It stands on the summit of a high conical hill. Mount Alantika, about 25 miles south-south-east of Yola, rises from the plain, an isolated granite mass, to the height of 6000 ft. The country, which is very fertile and is covered with luxuriant herbage, has many villages and a considerable population. Durra, ground—nuts, yarns and cotton are the principal products, and the palm and banana abound. Elephants are numerous and ivory is exported. In the eastern part of the country the rhinoceros is met with, and the rivers swarm with crocodiles and with a curious mammal called the ayu, bearing some resemblance to the seal.
Adamawa is named after a Fula Emir Adama, who in the early years of the 19th century conquered the country. To the Hausa and Bornuese it was previously known as Fumbina (or Southland). The inhabitants are mainly pure negroes such as the Durra, Batta and Dekka, speaking different languages, and all fetish-worshippers. They are often of a very low type, and some of the tribes are cannibals. Slave-trading was still active among them in the early years of the 20th century. The Fula (qua), who first came into the country about the 15th century as nomad herdsmen, are found chiefly in the valleys, the pagan tribes holding the mountainous districts. There are also in the e0untry _ numbers of Hausa, who are chiefly traders, as well as Arabs and Kanuri from Bornu. The emir of Yola, in the period of Fula lordship, claimed rights of suzerainty over the whole of Adamawa, but the country, since the subjection of the Fula (c. 1900), has consisted of a number of small states under the control of the British and Germans. Garua on the upper Benue, 65 m. east of Yola, is the headquarters of the German administration for the region and the chief trade centre in the north of Adamawa. ' Yoko is one of the principal towns in the south of the country, and in the centre is the important town of Ngaundere. After Heinrich Barth, who explored the country in 18 51, the first traveller to penetrate Adamawa was the German, E. R. Flegel (1882). It has since been traversed by many expeditions, notably that of
Baron von Uechtritz and Dr Siegfried Passarge (189 3-1894).
ably on a union of certain gnostic and ascetic doctrines, this sect
pretended that its’members were re-established in Adam’s state of original innocency. They accordingly rejected the form of marriage, which, they said, would never have existed but for sin, and lived in absolute lawlessness, holding that, whatever they did, their actions could be neither good nor bad. During the middle ages the doctrines of this obscure sect, which did not itself exist long, were revived in Europe by the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit.
ADAMNAN, or ADOMNAN (0. 624—704), Irish saint and historian, was born at Raphoe, Donegal, Ireland, about the year 624. In 679 he was elected abbot of Hy or Iona, being ninth in succession from the founder, St Columba. While on a mission to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumberland in 686, he was led to adopt the Roman rules with regard to the time for celebrating Easter and the tonsure, and on his return to Iona he tried without success to enforce the change upon the monks. He died on the 23rd of September 704. Adamnan wrote a Life of St Columba, which, though abounding in fabulous matter, is of great interest and value. The best editions are those published by W. Reeves (1857, new edit. Edinburgh, 1874) and by J. T. Fowler (Oxford, 1894). Adamnan’s other well-known work, De Loci: Sandi: (edited by P. Geyer, Itinera H ierosalymitana saeculi, iii.~viii., &c., 1898; vol. 39 of Bienna Corpus Script. Ecc. Latin) was based, according to Bede, on information received from Arculf, a French bishop, who, on his return from the Holy Land, was wrecked on the west coast of Britain, and was entertained for a time at Iona. This was first published at Ingolstadt in 1619 by J. Gretser, who also defended Baronius’ acceptance of Arculf’s narrative against Casaubon. An English translation by G. J. R. Macpherson, Arculfus’ Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, was published by the Pilgrim’s Text Society (London, 1889).
For full bibliography see U. Chevalier, RéPerl. do: sources historiques (1903), p. 40.
ADAMS, ANDREW LEITH (1827—1882), Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist, the second son of Francis Adams of Banchory, Aberdeen, was bornv on the 21st of March 1827,v and was educated to the medical profession. As surgeon in the Army Medical Department from 1848 to 187 3, he utilized his opportunities for the study of natural history in India and Kashmir, in Egypt, Malta, Gibraltar and Canada. His observations on the fossil vertebrata of the Maltese Islands led him eventually to give special study to fossil elephants, on which he became an acknowledged authority. In 1872 he was elected F.R.S. In 1873 he was chosen professor of zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and in 1878 professor of natural history in Queen’s College, Cork, a post which he held until the close of his life. He died at Queenstown on the zoth of July 1882.
PUBLICATIONS—Notes ofa Naturalist in the Nile Valley andMalta (London, 1870); other works of travel; Monograph an the British Fossil Elephants (Palaeontographical Soc.), (London. 1877-1881).
ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS (1807—1886), American diplomatist, son of John Quincy Adams, and grandson of John Adams, was born in Boston on the 18th of August 1807. His father, having been appointed minister to Russia, took him in 1809 to St Petersburg, where he acquired a perfect familiarity with French, learning it as his native tongue. After eight years spent in Russia and England, he attended the Boston Latin School for four years, and in 1825 graduated at Harvard. He lived two years in the executive mansion, Washington, during his father’s presidential term, studying law and moving in a society where he met Webster, Clay, Jackson and Randolph. Returning to Boston, he devoted ten years to business and study, and wrote for the North American Review. He also undertook the management of his father’s pecuniary affairs, and actively supported him in his contest in the House of Representatives for the right of petition and the anti-slavery cause. In 1835 he wrote an eflective and widely read political pamphlet, entitled, after Edmund Burke’s more famous work, An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs. He was a member of the Massachusetts general court from 1840 to 1845, sitting for three years in the House of Representatives and for two years in the Senate; and in 1846—1848 he edited a party journal, the Boston Whig. In 1848 he was prominent in politics as a “ Conscience Whig,” presiding over the Buffalo Convention which formed the Free Soil party and nominated Martin Van Buren for president and himself for vice-president. He was a Republican member of the Thirty-Sixth Congress, which assembled on the 5th of December 1859, and during the second session, from the 3rd of December 1860 to the 4th of March 1861, he represented Massachusetts in the Congressional Committee of Thirty-three at the time of the se "ession of seven of the Southern states. His selection by the chairman of this committee, Thomas Corwin, to )resent to the full committee certain propositions agreed upon by two-thirds of the Republican members, and his calm and able speech of the 31st of January 1861 in the House, served to make him conspicuous before congress and the country. Together with William H. Seward, he stood for the Republican policy of concession; and, while he was criticized severely and charged with inconsistency in view of his record as a “Conscience Whig,” he was of the same mind as President Lincoln, willing to concede non-essentials, but holding rigidly to the principle, properly understood, that there must be no extension of slavery. He believed that as the Republicans were the victors they ought to show a spirit of conciliation, and that the policy of righteousness was likewise one of expediency, since it would have for its result the holding of the border slave states with the North until the 4th of March, when the Republicans could take possession of the government at washington. With the incoming of the new administration Secretary Seward secured for Adams the appointment of minister to Great Britain. So much sympathy was shown in England for the South that his path was beset with difficulties ; but his mission was to prevent the interference of Great Britain in the struggle; and while the work of Lincoln, . Seward and Sumner, and the cause of emancipation, tended to this end, the American minister was insistent and unyielding, and 'knew how to present his case forcibly and with dignity. He laboured with energy and discretion to prevent the sailing of the “Alabama ”; and, when unsuccessful in this, he persistently urged upon the British government its responsibility for the destruction of American merchant vessels by the privateer. In his own diary he shows that underneath his calm exterior were serious trouble and keen anxiety; and, in fact, the strain which he underwent during the Civil War made itself felt in later years. Adams was instrumental in getting Lord John Russell to stop the “Alexandra,” and it was his industry and pertinacity in argument and remonstrance that induced Russell to order the detention in September 1863 of the two ironclad rams in~ tended for the Confederate States. Adams remained in England until May 1868. His last important work was as a member, in 1871—187 2, of the tribunal of arbitration at Geneva which disposed of the “Alabama” claims. His knowledge of the subject and his fairness of mind enabled him to render his country and the cause of international arbitration valuable service. He died at Boston on the zrst of November r886.
He edited the works of John Adams (10 vols.. 1850-1856), and the MemoirsofJohn QuincyAdams(12vols.,1874—1877). See the excellent bi raphy (Boston, 1900), in the “American Statesmen Series,"
'bfiis son, Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (J. F. R.)
ADAIS, HENRY (1838— ), American historian, son of Charles Francis Adams and grandson of John Quincy Adams, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 16th of February 1838. He graduated at Harvard in 1858, and from 1861 to 1868 was private secretary to his father. From 1870 to 1877 he was assistant professor of history at Harvard and from 1870 to 1876 was editor of the North American Review. He is considered to have been the first (in 1874—1876) to conduct historical seminary work in the United States. His great work is his History of the United States (1801 to 1817) (9 vols., 1889—1891), which is incomparably the best work yet published dealing with the administrations of Presidents Jefierson and Madison. It is particularly notable for its account of the diplomatic relations of the United States during this period, and for its essential impartiality. Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the “American Statesmen Series,” and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating
to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879). In collaboration with his elder brother Charles Francis Adams, Jr., he published Chapters of Erie and Other Essays (1871), and, with H. C. Lodge, Ernest Young and J. L. Laughlin, Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876).
His elder brother, JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1833—1894), "a graduate of Harvard (1853), practised law, and was a Demo— cratic member for several terms of the Massachusetts general court. In 1872 he was nominated for vice-president by the Democratic faction that refused to support Horace Greeley.
Another brother, CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, Jr. (183 5— ), born in Boston on the 27th of May 1835, graduated at Harvard in 1856, and served on the Union side in the Civil War, receiving in 1865 the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army. He was president of the Union Pacific railroad from 1884 to 1890, having previously become widely known as an authority on the management of railways. In 1900—1901 he was president of the American HistOrical Association. Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of M assachusells History (1892) ; a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900) ; Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902) ; Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906) ;and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
Another brother, BROOKS ADAMS (1848— ), born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 24th of June 1848, graduated at Harvard in 1870, and until 1881 practised law. His writings include: The Emancipation of Massachusetts (1887) ; The Law of C ivilization and Decay (1895) ; Amerira’s Economic Supremacy (1900) ; and The New Empire (1902).
ADAMS, HENRY CARTER (1852— ), American economist, was born at Davenport, Iowa, on the 3rst of December 1852. He was educated at Iowa College and Johns Hopkins University, of which latter he was fellow and lecturer (1880-1882). He was afterwards a lecturer in Cornell University, and in 1887 became professor of political economy and finance in the university of Michigan. He also became statistician to the Interstate Commerce Committee and was in charge of the transportation department in the 1900 census. His principal works are The State in Relation to Industrial Action' (1887); Taxation in the United States, 1787 to 1816 (1884) ; Public Debts (1887); The Science of Finance (1888) ; Economics and Jurisprudence (1897).
ADAMS, HERBERT (r858— ), American sculptor, was born at West Concord, Vermont, on the 28th of January 1858. He was educated at the Worcester (Massachusetts) Institute of Technology, and at the Massachusetts Normal Art School, and in 1885—1890 he was a pupil of Antonin Mercié in Paris. In 1890— 1898 he was an instructor in the art school of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York. In 1906 he was elected vice-president of the National Academy of Design, New York. He experimented successfully with some polychrome busts and 'tinted marbles, notably in the “Rabbi’s Daughter” and a portrait of Miss Julia Marlowe, the actress; and he is at his best in his portrait busts of women, the best example being the study, completed in 1887, of Miss A. V. Pond, whom he afterwards married. Among his other productions are a fountain for Fitchburg, Massachusetts (1888) ; a number of works for the Congressional Library, Washington, including the bronze doors (“Writing ”) begun by Olin Warner, and the statue of Professor Joseph Henry ; memorial tablets for the Boston State House; a memorial to Jonathan Edwards, at Northampton, Mass; statues of Richard Smith, the type-founder, in Philadelphia, and of William Ellery Charming, in Boston (1902); and the Vanderbilt memorial bronze doors for St Bartholomew’s Church, New York.
ADAMS, HERBERT BAXTER (1850—1901), American historian and educationalist, was born at Shutesbury (near Amherst), Massachusetts, on the 16th of April 1850. He graduated at Amherst, at the head of his class, in 1872; and between 1873 and 1876 he studied political science, history and economics at thtingen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, receiving the degree of Ph-D.at Heidelberg in 1876, with the highest honours (summa cum laude). From 1876 almost until his death he was connected with the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, being in turn a fellow, an associate in history (1878— 1883), an associate professor (1883—1891) and after 1891 professor of American and institutional history, In addition he was lecturer on history in Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1878—1881, and for many years took an active part in Chautauqua work. In 1884, also, he was one of the founders of the American Historical Association, of which he was secretary until 1900. In 1882 he founded the “ Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science,” and at the time of his death some forty volumes had been issued under his editorship. After 1887 he also edited for the United States Bureau of Education the series of monographs entitled “ Contributions to American Educational History,” he himself preparing the College of William and Mary (1887) , and Thomas J eflerson and the University of Virginia (1888). It was as a teacher, however, that Adams rendered his most valuable services, and many American historical scholars owe their training and to a considerable extent their enthusiasm to him. He died at Amherst, Massachusetts, on the 30th of July 1901.
In addition to the monographs mentioned above, he published: Maryland’s Influence in Founding a National Commonwealth (1877); Methods of H istorieal Study (1884); Maryland’s Influence upon Land Cessions to the United States (1885); and the Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (2 vols., Boston, 1893), his most important work.
See Herbert B. Adams: Tribute: of Friends (Baltimore, 1902), extra volume (xxiii.) of “Studies in Historical and Political Science."
ADAMS, JOHN (1735—1826), second president of the United States of America, was born on the 30th of October 173 5 in what is now the town of Quincy, Massachusetts. His father, a farmer, also named John, was of the fourth generation in descent from Henry Adams, who emigrated from Devonshire, England, to Massachusetts about 1636; his mother was Susanna Boylston Adams. Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in r 7 55, and for a time taught school at Worcester and studied law in the office of Rufus Putnam. In 1758 he was admitted to the bar. From an early age he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men. The earliest of these is his report of. the argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the constitutionality of writs of assistance. This was in 1761, and the argument inspired him with zeal for the cause of the American colonies. Years afterwards, when an old man, Adams undertook to write out at length his recollections of this scene; it is instructive to compare the two accounts. John Adams had none of the qualities of popular leadership which were so marked a characteristic of his second cousin, Samuel Adams; it was rather as a constitutional lawyer that he influenced the course of events. He was impetuous, intense and often vehement, unflinchingly courageous, devoted with his whole soul to the cause he had espoused; but his vanity, his pride of opinion and his inborn contentiousness were serious handicaps to him in his political career. These qualities were particularly manifested at a later period—as, for example, during his term as president. He first made his influence widely felt and became conspicuous as a leader of the Massachusetts Whigs during the discussions with regard to the Stamp Act of 1765. In that year he drafted the instructions which were sent by the town of Braintree to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns in drawing up instructions to their representatives; in August 176 5 he contributed anonymously four notable articles to the Boston Gazette (republished separately in London in 1768 as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law), in which he argued that the opposition of the colonies to the Stamp Act was a part of the never-ending struggle between individualism and corporate authority; and in December 1765 he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which be pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts being without representation in parliament, had not assented to it. In 1768 he removed to Boston. Two years later, with that degree of
moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the “Boston Massacre,” charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony. The trial resulted in an acquittal of the officer who commanded the detachment, and most of the soldiers; but two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. These claimed benefit of clergy and were branded in the hand and released. Adams’s upright and patriotic conduct in taking the unpopular side in this case met with its just reward in the following year, in the shape of his election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives by a vote of 418 to 118.
John Adams was a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1778. In June 1775, witha view to promoting the union of the colonies, he seconded the nomination of Washington as commander-in-chief of the army. His influence in congress was great, and almost from the beginning he was impatient for a separation of the colonies from Great Britain. On the 7th of June 1776 he seconded the famous resolution introduced by Richard Henry Lee (q.v.) that “ these colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states,” and no man championed these resolutions (adopted on the 2nd of July) so eloquently and eflectively before the congress. On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jeflerson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. Before this question had been disposed of, Adams was placed at the head of the Board of War and Ordnance, and he also served on many other important committees.
In 1778 John Adams sailed for France to supersede Silas Deane in the American commission there. But just as he embarked that commission concluded the desired treaty of alliance, and soon after his arrival he advised that the number of commissioners be reduced to one. His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth. With James Bowdoin and Samuel Adams, he formed a sub-committee which drew up the first draft of that instrument, and most of it probably came from John Adams’s pen. Before this work had been completed he was again sent to Europe, having been chosen on the 27th of September 1779 as minister plenipotentiary for negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great Britain. Conditions were not then favourable for peace, however; the French government, moreover, did not approve of the choice, inasmuch as Adams was not sufficiently pliant and tractable and was from the first suspicious of Vergennes; and subsequently Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay and Henry Laurens were appointed to cooperate with Adams. Jefferson, however, did not cross the Atlantic, and Laurens took little part in the negotiations. This left the management of the business to the other three. Jay and Adams distrusted the good faith of the French government. Outvoting Franklin, they decided to break their instructions, which required them to ‘make the most candid confidential communications on all subjects to the ministers of our generous ally, the king of France; to undertake nothing in the negotiations for peace or truce without their knowledge or concurrence; and ultimately to govern yourself by their advice and opinion”; and, instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners, without consulting the French ministers. Throughout the negotiations Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the British-American coast should be recognized. Political conditions in Great Britain, at the moment, made the conclusion of peace almost a necessity with the British ministry, and eventually the American negotiators were able to secure a peculiarly favourable treaty. This preliminary treaty was signed on the 30th of November 1782. Before these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time in the Netherlands. In July 1780 he had been authorized to execute the duties previously assigned to Henry Laurens, and at the Hague was eminently successful, securing there recognition of the United States as an independent government (April 19, 1782), and negotiating both a loan and, in October 1782, a treaty of amity and commerce, the first of such treaties between the United States and foreign powers after that of February 1778 with France.
In 1785 John Adams was appointed the first of a long line of able and distinguished American ministers to the court of St James’s. When he was presented to his former sovereign, George III. intimated that he was aware of Mr Adams’s lack of confidence in the French government. Replying, Mr Adams admitted it, closing with the outspoken sentiment: “ I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country "—a phrase which must have jarred upon the monarch’s sensibilities. While in London Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the United States (r787). In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of the state governments. Unfortunately, in so doing, he used phrases savouring of aristocracy which offended many of his countrymen,—as in the sentence in which he suggested that “ the rich, the well-born and the able " should be set apart from other men in a senate. Partly for this reason, while Washington had the vote of every elector in the first presidential election of 1789, Adams received only thirty-four out of sixtynine. As this was the second largest number he was declared vice-president, but he began his eight years in that office (1789— 1797) with a sense of grievance and of suspicion of many of the leading men. Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups——the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans—and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefierson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket. Adams’s four years as chief magistrate (1797—180!) were marked by a succession of intrigues which embittered all his later life; they were marked, also, by events, such as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which brought discredit on the Federalist party. Moreover, factional strife broke out within the party itself; Adams and Hamilton became alienated, and members of Adams’s own cabinet virtually looked to Hamilton rather than to the president as their political chief. The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton’s adherents in the cabinet. In 1800, Adams was again the Federalist candidate for the presidency, but the distrust of him in his own party, the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts and the popularity of his opponent, Thomas Jefferson, combined to cause his defeat. He then retired into private life. On the 4th of July 1826, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, he died at Quincy. Jefi'erson died on the same day. -In 1764 Adams had married Miss Abigail Smith (1744—1818), the daughter of a Congregational minister at Weymouth, Massachusetts. She was a woman of much ability, and her letters, written in an excellent English style, are of great value to students of the period in which she lived. President John Quincy Adams was their eldest son.
_AUTHORITIEs.—C. F. Adams, The Works of John Adams, with
Life (XOV0l5., Boston, 18504856) ; John and Abigail Adams, Familiai Letters during the Revolution (Boston, 1875); J. Morse, John Adams (Boston, 188 : later edition, I899), 1n the “American Statesmen Series"; and ellen Chamberlain. John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898). (E. Cu.)
ADAMS, JOHN COUCH (1819—1892), British astronomer, was born at Lidcot farmhouse, Laneast, Cornwall, on the 5th of June 18r9. His father, Thomas Adams, was a tenant farmer; his mother, Tabitha Knill Grylls, inherited a small estate at Badharlick. From the village school at Laneast he went, at the age of twelve, to Devonport, where his mother’s cousin, the Rev. John Couch Grylls, kept a private school. His promise as a mathematician induced his parents to send him to the university of Cambridge, and in October 1839 he entered as a sizar at St John’s College. He graduated B.A. in 184 3 as the senior wrangler and first Smith’s prizeman of his year. While still an undergraduate he happened to read of certain unexplained irregularities in the motion of the planet Uranus, and determined to investigate them as soon as possible, with a view to ascertaining whether they might not be due to the action of a remote undiscovered planet. Elected fellow of his college in 1843, he at once proceeded to attack the novel problem. It was this: from the observed perturbations of a known planet to deduce by calculation, assuming only Newton’s law of gravitation, the mass and orbit of an unknown disturbing body. By September 1845 he obtained his first solution, and handed to Professor Challis, the director of the Cambridge Observatory, a paper giving the elements of what he described as “ the new planet.”
On the 21st of October 1845 he left at Greenwich Observatory, for the information of Sir George Airy, the astronomer-royal, a similar document, still preserved among the archives. A fortnight afterwards Airy wrbte asking for information about a point in the solution. Adams, who thought the query unessential, did not reply, and Airy for some months took no steps to verify by telescopic search the results of the young mathematician's investigation. Meanwhile, Leverrier, on the 10th of November 1845, presented to the French Academy a memoir on Uranus, showing that the existing theory failed to account for its motion. Unaware of Adams's work, he attempted a like inquiry, and on the wt of June 1846, in a second memoir, gave the position, but not the mass or orbit, of the disturbing body whose existence was presumed. The longitude he assigned differed by only 1° from that predicted by Adams in the docum :nt which Airy possessed. The latter was struck by the coin' idence, and mentioned it to_ the Board of Visitors of the Cbservatory, James Challis and Sir John Herschel being present. Herschel, at the ensuing meeting of the British Association early in September, ventured accordingly to predict that a new planet would shortly be discovered. Meanwhile Airy had in July suggested to Challis that the planet should be sought for with the Cambridge equatorial. The search was begun by a laborious method at the end of the month. On the 4th and 12th of August, as afterwards appeared, the planet was actually observed; but owing to the want of a proper star-map it was not then recognized as planetary. Leverrier, still ignorant of these occurrences, presented on the 3rst of August 1846 a third memoir, giving for the first time the mass and orbit of the new body. He communicated his results by letter to Dr Galle, of the Berlin Observatory, who at once examined the suggested region of the heavens. On the 23rd of September he detected near the predicted place a small star unrecorded in the map, and next evening found that it had a proper motion. No doubt remained that “ Leverrier’s planet ” had been discovered. On the announcement of the fact, Herschel and Challis made known that Adams had already calculated the planet’s elements and position. Airy then at length published an account of the circumstances, and Adams’s memoir was printed as an appendix to the Nautical Almanac. A keen controversy arose in France and England as to the merits of the two astronomers. In the latter country much surprise was expressed at the apathy of Airy; in France the claims made for an unknown Englishman were resented as detracting from the credit due to Leverrier’s achievement. As the indisputable facts became known, the world recognized that the two astronomers had independently solved the problem of Uranus, and ascribed to each equal glory. The new planet, at first called Leverrier by F. Arago, received by general consent the neutral name of Neptune. Its mathematical prediction was not only an unsurpassed intellectual feat; it showed also that Newton’s law of gravitation, which Airy had almost called in question, prevailed even to the utmost bounds of the solar systems
The honour of knighthood was offered to Adams when Queen Victoria visited Cambridge in 1847; but then, as on a subsequent occasion, his modesty led him to decline it. The Royal Society awarded him its Copley medal in 1848. In the same year the members of St John’s College commemorated his success by founding in the university an Adams prize, to be given biennially for' the best treatise on a mathematical subject. In 1851 he became president of the Royal Astronomical Society. His lay fellowship at St John’s College came to an end in 1852, and the existing statutes did not permit of his re-election. But Pembroke College, which possessed greater freedom, elected him in the following year to a lay fellowship, and this he held for the rest of his life. In 18 58 he became professor of mathematics at St Andrews, but lectured only for a session, when he vacated the chair for the Lowndean professorship of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge. Two years later he succeeded Challis as director of the Observatory, where he resided until his death.
Although Adams’s researches on Neptune were those which attracted widest notice, the work he subsequently performed in relation to gravitational astronomy and terrestrial magnetism was not less remarkable. Several of his most striking contributions to knowledge originated in the discovery of errors or fallacies in the work of his great predecessors in astronomy. Thus in 1852 he published new and accurate tables of the moon’s parallax, which superseded J. K. Burckhardt’s, and supplied corrections to the theories of M. C. T. Damoiseau, G. A. A. Plana and P. G. D. dc Pontécoulant. In the following year his memoir on the secular acceleration of the moon’s mean motion partially invalidated Laplace’s famous explanation, which had held its place unchallenged for sixty years. At first, Leverrier, Plana and other foreign astronomers controverted Adams’s result; but its soundness was ultimately established, and its fundamental importance to this branch of celestial theory has only developed further with time. For these researches the Royal Astronomicrl Society awarded him its gold medal in 1866. The great meteor shower of 1866 turned his attention to the Leonids, whose probable path and period had already been discussed by Professor H. A. Newton. Using a powerful and elaborate analysis, Adams ascertained that this cluster of meteors, which belongs to the solar system, traverses an elongated ellipse in 3 3} years, and is subject to definite perturbations from the larger planets, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. These results were published in 1867. Ten years later, when Mr. G. W. Hill of Washington expounded a new and beautiful method for dealing with the problem of the lunar motions, Adams briefly announced his own unpublished work in the same field, which, following a parallel course had confirmed and supplemented Hill’s. In 1874—1876 he was president of the Royal Astronomical Society for the second time, when it fell to him to present the gold medal of the year to Leverricr. The determination of the constants in Gauss’s theory of terrestrial magnetism occupied him at intervals for over forty years. The calculations involved great labour, and were not published during his lifetime. They were edited by his brother, Professor W. Grylls Adams, and appear in the second volume of the collected Scientific Papers. Numerical computation of this kind might almost be described as his pastime. The value of the constant known as Euler’s, and the Bernoullian numbers up to the 62nd, he worked out to an unimagined degree of accuracy. For Newton and his writings he had a boundless admiration; many of his papers, indeed, bear the cast of Newton’s thought. He laboured for many years at the task of arranging and cataloguing the great collection of Newton’s unpublished mathematical writings, presented in 1872
to the university by Lord Portsmouth, and wrote the account of them issued in a volume by the University Press in 1888. The post of astronomer-royal was offered him in 1881, but he preferred to pursue his peaceful course of teaching and research in Cambridge. He was British delegate to the International Prime Meridian Conference at Washington in 1884, when he also attended the meetings of the British Association at Montreal and of the American Association at Philadelphia. Five years later his health gave way, and after a long illness he died at the Cambridge Observatory on the 2rst of January 1892, and was buried in St Gilcs’s cemetery, near his home. He married in 1863 Miss Eliza Bruce, of Dublin, who survived him. An international committee was formed for the purpose of erecting a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey; and there, in May 1895, a portrait medallion, by Albert Bruce Joy, was placed near the grave of Newton, and adjoining the memorials of Darwin and of Joule. His bust, by the same sculptor, stands opposite that of Sir John Herschel in the hall of St John’s College, Cambridge. Herkomer’s portrait is in Pembroke College; and Mogford’s, painted in 1851, is in the combination room of St John’s. Another bust, taken in his youth, belongs to the Royal Astronomical Society. A memorial tablet, with an inscription by Archbishop Benson, is placed in the Cathedral at Truro; and Mr Passmore Edwards erected a public institute in his honour at Launceston, near his birthplace.
The Scientific Pop": of John Couch Adams, 4to, vol. i. (1896), and vol. ii. (1900), edited by William Grylls Adams and Ralph Allen Sam son, with a memoir by Dr J. W. L. Glaisher, were published by t e Cambridge University Press. The first volume contains his previously published writings; the second those left in manuscript, including the substance of his lectures on the Lunar Theory. A collection, virtually complete, of Adams's pa ers regarding the discovery of Ne tune was resented by Mrs dams to the library of St John's Colege. A escription of them by Professor Sampson was inserted in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol. hv. p. 143). Consult: Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Soc., lnr. 184; Observatory, xv. 174; Nature, xxxiv. 565, xlv. 301; Astr. Journal, No. 254; R. Grant, Hist. of Physical Astronomy, p. 168; Edinburgh Review, No. 381, p. 72. I
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY (1767—1848), eldest son of President John Adams, sixth president of the United States, was born on the 11th of July 1767, in tnat part of Braintree that is now Quincy, Massachusetts, and was named after John Quincy (1689— 1767), his mother’s grandfather, who was for many years a prominent member of the Massachusetts legislature. In 1778, and again in 1780, young Adams accompanied his father to Europe; studying in Paris in 1778—1779 and at the university of Leiden in 1780. In 1780, also, he began to keep that diary which forms so conspicuous a record of the doings of himself and his contemporaries. In 1781, at the age of fourteen, be accompanied Francis Dana (1743—1811), American envoy to Russia, as his private secretary; but Dana was not received by the Russian government, and in 1782 Adams joined his father at Paris, where he acted as “additional secretary ” to the American commissioners in the negotiation of the treaty of peace which concluded the War of American Independence. Instead of accompanying his father to London, he, of his own choice, returned to Massachusetts, graduated at Harvard College in 1787, three years later was admitted to practise at the bar and at once opened an ofiice in Boston. A series of papers written by him in which he controverted some of Thomas Paine’s doctrines in the Rights of M an, and later another series in which he ably supported the neutral policy of the administration toward France andrEngland, led to his appointment by Washington as minister to the Netherlands in May 1794. There was little for him to do at the Hague, but in the absence of a minister at London, be transacted certain public business with the English foreign secretary. In 1796 Washington appointed him minister to Portugal, but before his departure thither his father John Adams became president and changed his destination to Berlin (1797). While there, he negotiated (1799) a treaty of amity and commerce with Prussia. On Thomas Jefferson’s election to the presidency in 1800, the elder Adams recalled his son, who returned home in 1801. The next year, he was elected