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the commanding officer, issues his orders, superintends the work of the orderly room and the general administration of the corps, and is responsible for musketry duties and the training of recruits. Regular officers are appointed as adjutants to all units of the auxiliary forces. On the European continent the word is not restricted to the lower units of organization; for example, in Germany the Adjutanlur includes all “ routine ” as distinct from “ general ” staff officers in the higher units, and the aides-decamp of royal persons and of the higher commanders are also styled adjutant-generals, fiiigel-adjutanten,&c. For the so-called adjutant bird sec Jannw.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL. an army official, originally (as indicated by the word) the chief assistant (Lat. adjzwarc) stall-officer to a general in command, but now a distinct high functionary at the head of a special office in the British and American war departments. In England the second military member of the Army Council is styled adjutant-general to the forces. He is a general officer and at the head of his department of the War Office, which is charged with all duties relative to personnel. The adjutant-general of the United States army is one of the principal officers in the war department, the head of the bureau for army correspondence, with the charge of the records, recruiting, issue of commissions, 81c. Individual American states also have their own adjutant-general, with cognate duties regarding the state militia. In many countries, such as Germany and Russia, the term has retained its original meaning of an officer on the personal staff, and is the designation of personal aides-de-camp to the sovereign.

By a looseness of translation, the superintendents of provinces, in the order of Jesuits, who act as officials under the superintendence of and auxiliary to the general, are sometimes called adjulanls-general.

ADLER, FELIX (1851— ), American educationalist, was born at Alzey. Germany, on the 13th of August 1851. His father, a Jewish rabbi, emigrated to the United States in 1857, and the son graduated at Columbia College in 1870. After completing his studies at Berlin and Heidelberg, he became, in 1874, professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature at Cornell University. In 1876 he established in New York City the Society for Ethical Culture, to the development and extension of which he devoted a great deal of time and energy, and before which he delivered a regular Sunday lecture. In 1902 he became professor of political and social ethics at Columbia University. He also acted as one of the editors of the International Journal of Ethics. Under his direction the Society for Ethical Culture became an important factor in educational reform in New York City, exercising through its technical training school and kindergarten (established in January 1878) a wide influence. Dr Adler also took a prominent part in philanthropic and social reform movements, such as the establishment of a system of district nursing, the erection of model tenement houses, and tenement house reform. He published Creed and Deed (1877), The Moral Instruction of Children (1892), Life and Destiny (1903), Marriage and Divorce (1905), and The Religion of Duly (1905).

ADMETUS, in Greek legend, son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly. By the aid of Apollo, who served him as a slave—— either as a punishment for having slain the Cyclopes, or out of affection for his mortal master—he won the hand of Alcestis, the most beautiful of the daughters of Pelias, king of Iolcus. When Admetus was attacked by an illness that threatened to lead to his premature death, Apollo persuaded the Moerae (Fates) to prolong his life, provided any one could be found to die in his place. His parents refused, but Alcestis consented. She is said to have been rescued from the hands of Death by Heracles, who arrived upon the scene at an opportune moment; a later story represents her as cured of a dangerous illness by his skill.

Homer, Iliad. ii. 715; Apollodorus, i. 9; Euripides, Alceslis; Plutarch, Amatorius, 17; Dissel, Der Mylhus van Admelos und Alkestis, progr. Brandcnburg, 1882.

ADMINISTRATION (Lat. administrare, to serve), the performance or management of affairs, a term specifically used in law for the administration or disposal of the estate of a deceased person

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(see Wru. OR TESTAMENT). It is also used generally for “ government,” and specifically for “ the government ” or the executive ministry, and in such connexions as the administration(administering or tendering) of the sacraments, justice, oaths, medicines, 81c.

Letters of Administration—Upon the death of a personintestate or leaving a will to which no executors are appointed, or when the executors appointed by the will cannot or will not act, the Probate Division of the High Court is obliged to appoint an administrator who performs the duties of an executor. This is done by the court granting letters of administration to the person entitled. Grants of administration may be either general or limited. A general grant is made where the deceased has died intestate. The order in which general grants of letters will be made by the court is as follows: (1) The husband, or widow, as the case may be; (2) the next of kin; (3) the crown; (4) a creditor; (5) a stranger. Since the Land Transfer Act 1897, the administrator is the real as well as the personal representative of the deceased, and consequently when the estate to be administered consists wholly or mainly of reality the court will grant administration to the heir to the exclusion of the next of kin. In the absence of any heir or next of kin the crown is entitled to the personality as bona vocanlio, and to the reality by escheat. If a creditor claims and obtains a grant he is compelled by the court to enter into a bond with two sureties that he will not prefer his own debt to those of other creditors. The more important cases of grants of special letters of administration are the following:—

Administration cum testamenlo annexo, where the deceased has left a will but has appointed no executor to it, or the executor appointed has died or refuses to act. In this case the court will make the grant to the person (usually the residuary legatee) with the largest beneficial interest in the estate.

Administration de bonis non odminislralis: this occurs in two cases—(a) where the executor dies intestate after probate without having completely administered the estate; (b) where an administrator dies. In the first case the principle of administration cum testomenlo is followed, in the second that of general grants in the selection of the person to whom letters are granted.

Administration duranle minare actale, when the executor or the person entitled to the general grant is under age.

Administration duranle absentia, when the executor or administrator is out of the jurisdiction for more than a year.

Administration Pendenle lite, where there is a dispute as to the person entitled to probate or a general grant of letters the court appoints an administrator till the question has been decided.

ADMINISTRATOR, in English law, the person to whom the Probate Division of the High Court of Justice (formerly the ordinary or judge of the ecclesiastical court) acting in the sovereign’s name, commits the administration (q.v.) of the goods of a person deceased, in default of an executor. The origin of administrators is derived from the civil law. Their establishment in England is owing to a statute made in the 31st year of Edward I. (1303). Till then no office of this kind was known besides that of executor; in default of whom, the ordinary had the disposal of goods of persons intestate, 81c. (See also EXECUTORS, and, for intestate estates, INTESTACY.)

ADMINISTRATOR, in Scals law, is a person legally empowered to act for another whom the law presumes incapable of acting for himself, as a father for a pupil child.

ADMIRAL, the title of the general officer who commands a fleet, or subdivision of a fleet. The origin of the word is undoubtedly Arabic. In the 1 2th century the Mediterranean states which had close relations with the Moslem powers on the shores or in the islands of that sea, found the title amir or emir in combination with other words used to describe men in authority; the amir-al-mumenin—prince of the faithful—or amiral-bahr—commander of the sea. They took the substantive “ amir ” and the article “al” to form one word, “amiral” or “ammiral” or “almirante.” The Spaniards made miramamolin, out of amiral-mumenin, in the same way. “ Amiral,” as the name of an eastern ruler, became familiar to the northern nations during the crusades. Layamon, writing in the early years of the 13th century, speaks of the “ ammiral of Babilon,” and the word was for long employed in this sense. As a naval title it was first taken by the French from the Genoese during the crusade of I 249. By the end of the 13th century it had come to be used in England as the name of the officer who commanded the Cinquc Port ships. The English form “ admiral ” arose from popular confusion with the Latin admirabilis. Such errors were naturally produced by the fantastic etymology of the middle ages. In Spain, Alphonso the Wise of Castile, in his code of laws, the Siete Partidas (Seven Divisions), accounts for the Spanish form “almirante” by its supposed derivation from the Latin admirari, since the admiral is “ to be admired ” for the dlfilCulthS and dangers he overcomes, and because he is the chief of those who see the wonders of the Lord in the deep— mirabilia ejus (so. Domini) in Profundo. Both in Spanish and in Elizabethan English the word has been applied to the flagship of an officer commanding a fleet or part of one. The Spanish almiranta is the ship of the second in command, and the capitana of the first. In this sense it is not uncommonly found in the narratives of Elizabethan voyages or campaigns, and it is so used by Milton in Paradise Lost—“ the mast of some tall ammiral.”

As the title of an office it was borne by the great military, judicial and administrative officer known in France as grand amiral; in England as lord high admiral; in Spain as almirante mayor. His functions, which were wide, have been generally absorbed by the crown, or the state, and have been divided among judicial and administrative officials (see NAVY, History; ADMIRALTY ADMINISTRATION; and ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION). The title of admiral is still home as an hereditary honour by the descendants of Columbus, the dukes of Veraqua, in Spain. It is a purely honorific distinction representing the admiralship of the islands and Ocean Sea, conferred on the discoverer by the Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella.

In the staff of a modern navy the admirals correspond to the general officers in the army. Where, as in Russia, the grand admiralship is annexed to the crown, the highest rank is that of lieutenant admiral general. In Great Britain there is the rank of admiral of the fleet, corresponding to field-marshal. It is, however, little more than an honorary distinction. The three active ranks are those of admiral, vice-admiral and rear-admiral, corresponding to general, lieutenant-general and major-general in the army. They are found in all navies under very slightly varied forms. The only difference which is not one of mere spelling is in the equivalent for rear-admiral, which is contre amiral in French, and in other navies of the continent of Europe involves some slight variation of the word “ contre ” (first used at the time of the French Revolution). The vice- and rearadmiral of Great Britain are again honorary titles, without the active functions, conferred in compliment on senior naval officers. “ Admiral ” is also the name given to the chief of fishery fleets. On the banks of Newfoundland it was given to officials who had powers conferred by the state. In the case of an ordinary fishingfleet in European waters, it is of private origin, and is of merely customary use.

AUTHORITIES.—Slr N. Harris Nicolas, History of the Royal Navy; La Ronciere, Histofre dc la marine frangaise; Yonge, Geschiedem's van het Nederlandsche Zee'wezen; C. Fernandez Duro, Historia de lalArmada de Castilea. (D. H.)

ADMIRALTY ADMINISTRATION. I. The Administrative System.---That the navy (q.v.) is the only real defence of the British islands has been recognized by English people ever since the days of King Offa, who died in 796, leaving to his successors the admirable lesson that “ he who would be secure on land must be supreme at sea.” The truth of the lesson thus learnt is sanctioned by all the experience of English history, and parliament has repeatedly enforced the fact. The navy is the only force that can safeguard the British islands from hostile descents; it is the only force that can protect their vast sea-borne commerce and food supplies; by giving safety to the home country it sets British troops free for operations abroad, and makes their passage secure; and thus, as also by giving

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command of the sea, the fleet is the means by which the’empire is guarded and has become a true imperial bond. It is natural for British admiralty administration to be taken here as the type of an efficient system.

British naval administration is conducted by the Board of Admiralty, and the function of that board is the maintenance and expansion of the fleet in accordance with the policy of the government, and the supplying of it with trained 52:", o, oflicers and men; its distribution throughout the Admlrllly, world; and its preservation in readiness and efficiency in all material and personal respects. The character of the Admiralty Board is peculiar to the British constitution, and it possesses certain features which distinguish it from other departments of the state. The business it conducts is very great and complex, and the machinery by which its work is done has grown with the expansion of that business. The whole system of naval administration has been developed historically, and is not the product of the organizing skill of one or a few individuals, but an organic growth possessing marked and special characteristics. The Admiralty Board derives its character from the fact that it represents the lord high admiral, and that its powers and operation depend much more upon usage than upon those instruments which actually give it authority, and which, it may be remarked, are not in harmony among themselves. The executive operations are conducted by a series of civil departments which have undergone many changes before reaching their present constitution and relation to the Board. The salient characteristic of the admiralty is a certain flexibility and elasticity with which it works. Its members are not, in a rigid sense, heads of departments. Subject to the necessary and constitutional supremacy of the cabinet minister at their head, they are jointly and coequally “ commissioners for executing the office of high admiral of the United Kingdom, and of the territories thereunto belonging, and of high admiral of the colonies and other dominions." The members of the Board are in direct and constant communi~ cation with the first lord and with one another, as also with the civil departments which work under their control. It was enjoined by James I. that the principal officers and commissioners of the navy should be in constant communication among themselves, consulting and advising “by common council and argu

. ment of most voices,” and should live as near together as could

conveniently be, and should meet at the navy office at least twice a week. This system of intercommunication still exists in a manner which no system of minutes could give; and it may be remarked, as illustrative of the flexibility of the system, that a Board may be formed on any emergency by two lords and a secretary, and a decision arrived at then and there. Such an emergency board was actually constituted some years ago on board the admiralty yacht in order to deal on the instant with an event which had just occurred in the fleet. At the same time it must be remarked that, in practice, the first lord being personally responsible under the orders in council, the operations of the Board are dependent upon his direction.

The present system of administering the navy dates from the time of Henry VIII. The naval business of the country had so greatly expanded in his reign that we find the "Mom Admiralty and Navy Board reorganized or established; and it is worthy of remark that there existed at the time an ordnance branch, the navy not yet being dependent in that matter upon the war Department.‘ The Navy Board administered the civil departments under the admiralty, the directive and executive duties of the lord high admiral remaining with the admiralty office. A little later the civil administration was vested in a board of principal officers subordinate to the lord high admiral, and we can henceforth trace the work of civil

1 The Board of Ordnance was ori inally instituted for the navy, but eventually fell into military hands, to the detriment of the navy —the only navy of any nation that has not full authority over its own ordnance. ln I653, according to O penheim, it was, owing to its inefliciency. placed under the admira ty. in 1632 it appears to have been independent. but “ still retained that evil pre-eminence

in sloth and incapacity it had already earned and has never since ost."

administration being conducted under the navy and victualling boards apart from, but yet subject to, the admiralty itself. This was a system which continued during the time of all the great

wars, and was not abolished until 1832, when Sir James Graham, '

by his reforms, put an end to what appeared a divided control. Whatever may have been the demerits of that system, it sufficed to maintain the navy in the time of its greatest achievements, and through all the wars which were waged with the Spaniards, the Dutch and the French. The original authority for the present constitution of the Admiralty Board is found in a declaratory act (Admiralty Act 1690), in which it is enacted that “ all and singular authorities, jurisdictions and powers which, by act of parliament or otherwise, had been lawfully vested ” in the lord high admiral of England had always appertained, and did and should appertain, to the commissioners for executing the office for the time being “ to all intents and purposes as if the said commissioners were .lord high admiral of England.” The admiralty commission was dissolved in 1701, and reconstituted on the death of Prince George of Denmark, lord high admiral in 1709. From that time forward, save for a short period in 1827—1828, when the duke of Clarence was lord high admiral, the office has remained in commission.

A number of changes have been made since the amalgamation of the admiralty and the Navy Board by Sir James Graham in 1832 (see NAVY, History), but the general principle remains the same, andthe constitution of the Admiralty Board and civil departments is described below. The Board consists of the first lord and four naval lords with a civil lord, who in theory are jointly responsible, and are accustomed to meet sometimes daily, but at all times frequently; and the system developed provides for the subdivision of labour, and yet for the co-ordinated exertion of effort. The system has worked well in practice, and has certainly won the approval and the admiration of many statesmen. Lord George Hamilton said, before the Royal Commission on Civil Establishments, 1887, that “ It has this advantage, that you have all departments represented round a table, and that if it is necessary to take quick action, you can do in a few minutes that which it would take hours under another system to do”; and the report of the Royal Commission of 1889 remarked that “ The constitution of the Board of Admiralty appears to us well designed, and to be placed under present regulations on a satisfactory footing.”

The special characteristics of the Admiralty Board which have been described are accompanied by a very peculiar and noteworthy feature, which is not without relation to the untrammelled and undefined operations of the admiralty. This feature arises from the discrepancy between the admiralty patent and the orders in council, for the admiralty is not administered atcording to the terms of the patent which invests it with authority, and its operations raise a singular point in constitutional law. '

The legal origin of the powers exercised by the first lord and the Board itself is indeed curiously obscure. Under the patent the full power and authority are conferred upon “ any two or more ” of the commissioners, though, in the patent of Queen Anne, the grant was to “ any three or more of you.” It was under the Admiralty Act 1832 that two lords received the necessary authority to legalize any action of the Board; but already, under an act of 1822, two lords had been empowered to sign so long as the Board consisted of six members. We therefore find that the legal authority of the Board under the patent is vested in the Board; but in the order in council of the 14th of January 1869 the sole responsibility of the first lord was officially laid down, and in the order in council of the 19th of March 1872 the first lord was made “ responsible to your Majesty and to parliament for all the business of the admiralty. ” As a matter of fact, the authority of the first lord, independent of his colleagues, had existed in an undefined manner from ancient times. Before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1861 the duke of Somerset stated that he considered the first lord responsible, that he had always “ acted under that impression,” and that he believed “ all former first lords were of this

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opinion ” ; while Sir James Graham said that “ the Board of Admiralty could never work, whatever the patent might be, unless the first lord were supreme, and did exercise constantly supreme and controlling authority.” It is not, therefore, sur— prising to find that there has been undoubtedly direct govern— ment without a Board. Thus, in the operations conducted against the French channel ports in 1803—1804,Lord Melville, then first lord, took steps of great importance without the knowledge of his colleagues, though he afterwards bowed to their views, which did not coincide with his own. Again, when Lord Gambier was sent to Copenhagen in 1807, he was instructed to obey all orders from the king, through the principal secretary of state for war, and in this way received orders to attack Copenhagen, which were unknown to all but the first lord. In a similar way the secretary of the admiralty was despatched to Paris in 1815 with instructions to issue orders as if from the Board of Admiralty when directed to do so by the foreign secretary who accompanied him, and these orders resulted in Napoleon’s capture. These instances were cited, except the first of them, by Sir James Graham before the select committee of the House of Commons in 1861, in order to illustrate the elastic powers under the patent which enabled the first lord to take immediate action in matters that concerned the public safety. It is not surprising that this peculiar feature of admiralty administration should have at— tracted adverse criticism, and have led some minds to regard the Board as “ a fiction not worth keeping up.”

Between 1860 and 1870 the sittings of the Board ceased to have the effective character they had once possessed. During the administration of Mr Childers,l first lord from 1868 to 1871 in Mr Gladstone’s cabinet, a new system was introduced by which the free intercommunication of the members of the Board was hampered, and its sittings were quite discontinued. The case of the “ Captain ” lcd, however, to a return to the older practice. The “ Captain ” was a low freeboard masted turret ship, designed by Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, R.N . Competent critics believed that she would be unsafe, and said so before she was built; but the admiralty of Lord Derby’s cabinet of 1866 gave their consent to her construction. She was commissioned early in 1870, and capsized in the Bay of Biscay on the 7th of September of that year. Mr Childers, who was nominally responsible for allowing her to be commissioned, distributed blame right and left, largely upon men who had not approved of the ship at all, and had been exonerated from all share of responsi~ bility for allowing her to be built. The disaster was justly held to show that a civilian first lord cannot dispense with the advantage of constant communication with his professional advisers. When Mr Childers retired from the admiralty in March 1871, his successor, Mr Goschen (Viscount Goschen), reverted to the original system. It cannot be said, however, that the question of ultimate responsibility is well defined. The duke of Somerset, Sir James Graham and Sir Charles Wood, afterwards Lord Halifax, held the view that the first lord was singly and personally responsible for the sufficiency of the fleet. Sir Arthur Hood expressed before the House of Commons committee in 1888 the view that the Board collectively were responsible; whilst Sir Anthony Hoskins assigned the responsibility to the first lord alone with certain qualifications, which is a just and reasonable view.

2. Admiralty Organization—Under the organization which now exists, the Board of Admiralty consists of the first lord, the first and second naval lords, the additional naval lord and controller, the junior naval lord and the civil lord, who are commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral, and with them are the parliamentary and financial secretary and the permanent secretary.’ As has been explained, the first lord is responsible under the orders in council to the crown and to parliament for all admiralty business. In the hands of the

1Admiral Sir Cooper Key, when director of naval ordnance during Mr Childers' administration, observed to the writer that no first lord of the admiralty knew so little of the working of the admiralty as Mr Childers, because, owing to the discontinuance of board meetings, he lost the great advantage of hearing the discussion. (n. v. 11.)

other lords and secretaries rest duties very carefully defined, and they direct the civil departments which are the machinery of naval administration. The first naval lord, the second naval lord and the junior naval lord are responsible to the first lord in relation to so much of the business concerning the personnel of the navy and the movements and condition of the fleet as is confided to them, and the additional naval lord or controller is responsible in the same way for the material of the navy; while the parliamentary secretary has charge of finance and some other business, and the civil lord of all shore works—i.e. docks, buildings, &c.—and the permanent secretary of special duties. The first lord of the admiralty is the cabinet minister through whom the navy receives its political direction in accordance with imperial policy. He is the representative of the navy in parliament, which looks to him for everything concerned with naval aflairs. The members of the Board are his advisers; but if their advice is not accepted, they have no remedy except protest or resignation. It cannot be denied that the responsibility of the members of the Board, if their advice should be disregarded, must cease, and it is sufficiently obvious that the remedy of resignation will not always commend itself to those whose position and advancement depend upon the favour of the government. Something will be said a little later concerning the working of the system and the relation of the first lord to the Board in regard to the navy estimates. In addition to general direction and supervision, the first lord has special charge of promotions and removals from the service, and of matters relating to honours and rewards, as well as the appointments of flag olficers, captains and other oflicers of the higher ranks. With him rests also the nomination for the major part to naval cadetships and assistant clerkships.

Apart from the first lord, the first naval lord is the most important oflicer of the Board of Admiralty. It seems to be unquestionable that Sir James Graham was right in describing the senior naval lord as his “ first naval adviser.” Theoretically, the first naval lord is responsible for the personnel of the fleet; but in practice he is necessarily concerned with the material also as soon as it is put into commission, and with the actual commissioning of it. It is correct to say that he is chiefly concerned with the employment of the fleet, though his advice has weight in regard to its character and sufficiency, and is always sought in relation to the shipbuilding programme. Broadly speaking, the first naval lord’s duties and authority cover the fighting efficiency and employment of the fleet, and upon him and upon the controller the naval business of the country largely falls. He directs the operations of the admiral superintendent of naval reserves in regard to ships, the hydrographer, the director of naval ordnance, so far as the gunnery and torpedo training establishments are concerned, and the naval intelligence department, and he has charge of all matters relating to discipline. The mobilization of the fleet, both in regard to personnel and material, also falls to him, and among a mass of other business in his department are necessary preparations for the protection of trade and the fisheries. It will thus be seen that the first naval lord is the chief officer of the Board of Admiralty, and that the operations of the other members of the Board all have relation to his work, which is no other than preparation for war. It may here be remarked that it appears most necessary to change the naval lords frequently, so that there may always be in the Board some one who possesses recent touch with the service afloat.

The second naval lord may be regarded as the coadjutor of the first naval lord, with whose operations his duties are very closely related, though, like every other member of the Board, he is subordinate only to the first lord. The duties of the second naval lord are wholly concerned with the personnel of the fleet, the manning of the navy and mobilization. In his hands rests the direction of naval education, training and the affairs of the royal marine forces. The training establishments and colleges are in his hands. He appoints navigating officers and lieutenants to ships (unless they be to command), sub-lieutenants, midshipmen and cadets, engineer oficers, gunners and boatswains, and supervises the management of the reserve. In his province

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is the mobilization of the personnel, including the coastguard and the royal naval reserve. Necessarily, the first and second naval lords work together, and upon occasion can replace each other.1

Most important are the duties that fall to the additional naval lord and controller. He has charge of everything that concerns the material of the fleet, and his operations are the complement of the work of the first naval lord. A great number of civil departments are directed by the controller, and his survey and supervision extend to the dockyards and building establishments of the fleet. He submits plans to the Board for new ships, and is responsible for carrying into efl'ect its decisions in regard to all matters of construction and equipment. The building operations both in the dockyards and in private yards are therefore under his supervision. In regard to all these matters the director of naval construction and the engineer-in-chiet are the heads of the civil departments that carry on the work. Again, the controller is responsible in regard to armament—both gunnery and torpedo—and it is the work of his department to see to all gunnery and torpedo fittings, and to magazines, shell-rooms and electric apparatus. The officer in immediate charge of this branch of the controller’s work, under his direction, is the director of naval ordnance. In regard to work at the dockyards (q.v.) the controller is aided by the director of dockyards. He supervises this officer in preparing the programme of work done in the dockyards, the provision of the material required and its appropriation to particular work in accordance with the programme. Other ofiicers who conduct great operations under the authority and responsibility of the controller are the director of stores, who maintains all necessary supplies of coal and stores at home and abroad, and examines the store accounts of ships, andthe inspector of dockyard expense accounts, who has charge of the accounts of dockyard expenditure and seeing that outlay is charged as directed. In regard to the navy estimates, the controller, through his subordinates, is responsible for the preparation and administration of the votes for shipbuilding and naval armaments, except in regard to some sub-headings of the former, and thus in recent years for the expenditure of something like {15,000,000 or over.

The junior naval lord has in his hands the very important duties that are concerned with the transport, medical and victualling services, as well as the regulation of hospitals, the charge of coaling arrangements for the fleet and other duties that conduce to the practical efficiency of the navy. He also appoints chaplains, naval instructors, medical officers (except in special cases) and officers of the accountant branch. A vast business in regard to the internal economy of ships greatly occupies the junior lord. He has charge, for example, of uniforms. prize-money, bounties, naval savings banks, and pensions to seamen and marines and the widows of naval and marine officers. The work of the junior naval lord places under his direction the director of transports, the director-general of the medical department, the director of victualling, and, in regard to particular matters, the director of stores, the accountantgeneral, the chaplain of the fleet, and the Intelligence Department, so far as the junior lord’s department is concerned.

The civil lord supervises, through the director of works, the Department of Works, dealing with admiralty buildings and works, construction and labour, contracts and purchases of building stores and land: He is also responsible for the civil staff of the naval establishments, except in regard to certain officials, and for duties connected with Greenwich Hospital, compassionate allowances, charitable funds, and business of like character. The accountant~general, in regard to these matters, is directed by him, and the director of Greenwich Hospital is under his authority.

The parliamentary and financial secretary is responsible for the finance of the department, the navy estimates and matters of expenditure generally, and is consulted in regard to all matters involving reference to the treasury. His position in regard to

l The drawback is, that a naval lord can only go on leave by throwing all his work on a colleague already overweighted with work. estimates and expenditure is very important, and the accountantgeneral is his officer, while he has financial control over the director of contracts. The financial secretary also examines proposals for new expenditure.

A most important official of the Board is the permanent secretary, whose office has been described as the “ nerve-centre ” of the admiralty, since it is the channel through which papers for the lords of the admiralty pass for the intercommunication of departments and for the correspondence of the Board. The tradition of admiralty procedure largely rests with the permanent secretary, and it is most important that he should be chosen from one of the branches, and should have served in as many of them as possible, in order that he may possess a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of the admiralty system. In addition to the secretarial duties of the permanent secretary’s department, the permanent secretary has charge of the military, naval and legal branches, each under a principal clerk, the civil branch and the record office. The various branches deal with matters concerning the commissioning of ships and the distribution of the fleet, and the manning and discipline of the navy, with other associated matters, being the channels for the operations of the naval lords. It is a highly important function of the department of the permanent secretary to preserve the inter-related working of the various departments, and to keep unbroken the thread of administration when a new Board is constituted. '

3. Business and Responsibility—The manner in which the Admiralty Board conducts the great operations under its charge has been indicated. It would be impossible here to describe it in detail, though something concerning the civil departments, which are the machinery of naval administration, will be found below. It will, however, indicate the character of admiralty administration if we explain to some extent the conditions which surround the preparation of the estimates and the shipbuilding programme, the more so because this matter has been the battle-ground of critics and supporters of the admiralty. It has'already been pointed out that the naval lords, if they dissent from the estimates that are presented, have no remedy but that of protest or resignation. Into the controversies that have arisen as to the responsibility of the several lords it is unnecessary to enter here. The Admiralty Board possesses, in fact, the character of a council, and its members can only be held responsible for their advice. It has even been contended that, in the circumstances, it should not be incumbent upon them to sign the navy estimates, and there have been instances in which the estimates have been presented to parliament without the signature of certain naval lords. It is in any case obvious, as has been explained above, that the ultimate responsibility must always rest with the first lord and the cabinet, by whom the policy of the country is shaped and directed. In the report of the Hartington Commission in 1890 (the chairman of which became 8th duke of Devonshire) to inquire into the civil and professional administration of the Naval and Military Departments, and the relation of these departments to each other and to the treasury, the following recommendation occurs: “On the first lord alone should rest the responsibility of deciding on the provision to be made for the naval requirements of the empire, and the existence of a council should be held in no degree to diminish that responsibility.”

Two conditions primarily rule the determination as to the strength of the navy. They are, the foreign policy of the cabinet, and, on the ground of practical expediency, the amount of money available. “The estimates and strength of the navy,” said Rear-Admiral Hotham before the select committee on the navy estimates, 1888, “ are matters for the cabinet to determine.” “ Expense,” said Sir Anthony Hoskins, “ governs everything.” The needs of the empire and financial considerations, as it is scarcely necessary to remark, may prove to be antithetical conditions governing the same problem, and in practice it follows that the Admiralty Board directs its operations in accordance with the views of the government, but limited by the public funds which are known to be available. Such considerations

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suggest a practical limitation of responsibility, so far as the several lords of the admiralty are concerned, but it may be presumed to be their duty individually or collectively to place their views before the first lord; and Lord George Hamilton told the select committee of 1888 that, if his colleagues should represent to him that a certain expenditure was indispensable for the efficiency of the service, he would recognize that all financial considerations should be put on one side. The commissioners reported that this was the only common-sense view of the matter, and that it was difficult to see on what other footing the control of navy expenditure, consistently with responsibility to parliament, could be placed.

Two practical considerations are bound up with the shipbuilding programme—the carrying forward of the work in hand and the new construction to be begun, since it is absolutely necessary that proper provision should be made for the employment and distribution of labour in the dockyards, and for the purchase of necessary materials. Through the director of naval construction and the director of dockyards, the controller is kept informed as to the progress of work and the amount of labour required, as also in regard to the building facilities of the yards. These matters, in a general way, must form a subject of discussion between the first naval lord and the controller, who will report on the subject to the first lord. The accountant-general, as the financial officer of the Board, will be called upon to place the proposed estimates upon a financial basis, and when the views of the cabinet are known as to the amount of money available, the several departments charged with the duty of preparing the various votes will proceed with that work. The financial basis alluded to is, of course, found in the estimates of the previous year, modified by the new conditions that arise. There has been in past times a haphazard character in our shipbuilding programmes, but with the introduction of the Naval Defence Act of 1889, which looked ahead and was not content with hand-tomouth provision, a better state of things has grown up, and, with a larger sense of responsibility, a policy characterized by something of continuity has been developed. Certainly the largest factor in the better state of things has been the growth of a strong body of public opinion as to the supreme value of the navy'for national and imperial welfare.

Another important and related matter that comes before the Board of Admiralty is the character and design of ships. The naval members of the Board indicate the classes and qualities desired, and it is the practice that the sketch-design, presented in accordance with the instructions, is fully discussed by the first naval lord and the controller, and afterwards by the Board. The design then takes further shape, and when it has received the final sanction of the Board it cannot be altered without the sanction of the same authority. A similar procedure is found in the other business of the Admiralty Board, such as shore-works, docks and the preparation of offensive and defensive plans of warfare—the last being a very important matter that falls into the operations of the Naval Intelligence Department, which has been described, though not with perfect accuracy, and certainly in no large sense, as “the brain of the navy.” That department is under the direction of the first naval lord.

The shipbuilding programme may be described as the cornerstone of the executive business of the admiralty, because upon it depends very largely the preparation of all the other votes relating to numbers, stores, victualling, clothing, &c. But if the Admiralty Board is responsible through the first lord for the preparation of the estimates, it is also charged with the business of supervising expenditure. In this matter the financial secretary plays a large part, and is directed to assist the spending department of the admiralty in their duty of watching the progress of their liabilities and disbursements. Some notes on admiralty finance will be found below (section 4). The shipbuilding votes set the larger machinery of the admiralty in motion. The executive departments, except in regard to the hulls and machinery of ships and the special requirements of the director of works, do not make purchases of stores, that work resting with the director of navy contracts. Most of the important executive and

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