« السابقةمتابعة »
In France and Germany, countries which may be said to have embodied the Roman law in their jurisprudence, adoption is regulated according to the principles of Justinian, though with several more or less important modifications, rendered necessary by the usages of these countries respectively. Under French law the rights of adoption can be exercised only by those who are over fifty years of age, and who, at the time of adoption, have neither children nor legitimate descendants. They must also be fifteen years older than the person adopted. In German law the person adopting must either be fifty years of age, or at least eighteen years older than the adopted, unless a special dispensation is obtained. If the person adopted is a legitimate child the consent of his parents must be obtained; if illegitimate, the consent of the mother. Both in Germany and France the adopted child remains a member of his original family, and acquires no rights in the family of the adopter other than that of succession to the person adopting. '
In the United States adoption is regulated by the statutes of the several states. Adoption of minors is permitted by statute in many of the states. These statutes generally require some public notice to be given of the intention to adopt, and an order of approval after a hearing before some public authority. The consequence commonly is that the person adopted becomes, in the eyes of the law, the child of the person adopting, for all purposes. Such an adoption, if consummated according to the law of the domicile, is equally effectual in any other state into which the parties may remove. The relative status thus newly acquired is ubiquitous. (See Whitmore, Laws of Adoption; Ross v. Ross, 129 Massachusetts Reports, 243.)
The part played by the legal fiction of adoption in the constitution‘of primitive society and the civilization of the race is so important, that Sir Henry S. Maine, in his Ancient Law, expresses the opinion that, had it never existed, the primitive groups of mankind could not have coalesced except on terms of absolute superiority on the one side and absolute subjection on the other. With the institution of adoption, however, one people might feign itser as descended from the same stock as the people to whose sacra gentilicia it was admitted; and amicable relations were thus established between stocks which, but for this expedient, must have submitted to the arbitrament of the sword with all its consequences.
ADORATION (Lat. ad, to, and 0s, mouth; i.e. “ carrying to one’s mouth "), primarily an act of homage or worship, which, among the Romans, was performed by raising the hand to the mouth, kissing it and then waving it in the direction of the adored object. The devotee had his head covered, and after the act turned himself round from left to right. Sometimes he kissed the feet or knees of the images of the gods themselves, and Saturn and Hercules were adored with the head bare. By a natural transition the homage, at first paid to divine beings alone, came to be paid to monarchs. Thus the Greek and Roman emperors were adored by bowing or kneeling, laying hold of the imperial robe, and presently withdrawing the hand and pressing it to the lips, or by putting the royal robe itself to the lips. In Eastern countries adoration has ever been performed in an attitude still more lowly. The Persian method, introduced by Cyrus, was to bend the knee and fall on the face at the prince’s feet, striking the earth with the forehead and kissing the ground. This striking of the earth with the forehead, usually a fixed number of times, is the form of adoration usually paid to Eastern potentates to-day. The Jews kissed in homage. Thus in 1 Kings xix. 18, God is made to say, “ Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him.” And in Psalms ii. 12, “ Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way." (See also Hosea xiii. 2.) In England the ceremony of kissing the sovereign’s hand, and some other acts which are performed kneeling, may be described as forms of adoration. Adoration is applied in the Roman Church to the ceremony of kissing the pope’s foot, 2. custom which is said to have been introduced by the popes following the example of the emperor Diocletian. The toe of the famous statue of the apostle in
St Peter's, Rome, shows marked wear caused by the kisses of pilgrims. In the Roman Church a distinction is made between Latria, a worship due to God alone, and Duh'a or H ypuduh'a, the adoration paid to the Virgin, saints, martyrs, crucifixes, 810. (See further Hoaxes.)
ADORF, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 3 m. from the Bohemian frontier, at an elevation of 1400 ft. above the sea, on the Plauen-Eger and AurAdorf lines of railway. Pop. 5000. It has lace, dyeing and tanning industries, and manufactures of toys and musical instruments; and there is a convalescent home for the poor of the city of Leipzig.
ADOUR (anc. Atlm'ur or Adams, from Celtic dour, water), a river of south-west France, rising in the department of Hautes Pyrénées, and flowing in a wide curve to the Bay of Biscay. It is formed of several streams having their origin in the massif: of the Pic d’Arbizon and the Pic du Midi de Bigorre, but during the first half of its course remains an inconsiderable river. In traversing the beautiful valley of Campan it is artificially augmented in summer by the waters of the Lac Bleu, which are drawn ofl by means of a siphon, and flow down the valley of Lesponne. After passing Bagneres de Bigorre the Adour enters the plain of Tarbes, and for the remainder of its course in the department of Hautes Pyrénées is of much less importance as a waterway than as a means of feeding the numerous irrigation canals which cover the plains on each side. Of these the oldest and most important is the Canal d’Alaric, which follows the right bank for 36 m. Entering the department of Gers, the Adour receives the Arros on the right bank and begins to describe the large westward curve which takes it through the department of Landes to the sea. In the last-named department it soon becomes navigable, namely, at St Sever, after passing which it is joined on the left by the Larcis, Gabas, Louts and Luy, and on the right by the Midouze, which is formed by the union of the Douze and the Midour, and is navigable for 27 m.; now taking a south-Westerly course it receives on the left the Gave de Pau, which is a more voluminous river than the Adour itself, and flowing past Bayonne enters the sea through a dangerous estuary, in which sandbars are formed, after a total course of 208 m., of which 82 are navigable. The mouth of the Adour has repeatedly shifted, its old bed being represented by the series of étangs and lagoons extending northward as far as the village of Vieux Boucau, 22} 111. north of Bayonne, where it found a new entrance into the sea at the end of the 14th century. Its previous mouth had been 10 111. south of Vieux Boucau. The present channel was constructed by the engineer Louis de Foix in 1579. There is a depth over the bar at the entrance of 10% to 16 ft. at high tide. The area of the basin of the Adour is 6565 sq. m. >
ADOWA (properly ADUA), the capital of Tigré, northern Abyssinia., 145 m. N.E. of Gondar and 17 m. E. by N. of Axum, the ancient capital of Abyssinia. Adowa is built on the slope of a hill at an elevation of 6500 ft., in the midst of a rich agri~ cultural district. Being on the high road from Massawa to central Abyssinia., it is a meeting-place of merchants from Arabia and the Sudan for the exchange of foreign merchandise with the products of the country. During the wars between the Italians and Abyssinia (1887—96) Adowa was on three or four occasions looted and burnt; but the churches escaped destruction. The church of the Holy Trinity, one of the largest in Abyssinia, contains numerous wall-paintings of native art. On a hill about 2% m. north-west of Adowa are the ruins of Fremona, the headquarters of the Portuguese Jesuits who lived in Abys_ sinia during the 16th and 17th centuries. On the 1st of March 1896, in the hills north of the townywas fought the battle of Adowa, in which the Abyssinians inflicted a crushing defeat on the Italian forces (see ITALY, History, and ABYSSINLA, H isIory).
ADRA (anc. Abdera), a seaport of southern Spain, in the province of Almeria; at the mouth of the Rio Grande de Adra, and on the Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1900) 11,188. Adra is the port of shipment for the lead obtained near Berja, 10 in. north-east; but its commercial development is retarded by the lack of a railway. Besides lead, the exports include grapes,
sugar and esparto. Fuel is imported, chiefly from the United Kingdom. ‘ .
ADRAR (Berber for “uplands "), the name of various districts of the Saharan desert, Northern Africa. Adrar Suttuf is a hilly region forming the southern part of the Spanish protectorate of the Rio de Oro (q.v.). Adrar or Adrar el Jebli, otherwise Adghagh, is a plateau north-east of Timbuktu. It is the headquarters of the Awellimiden Tuareg (see TUAREG and SAHARA). Adrar n’Ahnet and Adrar Adhafar are smaller regions in the Ahnet country south of Insalah. Adrar Temur, the country usually referred to when Adrar is spoken of, is in the
western Sahara, 300 m. north of the Senegal and separated on the '
north-west from Adrar Suttuf by wide valleys and sand dunes. Adrar is within the French sphere of influence. In general barren, the country contains several oases, with a total popu~ lation of about 10,000. In 1900 the oasis of Atar, on the western borders of the territory, was reached by Paul Blanchet, previously known for his researches on ancient Berber remains ih Algeria. (Blanchet died in Senegal on the 6th of October 1900, a few days after his return from Adrar.) Atar is inhabited by Arab and Berber tribes, and is described as a wretched spot. The other centres of population are Shingeti, Wadan and Ujeft, Shingeti being the chief commercial centre, whence caravans take to St Louis gold-dust, ostrich feathers and dates. A considerable trade is also done in salt from the sebkha of Ijil, in the north-west. Adrar occupies the most elevated part of a plateau which ends westwards in a steep escarpment and falls to the east in a succession of steps.
Adrar or Adgar is also the name sometimes given to the chief settlement in the oasis of Tuat in the Algerian Sahara.
ADRASTUS, in Greek legend, was the son of Talaus, king of Argos, and Lysianassa, daughter of Polybus, king‘of Sicyon. Having been driven from Argos by Amphiaraus, Adrastus fled to Sicyon, where he became king on the death of Polybus. After a time he became reconciled to Amphiaraus, gave him his sister Eriphyle in marriage, and returned to Argos and occupied .the throne. In consequence of an oracle which had commanded him to marry his daughters to a lion and a boar, he wedded them to Polyneices and Tydeus, two fugitives, clad in the skins of these animals or carrying shields with their figures on them, who claimed his hospitality. He was the instigator of the famous war against Thebes for the restoration of his son-in-law Polyneices, who had been deprived of his rights by his brother Eteocles. Adrastus, followed by Polyneices and Tydeus, his two sons-inlaw, Amphiaraus, his brother-in-law, Capaneus, Hippomedon and Parthenopaeus, marched against the city of Thebes, and on his way is said to have founded the Nemean games. This is the expedition of the “ Seven against Thebes,” which the poets have made nearly as famous as the siege of Troy. As Amphiaraus had foretold, they all lost their lives in this war except Adrastus, who was saved by the speed of his horse Arion (Iliad, xxiii. 346). Ten years later, at the instigation of Adrastus, the war was renewed by the sons of the chiefs who had fallen. This expedition was called the war of the “ Epigoni ” or descendants, and ended in the taking and destruction of Thebes. None of the followers of Adrastus perished except his son Acgialeus, and this affected him so greatly that he died of grief at Megara, as he was leading back his victorious army.
Apollodorus iii. 6, 7; Aeschylus, Septem contra Thebes; Euripides, Phoeuissae, Suppliers; Statius, T hebais; Herodotus v. 67.
ADRIA (anc. Atria; the form Adria or Hadria is less correct: Hatria was a town in Picenum, the modern Atri), a town and episcopal see of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Rovigo, r 5 m. E. by rail from the town of Rovigo. It is situated between the mouths of the Adige and the Po, about 13} m. from the sea and but 13 ft. above it. Pop. (1901) 15,678. The town occupies the site oi the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e. Illyrian, not an Etruscan, foundation—still less a foundation of Dionysius I. of Syracuse. Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century 3.0. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town
.Rome, and to the Exarchate, and the Pentapolis.
was famous in Aristotle’s day fora special breed of fowls. Even at that period, however, the silt brought down by the rivers rendered access to the harbour difficult, and the historian Philistus excavated a canal to give free access to the sea. This was still open in the imperial period, and the town, which was a municipium, possessed its own gild of sailors; but its importance gradually decreased. Its remains lie from 10 to 20 it. below the modern level. The Museo Civico and the Bocchi collection contain antiquities. See R. Schfine, Le anh'child del Museo Bocchi di Adria (Rome, 1878). (T. As.) ADRIAN, or HADRIAN (Lat. H adrianus), the name of six popes. ADRIAN I., pope from 772 to 795, was the son of Theodore, a Roman nobleman. Soon after his accession the territory that had been bestowed on the popes by Pippin was invaded by Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and Adrian found it necessary to invoke the aid of Charlemagne, who entered Italy with a large army, besieged Desiderius in his capital of Pavia, took that town, banished the Lombard king to Corbie in France and united the Lombard kingdom with the other Frankish possessions. The pope, whose expectations had been aroused, had to content himself with- some additions to the duchy of In his contest with the Greek empire and the Lombard princes of Benevento, Adrian remained faithful to the Frankish alliance, and the friendly relations between pope and emperor were not disturbed by the difference which arose between them on the question
vof the worship of images, to which Charlemagne and the Gallican
Church were strongly opposed, while Adrian favoured the views of the Eastern Church, and approved the decree of the council of Nicaea (787), confirming the practice and excommunicating the iconoclasts. It was in connexion with this controversy that Charlemagne wrote the so-called Libri Carolini, to which Adrian replied by letter, anathematizing all who refused to worship the images of Christ, or the Virgin, or saints. Notwithstanding this, a synod, held at Frankfort in 794, anew condemned the practice, and the dispute remained unsettled at Adrian’s death. An epitaph written by Charlemagne in verse, in which he styles Adrian “ father," is still to be seen at the door of the Vatican basilica. Adrian restored the ancient aqueducts of Rome, and governed his little state with a firm and skilful hand.
ADRIAN II., pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. Hemaintained, but with less energy, the attitude of his predecessor. Rid of the affair of Lothair, king of Lorraine, by the death of that prince (869), he endeavoured in vain to mediate between the Frankish princes with a view to assuring to the emperor, Louis II., the heritage of the king of Lorraine. Photius, shortly after the council in which he had pronounced sentence of deposition against Pope Nicholas, was driven from the patriarchate by a new emperor, Basil the Macedonian, who favoured his rival Ignatius. An oecumenical council (called by the Latins the 8th) was convoked at Constantinople to decide this matter. At this council Adrian was represented by legates, who presided at the condemnation of Photius, but did not succeed in coming to an understanding with Ignatius on the subject of the jurisdiction over the Bulgarian converts. Like his predecessor Nicholas, Adrian II. was forced to submit, at least' in temporal affairs, to the tutelage of the emperor, Louis II., who placed him under the surveillance of Arsenius, bishop of Orta, his confidential adviser, and Arsenius’s son Anastasius, the librarian. Adrian had married in his youth, and his wife and daughter were still living. They were carried off and assassinated by Anastasius’s brother, Eleutherius, whose reputation, however, suffered but a momentary eclipse. Adrian died in 872.
ADRIAN III., pope, was born at Rome. He succeeded Martin II. in 884, and died in 885, on a journey to Worms. (L. D!)
ADRIAN IV. (Nicholas Breakspear), pope from 1154 to n 59, the only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair, was born before A.D. IIOO at Langley near St Albans in Hertfordshire. His father was Robert, a priest of the diocese of Bath, who entered a monastery and left the boy to his own resources. Nicholas went to Paris and finally became a monk of the cloister of St Rufus near Arles. He rose to be prior and in 1137 was unanimously elected abbot. His reforming zeal led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Eugenius III., who created him cardinal bishop of Albano. From 1152 to 1 1 54 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as legate, organizing the affairs of the new Norwegian archbishopric of Trondhjem, and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Upsala as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164. As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden. On his return Nicholas was received with great honour by Anastasius IV., and on the death of the latter was elected pope on the 4th of December 1154. He at once endeavoured to compass the overthrow of Arnold of Brescia, the leader of anti-papal sentiment in Rome. Disorders ending with the murder of a cardinal led Adrian shortly before Palm Sunday 1155 to take the previously-unheard-of step of putting Rome under the interdict. The senate thereupon exiled Arnold, and the pope, with the impolitic co-operation of Frederick I. Barbarossa, was instrumental in procuring his execution. Adrian crowned the emperor at St Peter’s on the 18th of June 1155, a ceremony which so incensed the Romans that the pope had to leave the city promptly, not returning till November 1156. With the aid of dissatisfied barons, Adrian brought William I. of Sicily into dire straits; but a change in the fortunes of war led to a settlement (June 1156) not advantageous to the papacy and displeasing to the emperor. At the diet of Besancon in October 1157, the legates presented to Barbarossa. a letter from Adrian which alluded to the beneficia conferred upon the emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense. In the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum. The breach subsequently became wider, and Adrian was about to excommunicate the emperor when he died at Anagnia on the 1st of September 1159.
A controversy exists concerning an embassy sent by Henry II. of England to Adrian in 1155. According to the elaborate investigation of Thatcher, the facts seem to be as follows. Henry asked for permission to invade and subjugate Ireland, in order to gain absolute ownership of that isle. Unwilling to grant a request counter to the papal claim (based on the forged Donation of Constantine) to dominion over the islands of the sea, Adrian made Henry a conciliatory proposal, namely, that the king should become hereditary feudal possessor of Ireland while recognizing the pope as overlord. This compromise did not satisfy Henry, so the matter dropped; Henry’s subsequent title to Ireland rested on conquest, not on papal concession, and was therefore absolute. The much-discussed bull Laudebililer is, however, not genuine.
ADRIAN V. (Ottobuono de’ Fieschi), pope in 1276, was a Genoese who was created cardinal deacon-by his uncle Innocent IV. In 1264 he was sent to England to mediate between Henry III. and his barons. He was elected pope to succeed Innocent V. on the 11th of July 1276, but died at Viterbo on the 18th of August, without having been ordained even to the priesthood.
ADRIAN VI. (Adrian Dedel, not Boyens, probably not Rodenburgh, 1459—1523), pope from 1522 to 1523,“ was born at Utrecht in March 1459, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle or Deventer. At Louvain he pursued philosophy, theology and canon law, becoming a doctor of theology (1491), dean of St Peter’s and vice-chancellor of the university. In 1507 he was appointed tutor to the seven-year-old
Charles V. He was sent to Spain in 1515on a very important diplomatic errand ; Charles secured his succession to the see of Tortosa, and on the 14th of November 1516 commissioned him inquisitor-general of Aragon. During the minority of Charles, Adrian was associated with Cardinal Jimenes in governing Spain. After the death of the latter Adrian was appointed, on the 14th of March 1518, general of the reunited inquisitions of Castile and Aragon, in which capacity he acted till his departure from Tarragona for Rome on the 4th of August 1522 : he was, however, too weak and confiding to cope with abuses which Jimenes had been able in some degree to check. When Charles left for the Netherlands in 1520 he made Adrian regent’of Spain : as such he had to cope with a very serious revolt. In 1517 Leo X. had created him cardinal priest SS. Ioannis et Pauli; on the 9th of January 1522 he was almost unanimously elected pope. Crowned in St Peter’s on the 31st of August at the age of sixty-three, he entered upon the lonely path of the reformer. His programme was to attack notorious abuses one by one ; but in his- attempt to improve the system of granting indulgences he was hampered by his cardinals; and reducing the number of matrimonial dispensations was impossible, for the income had been farmed out for years in advance by Leo X. The Italians saw in him a pedantic foreign professor, blind to the beauty of classical antiquity, penuriously docking the stipends of great artists. As a peacemaker among Christian princes, whom he hoped to unite in a protective war against the Turk, he was a failure: in August 1523 he was forced openly to ally himself with the Empire, England, Venice, &c., against France; meanwhile in 1522 the sultan Suleiman I. had conquered Rhodes. In dealing with the early stages of the Protestant revolt in Germany Adrian did not fully recognize the gravity of the situation. At the diet which opened in December 1522 at Nuremberg he was represented by Chieregati, whose instructions contain the frank admission that the whole disorder of the church had perchance proceeded from the Curia itself, and that there the reform should begin. However, the former professor and inquisitor-general was stoutly opposed to doctrinal changes, and demanded that Luther be punished for heresy. The statement in one of his works that the pope could err in matters of faith (“ haeresim per suam determinationem out Decrelalem asserendo ”) has attracted attention; but as it is a private opinion, not an ex calhedra pronouncement, it is held not to prejudice the dogma of papal infallibility. On the 14th of September 1523 he died, after a pontificate too short to be efiective.
Most ofAdrian VI.'s official papers disappeared soon after hisdeath. He published Quaesliones in quarlum sentenliarum praesertim circa sacramenla (Paris, 1512, 1 16, 1‘518, 1537; Rome, 1522), and Quaestiones quodlibeticae XII. (Est e ., Louvain, 1515). See L. Pastor, in Geschichte der Papste, vol. iv. pt. ii.; Adrian VI. and Klemens VII. (Freiburg, I 07); also Wetzer and Welte, Kirrhenlexikon, 2nd ed., and Herzog- auck, Realencyklo ddie, 3rd ed., under “ Hadrian Vl."; H. Hurter, Nomenclalor iterarius recentioris theolo iac catholicae, torn. iv. (Innsbruck, 1899), 1027; The Cambridge Mo ern History, vol. ii. (1 04), 19-21 ; H. C. Lea, A History 0 the Inquisition o SPain, vol. i. 1906); Janus, The Pain and the ouncil. 2nd ed. London, 1869), 376. Biographies :—-A. Lepitre, Adrien VI. (Paris, 1880); C. A. C. von Holler, Paps! Adrian VI. (Vienna, 1880); I... Casartelli, “ The Dutch Pope," in Miscellaneous Essays (London, 1906). (W. W. R!)
ADRIAN, SAINT, one of the praetorian guards of the emperor Galerius Maximian, who, becoming a convert to Christianity, was martyred at Nicomedia on the 4th of March 303. It is said that while presiding over the torture of a band of Christians he was so amazed at their courage that he publicly confessed his faith. He was imprisoned, and the next day his limbs were struck 05 on an anvil, and he was then beheaded, dying in his wife’s, St Natalia’s, arms. St Adrian’s festival, with that of his wife, is kept on the 8th of September. He is specially a patron of soldiers, and is much reverenced in Flanders, Germany and the north of France. He is usually represented armed, with an anvil in his hands or at his feet.
ADRIAN, a city and the county-seat of Lenawee county, Michigan, USA, on the S. branch of Raisin river, near the SE. corner of the state. Pop.(1890) 8756; (1900) 9654, of whom 1136 were foreign-born: (1910 census) 10,763. It is served by five branches of the Lake Shore railway system, and by the Wabash, the Toledo and Western, and the Toledo, Detroit and Ironton railways. Adrian is the seat of Adrian College (1859; co-educational), controlled by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 18 59—1867 and since 1867 by the Methodist Protestant Church, and having departments of literature, theology, music, fine arts, commerce and pedagogy, and a preparatory school; and of St Joseph’s Academy (Roman Catholic) for girls; and 1 in. north of the city is the State Industrial Home for Girls (1879), for the reformation of juvenile offenders between the ages of ten and seventeen. Adrian hasa public library. The city is situated in a rich farming region; is an important shipping point for livestock, grain and other farm products; and is especially known as a centre for the manufacture of wire-fences. Among the other manufactories are flouring and grist mills, planing mills, foundries, and factories for making agricultural implements, United States mail boxes, furniture, pianos, organs, automobiles, toys and electrical supplies The value of the city’s factory products increased from $2,124,923 in 1900 to $4,897,426 in 1904, or 13o-5%; of the total value in 1904, $2,849,648 was the value of wire-work. The place was laid out as a town in 1828, and according to tradition was named in honour of the Roman emperor Hadrian. It was incorporated as a village in 1836, was made the county-seat in 1838 and was chartered as a city in 1853.
ADRIANI, GIOVANNI BA'l'l‘ISTA (1513—1579), Italian historian, was born of a patrician family of Florence, and was secretary to the republic of Florence. He was among the defenders of the city during the siege of 1530, but subsequently joined the Medici party and was appointed professor of rhetoric at the university. At the instance of Cosimo I. he wrote a history of his own times, from 1 536 to 1 574, in Italian, which is generally, but according to Brunet erroneously, considered a continuation of Guicciardini. De Thou acknowledges himself greatly indebted to this history, praising it especially for its accuracy. Adriani composed funeral orations in Latin on the emperor Charles V. and other noble personages, and was the author of a long letter on ancient painters and sculptors prefixed to the third volume of Vasari. His I storia dei suoi lcmpi was published in Florence in 1583; a new edition appeared also in Florence in 1872.
See G. M. Mazzucchelli, Gli Scrittori d’ Italia, i. p. 151 (Brescia, I753
ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N. by Bulgaria (Eastern Rumelia), E. by the Black Sea and the vilayet of Constantinople, S. by the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean Sea and W. by Macedonia. Pop. (1905) about 1,000,000; area, 15,000 sq. m. The surface of the vilayet is generally mountainous, except in the central valley of the Maritza, and along the banks of its tributaries, the Tunja, Arda, Ergene, &c. On the west, the great Rhodope range and its outlying ridges extend as far as the Maritza, and attain an altitude of more than 7000 ft. in the summits of the Kushlar Dagh, Karluk Dagh and KaraBalkan. Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream. The climate is mild and the soil fertile; but political disturbances and the conservative character of the people tend to thwart the progress of agriculture and other industries. The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers. Through the resultant scarcity of labour, much land fell out of cultivation. This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, ,had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was'counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tarifis. The important silk
industry, however, began to revive about 1890, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences. The main railway from Belgrade to Constantinople skirts the Maritza and Ergene valleys, and there is an important branch line down the Maritza valley to Dédéagatch, and thence coastwise to Salonica. After the city of Adrianople (pop. 1905, about 80,000), which is the capital, the principal towns‘are Rodosto (3 5,000), Gallipoli (2 5,000), Kirk-Kilisseh (16,000), Xanthi (14,000), Chorlu (11,500), Demotica (10,000), Enos (8000), Gumuljina (8000) and Dédéagatch (3000).
ADRIANOPLE (anc. H adrianopalis; Turk. Edime, or Edrcneh; Slav. Odrin), the capital of the vilayet of Adrianople, Turkey in Europe; 137 m. by rail W.N.W. of Constantinople. Pop. (1905) about 80,000, of whom half are Turks, and half Jews, Greeks, Bulgars, Armenians, &c. Adrianople ranks, after Constantinople and Salonica, third in size and importance among the cities of European Turkey. It is the see of a Greek archbishop, and of one Armenian and two Bulgarian bishops. It is the chief fortress near the Bulgarian frontier, being defended by a ring of powerful modern forts. It occupies both banks of the river Tunja, at its confluence with the Maritza, which is navigable to this point in spring and winter. The nearest seaport by rail is Dédéagatch, west of the Maritza; Enos, at the river-mouth, is the nearest by water. Adrianople is on the railway from Belgrade and Sofia to Constantinople and Salonica. In appearance it is thoroughly Oriental—a mass of mean, irregular wooden buildings, threaded by narrow tortuous streets, with a few better buildings. Of these the most important are the Idadieh school, the school of arts and crafts, the Jewish communal school; the Greek college, Zappeion; the Imperial Ottoman Bank and Tobacco Regie; a fire-tower; a theatre; palaces for the prefect of the city, the administrative staff of the second army corps and the defence works commission; ahandsome row of barracks; a military hospital; and a French hospital. Of earlier buildings, the most distinguished are the Eski Serai, an ancient and half-ruined palace of the sultans; the bazaar of Ali Pasha; and the 16th-century mosque of the sultan Selim 11., a magnificent specimen of Turkish architecture.
Adrianople has five suburbs, of which Kiretchhané and Yilderim are on the left bank of the Maritza, and Kirjik stands on a hill overlooking the city. The two last named are exclusively Greek, but a large proportion of the inhabitants of Kiretchhané are Bulgarian. These three suburbs —as well as the little hamlet of Demirtash, containing about 300 houses all occupied by Bulgars—are all built in the native fashion; but the; fifth suburb, Karagatch, which is on the right bank of the Maritza, and occupies the region between the railway station and the city, is Western in its design, consisting of detached residences in gardens, many of them handsome villas, and all of modern European type. In all the communities schools have multiplied, but the new seminaries are of the old non-progressive type. The only exception is the Hamidieh school for boys—a government institution which takes both boarders and day-scholars. Like the Lyceum of Galata Serai in Constantinople, it has two sets of professors, Turkish and French, and a full course of education in each language, the pupils following both courses. The several communities have each their own charitable institutions, the Jews being speciallv well endowed in this respect. The Greeks have a literary society, and there is a well-organized club to which members of all the native communities, as well as many foreigners, belong. ‘
The economic condition of Adrianople was much impaired by the war of 1877—78, and was just showing signs of recovery when, in 1885, the schrance from it of Eastern Rumelia by a Customs cordon rendered the situation worse than ever. Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria. But the separation of Eastern Rumelia isolated Adrianople, and transferred to Philippopolis at least two-thirds of its foreign trade which, as regards sea-borne merchandise, is carried on through the port of Bur-gas (q.v.). The city manufactures silk, leather, tapestry, woollens, linen and cotton, and has an active general trade. Besides fruits and agricultural produce, its exports include raw silk, cotton, opium, rose-water, attar of roses, wax and the dye known as Turkey red. The surrounding country is extremely fertile, and its wines are the best produced in Turkey. The city is supplied with fresh water by means of an aqueduct carried by arches over an extensive valley. There is also a fine stone bridge over the Tunja. > Adrianople was originally known as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama, but was renamed and enlarged by the Roman emperor Hadrian (117—138). In 378 the Romans were here defeated by the Goths. Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad 1., until 1453, when Constantinople fell. It was occupied by the Russians in 1829 and 1878 (see Russo-Tunmsn WARS). ADRIATIC SEA (ancient Adria or Hadria), an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating Italy from the Austro-Hungarian, Montenegrin and Albanian littorals, and the system of the Apennine mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. The name, derived from the town of Adria, belonged originally only to the upper portion of the sea (Herodotus vi. 127, vii. 2o, ix. 92; Euripides, Hippalytus, 736), but was gradually extended as the Syracusan colonies gained in importance. But even then the Adriatic in the narrower sense only extended as far as the Mons Garganus, the outer portion being called the Ionian Sea: the name was sometimes, however, inaccurately used to include the Gulf of Tarentum, the Sea of Sicily, the Gulf of Corinth and even the sea between Crete and Malta (Acts xxvii. 27). The Adriatic extends N.W. from 40° to 45° 45’ N., with an extreme length of nearly 500 m., and a mean breadth of about 110 m., but the Strait of Otranto, through which it connects at the south with the Ionian Sea, is only 45 m. wide. Moreover, the chain of islands which fringes the northern part of the eastern shore reduces the extreme-breadth of open sea in this part to 90 m. The Italian shore is generally low, merging, in the north-west, into the marshes and lagoons on either hand of the protruding delta of the river Po, the sediment of which has pushed forward the coast-line for several miles within historic times. On islands within one of the lagoons opening from the Gulf of Venice, the city of that name has its unique situation. The east coast is generally bold and rocky. South of the Istrian peninsula, which separates the Gulfs of Venice and Trieste from the Strait of Quarnero, the island-fringe of the east coast extends as far south as Ragusa. The islands, which are long and narrow (the long axis lying parallel with the coast of the mainland), rise rather abruptly to elevations of a few hundred feet, while on the mainland, notably in the magnificent inlet of the Bocche di Cattaro, lofty mountains often fall directly to the sea. This coast, though beautiful, is somewhat sombre, the prevalent colour of the rocks, a light, dead grey, contrasting harshly with the dark vegetation, which on some of the islands is luxuriant. The north part of the sea is very shallow, and between the southern promontory of Istria and Rimini the depth rarely exceeds 2 5 fathoms. Between Sebenico and Ortona a well-marked depression occurs, a considerable area of which exceeds 100 fathoms in depth. From a point between Curzola and the north shore of the spur of Monte Gargano there is a ridge giving shallower water, and a broken chain of a few islets extends across the sea. The deepest part of the sea lies east of Monte Gargano, south of Ragusa, and west of Durazzo, where a large basin gives depths of 500 fathoms and upwards, and a small area in the south of this basin falls below 800. The mean depth of the sea is estimated at 133 fathoms. The bora' (north~east wind), and the prevalence of sudden squalls from this quarter or the south-east, are dangers to navigation in winter. Tidal movement is slight. (See also MEDITERRANEAN.) For the “ Marriage of the Adria-tic,” or more properly “of the sea,” a ceremony formerly performed by the doges of Venice, see the article BUCENTAUR.
ADSCRIPT (from Lat. ad, on or to, and scribere, to write), something written after, as opposed to “ subscript,” which means written under. A labourer was called an “ adscript of the soil ” (adscriptus glebae) when he could be sold or transferred with it, as in feudal days, and as in Russia until 1861. Carlyle speaks of the Java blacks as a kind of adscripts.
ADULLAM, a Canaanitish town in the territory of the tribe of Judah, perhaps the modern 'Aid-el-Ma, 7 m. N.E. of Beit-Jibrin. It was in the stronghold (“ cave ” is a scribal error) of this town that David took refuge on two occasions (1 Sam. xxii. 1; 2 Sam. v. 17). The tradition that Adullam is in the great cave of Khareiti'm (St Chariton) is probably due to the crusaders. From the description of Adullam as the resort of “every one that was in distress,” or “in debt," or “ discontented," it has often been humorously'alluded to, notably by Sir Walter Scott, who puts the expression into the mouth of the Baron of Bradwardine in Waverley, chap. lvii., and also of Balfour of Burley in Old Mortality. In modern political history the expression “ cave of Adullam ” (hence “ Adullamites ”) came into common use (being first employed in a speech by John Bright on the 13th of March 1866) with regard to the independent attitude of Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Edward Horsman and their Liberal supporters in opposition to the Reform Bill of 1866. But others had previously used it in a similar connexion, c.g. President Lincoln in his second electoral campaign (1864), and the Tories in allusion to the Whig remnant who joined C. J. Fox in his temporary secession. From the same usage is derived the shorter political term “ cave ” for any body of men who secede from their party on some special subject. _
ADULTERATION (from Lat. adulterare, to defile or falsify), the act of debasing a commercial commodity with the object of passing it off as or under the name of a pure or genuine commodity for illegitimate profit, or the substitution of an inferior article for a superior one, to the detriment of the purchaser. Although the term is mainly used in connexion with the falsification of articles of food, drink or drugs, and is so dealt with in this article, the practice of adulteration extends to almost all manufactured products and even to unmanufactured natural substances, and (as was once suggested by John Bright) is an almost inseparable ——though none the less reprehensible—~phase of keen trade competition. In its crudest forms as old as commerce itself, it has progressed with the growth of knowledge and of science, and is, in its most modern developments, almost a branch— and that not the least vigorous one—of applied science. From the mere concealment of a piece of metal or a stone in a loaf of bread or in a lump of butter, a bullet in a musk bag or in a piece of opium, it has developed into the use of aniline dyes, of antiseptic chemicals, of synthetic sweetening agents in foods, the manufacture of butter from cocoa-nuts, of lard from cotton-seed and of pepper from olive stones. Its growth and development has necessitated the employment of multitudes of scientific officers charged with its detection and the passing of numerous laws for its repression and punishment. While for all common forms of fraud the common law is in most cases considered strong enough, special laws against the adulteration of food have been found necessary in all civilized countries. A vigorous branch of chemical literature deals with it; there exist scientific societies specially devoted to its study; laboratories are maintained by governments with staffs of highly trained chemists for its detection; and yet it not only develops and flourishes, but becomes more general, if less virulent and dangerous to health.
There are numerous references to adulteration in the classics. The detection of the base metal by Archimedes in Hierb’s crown, by the light specific gravity of the latter, is a well-known instance. Vitruvius speaks of the adulteration of minium with lime, Dioscorides of that of opium with other plant juices and with gum, Pliny of that of flour with white clay. Both in Rome and in Athens wine was often adulterated‘with colours and fiavouring agents, and inspectors were charged with looking after it.
In England, so far back as the reign of John (1203), a proclamation was made throughout the kingdom, enforcing the