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bishops from compelling abbots to attend councils. Examples are not uncommon in Spain and in England in Saxon times. Abbots were permitted by the second council of Nicaea, A.D. 787, to ordain their monks to the inferior orders. This rule was adopted in the West, and the strong prejudice against clerical monks having gradually broken down, eventually monks, almost without exception, took holy orders.
Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century. The Code of Justinian (lib. i. tit. iii. de Ep. leg. xl.) expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of F austus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, AD. 456; but the exorbitant claims and exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to episcopal control is to be traced, far more than to the arrogance of abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, and, in the 6th century, the practice of exempting religious houses partly or altogether from episcopal control, and making them responsible to the pope alone, received an impulse from Gregory the Great. These exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century, virtually creating an imperium in imperio, and depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese. In the 12th century the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne. Abbots more and more assumed almost episcopal state, and in defiance of the prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves and sandals. It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine (J. Braun, Lilurgische Gewandung, p. 4 5 3). The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II. in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury (see MITRE). The mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban’s, Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund’s, St Augustine’s Canterbury, Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glastonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmesbury, Peterborough, Ramsey, Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, Tavistock, Thorney, Westminster, Winchcombe, St Mary’s York. Of these the precedence was originally yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in A.D. 11 54 Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the abbot of St Alban’s, in which monastery he had been brought up. Next after the abbot of St Alban’s ranked the abbot of Westminster. To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that their mitre should be made of less costly materials, and should not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was soon entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their pastoral staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, indicating that their jurisdiction was limited to their own house.
The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, which had to be specially but inefiectually guarded against by the Lateran council, A.D. 1123. In the East, abbots, if in priests’ orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, as we have seen, permitted by the second Nicene council, AD. 787, to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of reader; but gradually abbots, in the West also, advanced higher claims, until we find them in AD. 1489 permitted by Innocent IV. to confer both the subdiaconate and diaconate. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks and vesting them with the religious habit.
When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the election and the benediction of the new abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot’s journey to Rome. By the rule of St Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some undefined way required;
but this seems never to have been practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable candidate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, one also who had learned how to command by having practised obedience. In some exceptional cases an abbot was allowed to name his own successor. Cassian speaks of an abbot in Egypt doing this; and in later times we have another example in the case of St Bruno. Popes and sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exception of Cluny, Prémontré and other houses, chiefs of their order. The election was for life, unless the abbot was canonically deprived by the chiefs of his order, or when he was directly subject to them, by the pope or the bishop.
The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine abbot in medieval times is thus prescribed by the consuetudinary of Abingdon. The newly elected abbot was to put ofl' his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in a procession. After proceeding up the nave, he was to kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop or his commissary, and placed in his stall. The monks, then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of oflice. He then put on his shoes in the vestry, and a chapter was held, and the bishop or his commissary preached a suitable sermon.
The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control. As a rule. however, implicit obedience was enforced; to act without his orders was Culpable; while it was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unreasonable, until they were withdrawn. Examples among the Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who regarded the entire crushing of the individual will as the highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others,— c.g. a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely exceeding his powers. St Jerome, indeed, lays down, as the principle of the compact between the abbot and his monks, that they should obey their superiors in all things, and perform whatever they commanded (Ep. 2, ad Eustach. de custod. virgin). So despotic did the tyranny become in the West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to restrain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their monks and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St Columban ordained roo lashes as the punishment for very slight oflences. An abbot also had the power of excommunicating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess. '
The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared either in church or chapter all present rese and bowed. His letters were received kneeling, like those of the pope and the king. If he gave a command, the monk receiving it was also to kneel. No monk might sit in his presence, or leave it without his permission. The highest place was naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. In the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a separate table, at which he might entertain guests and strangers. This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the council of Aix, AD. 817, decreed that the abbot should dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning the inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots. When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting them. At St Alban’s the abbot took the lord’s seat, in the centre of the igh table, and was served on silver plate, and sumptuously ntertained nobleman, ambassadors and strangers of quality. Vhen abbots dined in their own private hall, the rule of St ienedict charged them to invite their monks to their table, rovided there was room, on which occasions the guests were 0 abstain from quarrels, slanderous talk and idle gossiping. The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be be same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the ule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent complaints if abbots dressing in silk, and adopting sumptuous attire. They .ometirnes even laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and LSSUIHCd a secular dress.l This was a necessary consequence of heir following the chase, which was quite usual, and indeed at .hat time only natural. With the increase of wealth and power, ibbots had lost much of their special religious character, and aecome great lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by :elibacy. Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs and huntsmen ; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester, c. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in harehunting. In magnificence of equipage and retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. They rode on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and housings, carrying hawks on their wrist, followed by an immense train of attendants. The bells of the churches were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms with laymen of the highest distinction, and shared all their pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, however, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read of Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well-ordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance and officers were an honour to the nation. He would entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a week. He had his country houses and fisheries, and when he travelled to attend parliament his retinue amounted to upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Cluny and Vendbme were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.
In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred
to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas Castrensir. It even came to be adopted by purely secular officials. Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi. Du Cange, in his glossary, also gives us Abbas Campanih's, Clochen'i, Palalii, Scholaris, &c.
Lay abbots (M. Lat. defensorcs, abbacomiles, abbates laici, abbates milites, abbale: saeculares or irreligiosi, abbatian'i, or sometimes simply abbales) were the outcome of the growth of the feudal system from the 8th century onwards. The practice of commendation, by which—to meet a contemporary emergency ——the revenues of the community were handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection, early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam. During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the roth century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly established. Even the abbey of St Denis was held in commendam by Hugh Capet. The example of the kings was followed by the feudal nobles, sometimes by making a temporary concession permanent, sometimes without any form of commendation whatever. In England the abuse was rife in the 8th century, as may be gathered from the acts of the council of Cloveshoe. These lay abbacies were not merely a question of overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the
foundations, Le. the more or less complete secularization of ‘Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is charged by
spiritual institutions. The lay abbot took his recognized rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of his fief as in the case of any other. The enfeoffment of abbeys differed in form and degree. Sometimes the monks were directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a substitute to perform the spiritual functions, known usually as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimus, monasticus, regularis). When the great reform of the 11th century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by certain of the great feudal families, as late as the 13th century and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of dean. The connexion of the lesser lay abbots with the abbeys, especially in the south of France, lasted longer; and certain feudal families retained the title of abbés chevaliers (abbates milites) for centuries, together with certain rights over the abbey lands or revenues. The abuse was not confined to the West. John, patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, beneficiarii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.
In'conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior.
The title vabbé (Ital. abbale), as commonly used in the Catholic church on the European continent, is the equivalent of the English “ Father,” being loosely applied to all who have received the tonsure. This use of the title is said to have originated in the right conceded to the king of France, by the concordat between Pope Leo X. and Francis I. (1516), to appoint abbés commendataires to most of the abbeys in France. The expectation of obtaining these sinecures drew young men towards“ the church in considerable numbers, and the class of abbés so formed ——abbés de war they were sometimes called, and sometimes (ironically) abbés de sainte esPérance, abbés of St Hope—came to hold a recognized position. The connexion many of them had with the church was of the slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting the name of abbé, after a remarkably moderate course of theological study, practising celibacy and wearing a distinctive dress—a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar. Being men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, many of the class found admission to the houses of the French nobility as tutors or advisers. Nearly every great family had its abbé. The class did not survive the Revolution; but the courtesy title of abbé, having long lost all connexion in people’s minds with any special ecclesiastical function, remained as a convenient general term applicable to any clergyman.
In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Ab!) is sometimes bestowed, like abbé, as an honorary distinction, and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations. Of these the most noteworthy is the abbey of Lokkum in Hanover, founded as a Cistercian house in 1163 by Count Wilbrand of Hallermund, and reformed in 1593. The abbot of Lokkum, who still carries a pastoral staff, takes precedence of all the clergy of Hanover, and is ex oflicio a member of the consistory of the kingdom. The governing body of the abbey consists of abbot, prior and the “ convent ” of canons (Sliflsherren).
See Joseph Bingham, Ori ines ecclesiasticae (181?); Du Cange, Glossarium med. at inf. Lat. ed. 1883); J. Craigie obertson, Hut. of the Christian Church (:858—1873); Edmond Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae n'h'bus (Venice, 1783); C. F. R. de Montalembert. Les moines d‘occikient dlftpuis S. Benoit ju'squ'd S. Bernard (1860-1877); Achrlle Luchalre, anue! de: mstrluhons frangazses (Par. 1892).
(E. V.; W. A. P.)
ABBOTSFORD, formerly the residence of Sir Walter Scott, situated on the S. bank of the Tweed, about 3 m. W. of Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland, and nearly r m. from Abbotsford Ferry station on the North Britishrailway, connecting Selkirk and Galashiels. The nucleus of the estate was a small farm of 100 acres, called Cartleyhole, nicknamed Clarty (Le. muddy) Hole, and bought by Scott on the lapse of his lease (r81r) of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel. It was added to from time to
Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.
time, the last and principal acquisition being that of Toftfield
(afterwards named Huntlyburn), purchased in 1817. The new house was then begun and completed in 1824. The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines, one side overlooking the Tweed; and the style is mainly the Scottish Baronial. Into various parts of the fabric were built relics and curiosities from historical structures, such as the doorway of the old Tolbooth in Edinburgh. Scott had only enjoyed his residence one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of fortune which involved the estate in debt. In 1830 the library and museum were presented to him as a free gift by the creditors. The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847 by Robert Cadell, the publisher, who cancelled the bond upon it in exchange for the family’s share in the copyright of Sir Walter’s works. Scott’s only son Walter did not live to enjoy the property, having died on his way from India in 1847. Among subsequent possessors were Scott’s son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, J. R. Hope Scott,Q.C., and his daughter (Scott’s great-granddaughter), the Hon. Mrs Maxwell Scott. Abbotsford gave its name to the “ Abbotsford Club,” a successor of the Bannatyne and Maitland clubs, founded by W. B. D. D. Turnbull in 1834 in Scott’s henour, for printing and publishing historical works connected with his writings. Its publications extended from 1835 to 1864.
See Lockhart, Life of Scott; Washington Irving, Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey; W. S. Crockett, The Scott Country.
ABBOTT, EDWIN ABBO'I'l‘ (1838— ), English schoolmaster and theologian, was born on the 20th of December 18 38. He was educated at the City of London school and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he took the highest honours in the classical, mathematical and theological triposes, and became fellow of his college. In 1862 he took orders. After holding masterships at King Edward’s School, Birmingham, and at Clifton College, he succeeded G. F. Mortimer as headmaster of the City of London school in 1865 at the early age of twentysix. He was Hulsean lecturer in 1876. He retired in 1889, and devoted himself to literary and theological pursuits. Dr Abbott’s liberal inclinations in theology were prominent both in his educational views and in his books. His Shakespearian Grammar (1870) is a permanent contribution to English philology. In 1885 he published a life of Francis Bacon. His theological writings include three anonymously published religious romances—Philochristus (1878), Onesimus (1882), Silanus (1906). More weighty contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article “The Gospels ” in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898),]ohannine Vocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).
His brother, Evelyn Abbott (1843—1901), was a well-known tutor of Balliol, Oxford, and author of a scholarly History of Greece.
ABBOTT, EMMA (1849—1891), American singer, was born at Chicago and studied in Milan and Paris. She had a fine soprano voice, and appeared first in opera in London under Colonel Mapleson’s direction at Covent Garden, also singing at important concerts. She organized an opera company known by her name, and toured extensively in the United States, where she had a great reputation. In 1873 she married E. J. Wetherell. She died at Salt Lake City on the 5th of January 1891.
ABBOTT, JACOB (1803—1879), American writer of books for the young, was born at Hallowell, Maine, on the 14th of November 1803. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820; studied at Andover Theological Seminary“ in 1821, 1822, and 1824; was tutor in 1824—1825, and from 1825 to 1829 was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Amherst College; was licensed to preach by the Hampshire Association in 1826; founded the Mount Vernon School for young ladies in Boston in 1829, and was principal of it in 1829—1833; was pastor of Eliot Congregational Church (which he founded), at Roxbury, Mass, in 1834—183 5; and was, with his brothers, a founder, and In 1843—1851 a principal of Abbott’s Institute, and in 1845—1848
of the Mount Vernon School for boys, in New York City. He was a prolific author, writing juvenile stories, brief histories and biographies, and religious books for the general reader, and a few works in_ popular science. He died on the 31st of October 1879 at Farmington, Maine, where he had spent part of his time since 1839, and where his brother Samuel Phillips Abbott founded in 1844 the Abbott School, popularly called “Little Blue.” Jacob Abbott’s “ Rollo Books "—Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in Europe, 81c. (28 vols.)——are the best known of his writings, having as their chief characters a representative boy and his associates. In them Abbott did for one or two generations of young American readers a service not unlike that performed earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at Home, Sandde and Merton, and the Parent’s Assistant. Of his other writings (he produced more than two hundred volumes in all), the best are the Franconia Stories (10 vols.), twenty-two volumes of biographical histories in a series of thirty-two volumes (with his brother John S. C. Abbott), and the Young Christian,——all of which had enormous circulations.
His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott (1830-1890), Austin Abbott (1831—1896), both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott (q.o.), and Edward Abbott (1841-1908), a clergyman, were also well-known authors.
See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with 0 Sketch of the
Author by one of his sons, i.e. Edward Abbott (New York, 1882), with a bibliography of his works.
ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805—1877), American writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine, on the 18th of September 1805. He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated with him in the management of Abbott’s Institute, New York City, and in the preparation of his series of brief historical biographies. He is best known, however, as the author of a partisan and unscholarly, but widely popular and very readable History of Napoleon Bonaparte (1855), in which the various elements and episodes in Napoleon’s career are treated with some skill in arrangement, but with unfailing adulation. Dr Abbott graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, prepared for the ministry at Andover Theological Seminary, and between 1830 and 1844, when he retired from the ministry, preached successively at Worcester, Roxbury and Nantucket, Massachusetts. He died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, on the 17th of June 1877. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, and of his: tories, which now seem unscholarly and untrustworthy, but were valuable in their time in cultivating a popular interest in history. In general, except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. - ‘
ABBOTT, LYMAN (18 3 5— ), American divine and author, was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 18th of December 1835, the son of Jacob Abbott. He graduated at the University of New York in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1856; but soon abandoned the legal profession, and, after studying theology with his uncle, J. S. C. Abbott, was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church in 1860. He was pastor of a church in Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1860—1865, and of the New England Church in New York City in 1865—1869. From 1865 to 1868 he was secretary of the American Union (F reedman’s) Commission. In 1869 he resigned his pastorate to devote himself to literature. He was an associate editor of H arper’s M agazine, was editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly, and was co-editor (1876—1881) of The Christian Union with Henry Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded in 1888 as pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. From this pastorate he resigned ten years later. From 1881 he was editor-in-lchief of The Christian Union, renamed The Outlook in 1893; this periodical reflected his efforts toward social reform, and, in theology, a liberality, humanitarian and nearly unitarian. The latter characteristics marked his published works also.
His works include Jesus of Nazareth (1869) ; Illustrated Commentary on the New Testament (4 vols., 1875); A Study in Human Nature (1885); Life of Christ (1894); Evolution of Christianity (Lowell Lectures, 1896); The Theology of an Evolutionist (1897); Christianity and Social Problems (1397); Life and Letters of Paul (1898);
The Life that Really is (1899): Problems of Life (1909); The Rights of Man (i l); Hem Ward Beecher (1903); The Chnstum Mmtstry (1905); T e Person ity oj God (1905); Industrial Problems (1905); and Christ's Secret o Happiness (1907). He edited Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher 2 vols., 1868).
unen-nim a town of British India, 4120 ft. above sealevel, 63 m. from Rawalpindi, the headquarters of the Hazara district in the N.W. Frontier Province, called after its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district after the annexation of the Punjab. It is an important military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps. In Igor the population of the town and cantonment was 7764.
ABBREVIATION (Lat. brain's, short), strictly a shortening; more particularly, an “abbreviation ” is a letter or group of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and recognized, are common in ancient writings and inscriptions (see PALAEOGRAPHY and DIPLOMATIC), and very many are in use at the present time. A distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collocations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols. The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently
Caesar, Caius,Caput,Causa,Censor,Civis, Cohors, Colonia,
Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con.
Civisbbonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui
Calumniae causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Consilium cepit, Curiae consulto. '
Calumniae cavendae causa. t
caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Caius Caii filius.
Caesaris decreto, Caius Decius, Comitialibus dicbus.
Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores.
Causa fiduciae, Conjugi lecit, curavit faciendum.
custos heredum, Custos hortorum.
Caius Julius, Consul jussit, curavit judex.
Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia.
added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a V, clarissimus vir, clypeum vovit. superlative. c.M. caius Marius, Causa mortis.
_ ~ - - CN. Cnaeus. I. CLAssICAr. ABBREVIATIONS. The followmg hst contains com Coheres' Cohors‘
a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the writings COL Collega' Collegiumy Colonia' Columna_
and inscriptions of the Romans:— COLL. Collega, Coloni, Coloniae.
_ Aut' COS. Con_silianus, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules. _ A_A_ Aes alienum' Ante audita‘ Apud agmm'Aurum arsentunh C.P. Carissrmus or Clanssimus puer, Civis publicus, curavit AA. Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres. . ponendumz . . .
A.AA-pp- Au", argento aere nando feriundal Caius Rufus, Civis Romanus, curavit reficrendum. A_A_V. Alter ambove_ Caesar, communlsy Consul.
A.c. Acta causa. Alius civis. ClariSSimus or consularis viri
A.D. Ante diem; e.g. A.D.V. Ante diem quintum. Cum. Curator, Curavit, Cuna.
A.D.A. Ad dandos agros _ _ D
AED' ABdes' Aedms’ Aedlhtas' Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio,
Deus, Dicit, &c., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus,
AVGG. Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres.
Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissum, Fiduciae causa.
Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato.
Filius, Flamen, Flaminius, Flavius.
Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber.
Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.
Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemina, Gena,
Gemina fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. (lemma