صور الصفحة
PDF

Pelopia, took him to Mycenae, and brought him up as his own son. When he grew up Aegisthus slew Atreus, and ruled jointly with his father over Mycenae, until they were deposed by Agamemnon on his return from exile. After the departure of Agamemnon to the Trojan war, Aegisthus seduced his wife Clytaemnestra (more correctly Clytaemestra) and with her assistance slew him on his return. Eight years later his murder was avenged by his son Orestes.

Homer, 0d. iii. 263, iv. 517; Hyginus, Fab. 87.

AEGOSPOTAMI (i.e. “ Goat Streams "), a small creek issuing into the Hellespont, N.E. of Sestos, the scene of the decisive battle in 405 B.C. by which Lysander destroyed the last Athenian armament in the Peloponnesian War (q.v.). The township of that name, whose existence is attested by coins of the 5th and 4th centuries, must have been quite insignificant.

ELFRIC, called the “ Grammarian " (0. 955—1020?), English abbot and author, was born about 95 5. He was educated in the Benedictine monastery at Winchester under iEthelwold, who was bishop there from 963 to 984. [Ethelwold had carried on the tradition of Dunstan in his government of the abbey of Abingdon, and at Winchester he continued his strenuous efforts. He seems to have actually taken part in the work of teaching. zElfric no doubt gained some reputation as a scholar at Win

chester, for when, in 987, the abbey of Cernel (Cerne Abbas, _

Dorsetshire) was finished, he was sent by Bishop )Elfheah (Alphege), ZEthelwold’s successor, at the request of the chief benefactor of the abbey, the ealdorman Ethelmmr, to teach the Benedictine monks there. He was then in priest’s orders. Ethelmaer and his father )Ethelweard were both enlightened

patrons of learning, and became lElfric’s faithful friends. It ‘

was at Cernel, and partly at the desire, it appears, of {Ethelweard, that he planned the two series of his English homilies (ed. Benjamin Thorpe, 1844—1846, for the [Elfric Society), compiled from the Christian fathers, and dedicated to Sigeric, archbishop of Canterbury (990—094). The Latin preface to the first series enumerates some of {Elfric's authorities, the chief of whom was Gregory the Great, but the short list there given by no means exhausts the authors whom he consulted.- In the preface to the first volume he regrets that except for Alfred’s translations Englishmen had no means-of learning the true doctrine as expounded by the Latin fathers. Professor Earle (A.S. Literature, 1884) thinks he aimed at correcting the apocryphal, and to modern ideas superstitious, teaching of the earlier Blickling Homilies. The first series of forty homilies is devoted to plain and direct exposition of the chief events of the Christian year; the second deals more fully with church doctrine and history. {Elfric denied the immaculate birth of the Virgin (Homilies, ed. Thorpe, ii. 466), and his teaching on the Eucharist in the Canons and in the Senna de sacrifieio in die pascae (ibid. ii. 262 seq.) was appealed to by the Reformation writers as a proof that the early English church did not hold the Roman doctrine of transubStantiation} His Latin Grammar and Glossary2 were written for his pupils after the two books of homilies. A third series of homilies, the Lives of the Saints, dates from 996 to 997. Some of the sermons in the second series had been written in a kind of rhythmical, alliterative prose, and in the Lives of the Saints (ed. W. W. Skeat, 1881-1900, for the Early English Text Society) the practice is so regular that most of them are arranged as verse by Professor Skeat. By the wish of [Ethelweard he also began a paraphrase a of parts of the Old Testament, but under protest, for the stories related in it were not, he thought, suitable for simple minds. There is no certain proof that he remained at Cernel. It has been suggested that this part of his life was

1 See A Testimonie of Antiquitie, shewing the auncient fayth in the Church of England touching the sacrament of the body and bloude of the Lord here pubtikely preached, printed by John Day (1567). It was quoted in John Foxe's Arte: and Monuments (ed. 1610).

8’8 E)d. J. Zupitza in Sammlung englischer Denkmdler (vol. i., Berlin, 1 o . ' Edited by Edward Thwaites as Heptateuchus (Oxford, 1698); modern edition in Grein's Bibliothek der 11.5. From (vol. i. Cassel and Gdttingen, 1872). See also B. Assmann, Abl Elfrie’s . . . Esther (Halle, 1885), and Ab! fEIfric': Judith (in Anglia, vol. x.).

[graphic]

chiefly spent at Winchester; but his writings for the patrons of Cernel, and the fact that he wrote in 998 his Canons ‘ as a pastoral letter for Wulfsige, the bishop of Sherborne, the diocese in which the abbey was situated, afl'ord presumption of continued residence there. He became in 1005 the first abbot of Eynsharn 0r Ensham, near Oxford, another foundation of [Ethelmeer's After his elevation he wrote an abridgment for his monks of Ethelwold’s De consuetudine monachorum,5 adapted to their rudimentary ideas of monastic life; a letter to Wulfgeat of Ylmandun°; an introduction to the study of the Old and New Testaments (about 1008, edited by William L’Isle in 1623); a Latin life of his master iEthelwold’; a pastoral letter for Wulfstan, archbishop of York and bishop of Worcester, in Latin and English; and an English version of Bede’s De Territbor'ibus.8 The Colloquium,9 a Latin dialogue designed to serve his scholars as a manual of Latin conversation, may date from his life at Cernel. It is safe to assume that the original draft of this, afterwards enlarged by his pupil, [Elfric Bata, was by iElfric, and represents what his own scholar days were like. The last mention of AZlfric Abbot, probably the grammarian, is in a will dating from about 1020.

There have been three suppositions about lElfric. (1) He was identified with {Elfric (995—1005), archbishop of Canterbury. This view was vupheld by John Bale (III. Maj. Brit. Scriptorum

. 2nd ed., Base], 1557—1559; vol. i. p. 149, 5.11. Alfric); by Humphrey Wanley (Catalogus librorum septcntrionalium, &c., Oxford, 1705, forming vol. ii. of George Hickes’s Antiquae literaturae septentrionalis); by Elizabeth Elstob, The English— Saxon Homily on the Birthday of St Gregory (1709; new edition, 1839); and by Edward Rowe Mores, /Elfrico, Dorobernensi, archiepiseapo, Commentarius (ed. G. J. Thorkelin, 1789), in which the conclusions of earlier writers on {Elfric are reviewed. Mores made him abbot of St Augustine’s at Dover, and finally archbishop of Canterbury. (2) Sir Henry Spelman, in his Concilia . . . (1639, vol. i. p. 583), printed the Canones ad Wulsinum episcopum, and suggested {Elfric Putta or Putto, archbishop of York, as the author, adding some note of others bearing the name. The identity of, [Elfric the grammarian with {Elfric archbishopof York was also discussed by Henry Wharton, in Anglia Sacra (1691, vol. i. pp. 125-134), in a dissertation reprinted in J. P. Migne’s Patrologia (vol. 139, pp. 1459-70, Paris, 1853). (3) William of Malmesbury (De gestis pontificum anglorum, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton, Rolls Series, 1870, p. 406) suggested that he was abbot of Malmesbury and bishop of Crediton. The main facts of his career were finally elucidated by Eduard Dietrich in a series of articles contributed to C. W. Niedner’s Zeitschrift far historische Theologie (vols. for 1855 and 1856, Gotha), which have formed the basis of all subsequent

writings on the subject.

Sketches of {Elfric's career are in B. Ten Brink's Early English Literature (to Wictif) (trans. H. M. Kenned , New York, 1883, p. 105-112), and by J. S. Westlake in The Camhlridge History 0 Eng ish Literature (vol. i., 1907, p . 116-129). An excellent bib iography and account of the critical) apparatus is given in Dr R. Wiilker's Grundriss zur Geschichte der angelsa'chsisehen Litteratur (Leipzig, 1885, pp. 452-480). See also the account by Professor Skeat in Pt. iv. pp. 8-61 of his edition of the Lives of the Saints, already cited, which gives a full account of the MSS., and a discussion of rElfric's sources, with further bibliographical references; and zilfrie, a New Study of his Life and Writin s, by Miss C. L. \Vhite (Boston, New York and London, 1898) in t e “ Yale Studies in English." Alcuini Interrogationes Sigewulfl Presbyteri in Genesin (ed. G. E. McLean, Halle, 1883) is attributed to rElfric by its editor. There are other isolated ser‘lmgnspand treatises by fElfric, printed in vol. iii. of Grein's Bibi. v. . . rosa.

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

AELIA CAPITOLINA, the city built by the emperor Hadrian, 11.0. 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Jerusalem (q.v.), which was in ruins when he visited his Syrian dominions. Aelia is derived from the emperor’s family name, and Capitolina from that of Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the Jewish temple.

AELIAN (AELIANUS Tacrrcus), Greek military writer of the 2nd century A.D., resident at Rome. He is sometimes confused with Claudius Aelianus, the Roman writer referred to below. Aelian’s military treatise, Tax-rum) Gewpla, is dedicated to Hadrian, though this is probably a mistake for Trajan, and the date A.D. 106 has been assigned to it. It is a handbook of Greek, 1'.e. Macedonian, drill and tactics as practised by the Hellenistic successors of Alexander the Great. The author claims to have consulted all the best authorities, the chief of which was a lost treatise on the subject by Polybius. Perhaps the chief value of Aelian’s work lies in his critical account of preceding works on the art of war, and in the fulness of his technical details in matters of drill. Critics of the 18th century—Guichard Folard and the prince de Ligne—were unanimous in thinking Aelian greatly inferior to Arrian, but both on his immediate successors, the Byzantines, and on the Arabs, who translated the text for their own use, Aelian exercised a eat influence. The emperor Leo VI. incorporated much of elian’s text in his own work on the military art. The Arabic version of Aelian was made about 1350. In spite of its academic nature, the copious details to be found in the treatise rendered it of the highest value to the army organizers of the 16th century, who were engaged in fashioning a regular military system out of the semi-feudal systems of previous generations. The Macedonian phalanx of Aelian had many points of resemblance to the solid masses of pikemen and the “squadrons” of cavalry of the Spanish and Dutch systems, and the translations made in the 16th century formed the groundwork of numerous books on drill and tactics. Moreover, his works, with those of Xenophon, Polybius, Aeneas and Arrian, were minutely studied by every soldier of the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to be master of his profession. It has been suggested that Aelian was the real author of most of Arrian’s Tactica, and that the Tax-run) Gewpla. is a later revision of this original, but the theory is not generally accepted.

The first edition of the Greek text is that of Robortelli (Venice, 1552); the Elzevir text (Leiden, 1613) has notes. The text in W. Riistow and H. Kochly's Grieohdsohe Kriegsschriflsteller (1855) is accompanied by a translation, notes and reproductions of the original illustrations. A Latin translation by Theodore Gaza of Thessalonica was included in the famous collection Veleres de re militan' scriptures (Rome and Venice, 148 , Cologne, 1528, &c.). The French translation of Machault, inclu ed in hlS Milices des Grecs e1 Romain: (Paris, 1615) and entitled De la Sergenterie des Grecs, a German translation from Theodore Gaza (Cologne, I 24), and the En lish version of Jo. B(in ham), which includes a dri lmanual of the nglish troops in the 11tch service, Toclieks of Aelian (London, 1616), are of importance in the military literature of the riod. A later French translation by Bouchard de Bussy, La Milwe des Grees ou Tactique d'Eh'en (Paris, 1737 and 1757); Baumgartner's German translation in his incomplete Sammlun aller Knegssehriftsteller der Griechen (Mannheim and Frankentha , 1779), re roduced in 1786 as Von Schlaehtordnungen, and Viscount D1llon's nglish version (London, 181 ) may also be mentioned. See also R. Forster, Studien zu den griee ischen Taktikem (Hermes, xii., 1877, pp. 444-449); F. Wiistenfeld, Dos Heerwesen der Muhammedaner and dze arabisohe Uebersetzung (der Taklik des Aelianus (Gettingen, 1880); M. Jahns, Gesch. der Kriegmissenschaften, i. 95-97 (Munich, 188 ); Riistow and Kochly, IGesch. des grieehisehen Kriegswesens (1852?; A. de Lort-Sérignan, La Phalan e (1880); P. Serrc, ludes sur l'histoire militaire et man'time des ‘recs et des Romains (1887); K. K. Muller, in PaulyWissowa, RealencydoPddie (Stuttgart, 1894).

AELIAN (CLAUDIUS AELIANUS), Roman author and teacher of rhetoric, born at Praeneste, flourished under Septimius Severus and probably outlived Elagabalus (d. 222). He spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called “ honey-tongued ” (pehi'tho'oos); although a Roman he preferred Greek authors, and wrote in Greek himself. His chief works are: On the Nature of Animals, curious and interesting stories of animal life, frequently used to convey moral lessons (ed. Schneider, 1784; Jacobs, 1832); Various H istory—ior the most part preserved

[graphic]

only in an abridged form—consisting mainly of anecdotes of men and customs (ed. Liinemann, 1811). Both works are valuable for the numerous excerpts from older writers. Considerable fragments of two other works On Providence and Divine M anifestations are preserved in Suidas; twenty Peasanls’ Letters, after the manner of Alciphron but inferior, are also attributed to him.

Edilio {m'neeps of complete works by Gesner, 1556; Hercher, 18641866. En lish translation of the Various History only b Fleming, 1576, and tanley, 1665; of the Letters by Quillard (French), 1895.

ELRED, AILRED, ETHELRED (1109—1166), English theologian, historin writer and abbot of Rievaulx, was born at Hexham about the year 1109. In his youth he was at the court of Scotland as an attendant of Henry, son of David I. He was in high favour with that sovereign, but renounced the prospect of a bishopric to enter the Cistercian house of Rievaulx in Yorkshire, which was founded in 1131 by Walter Espec. Herc {Elred remained for some time as master of the novices, but between the years 1142 and 1146 was elected abbot of Revesby in Lincolnshire and migrated thither. In 1146 he became abbot of Rievaulx. He led a life of the severest asceticism, and was credited with the power of working miracles; owing to his reputation the numbers of Rievaulx were greatly increased. In 1164 he went as a missionary to the Picts of Galloway. He found their religion at a low ebb, the regular clergy apathetic and sensual, the bishop little obeyed, the laity divided by the family feuds of their rulers, unchaste and ignorant. He induced a Galwegian chief to take the habit of religion, and restored the peace of the country. Two years later he died of a decline, at Rievaulx, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. In the year 1191 he was canonized. His writings are voluminous and have never been completely published. Amongst them are homilies “ on the burden of Babylon in Isaiah ”; three books “ on spiritual friendship ”; a life of Edward the Confessor; an account of miracles wrought at Hexham, and the tract called Relah'o de Standardo. This last is an account of the Battle of the Standard (1138), better known than the similar account by Richard of Hexham, but less trustworthy, and in places obscured by a peculiarly turgid rhetoric.

See the Vita Alredi in John of Tynemouth's Nova Legenda Anglie Eed. C. Horstmann, 1901, vol. i. p. 41), whence it was taken by

apgrave. From Capgrave the wo_rk mm the Bolland1st Acla Sanetorum (Jan. 11. p. 30). Th1s l1 e 1s anonymous, but of an early date. The most complete printed collection of Ailred's works is 1n Migne's Palrologia Latma, vol. cxcv.; but this does not include the M iracula Hagulstaldensis Ecclesiae which are printed in Raine's Priory of Hexham, vol. 1.(Surtees Soclety, 1864). A comp ete list of works attributed to )Elred is given in T. Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannieo-Hiberniea (1748),1:_p.2 7-248. The RelatiodeStandardo has been cnttcally edited by R. ow ett 1n Chromeles, 8a., of Stephen, enry II. and Richard 1., vol. iii. (Rolls Series, 1886). (H. W. C. D.)

AEMILIA VIA, or AEMILIAN WAY. (I) A highroad of Italy, constructed in 187 B.C. by the consul M. Aemilius Lepidus, from whom it takes its name; it ran from Ariminum to Placentia, a distance of 176 m. almost straight N .W., with the plain of the Po (Padus) and its tributaries on the right, and the Apennines on the left. The 79th milestone from Ariminum found in the bed of the Rhenus at Bononia records the restoration of the road by Augustus from Ariminum to the river Trebia in 2 5.0. (Noliz. Sena, 1902, 539). The bridge by which it crossed the Sillaro was restored by Trajan in AD. 100 (Nolizie dcgli Scavi, 1888, 621). The modern highroad follows the ancient line, and some of the original bridges still exist. After Augustus, the road gave its name to the district which formed the eighth region of Italy (previously known as Gallia or Provincia Ariminum), at first in popular usage (as in Martial), but in official language as early as the 2nd century; it is still in use (see EMILIA). The district was bounded on the N. by the Padus, E. by the Adriatic, S. by the river Crustumium (mod. Conca), and W. by the Apennines and the Ira (mod. Stafiora) at Iria (mod. Voghera), and corresponds approximately with the modern district. ‘1

(2) A road constructed in 109 B.C. by the censor M. Aemilius Scaurus from Vada Volaterrana and Luna to Vada Sabatia and thence over the Apennines to Dertona (Tortona), where it joined the Via Postumia from Genua to Cremona. We must, however (as Mommsen points out in C.I.L. v. p. 885), suppose that the portion of the coast road from Vada Volaterrana to Genua at least must have existed before the construction of the Via Postumia in 148 15.0. Indeed Polybius (iii. 39. 8) tells us (and this must refer to the time of the Gracchi if not earlier) that the Romans had in his time built the coast road from the Rhone to Carthago Nova; and it is incredible that the coast road in Italy itself should not have been constructed previously. It is, however, a very different thing to open.a road for traffic, and so to construct it that it takes its name from that construction in perpetuity. (T. As.)

AEMILIUS, PAULUS (PAOLO EMILIO ) (d. 1529), Italian historian, was born at Verona. He obtained such reputation in his own country that he was invited to France in the reign of Charles VIII., in order to write in Latin the history of the kings of France, and was presented to a canonry in Notre Dame. He enjoyed the patronage and support of Louis XII. He died at Paris on the 5th of May 1529. His De Rebus geslis Francorum was translated into French in 1581, and has also been translated into Italian and German.

ABNEAS, the famous Trojan hero, son of Anchises and

Aphrodite, one of the most important figures in Greek and Roman legendary history. In Homer, he is represented as the chief bulwark of the Trojans next to Hector, and the favourite of the gods, who frequently interpose to save him from danger (Iliad, v. 311). The legend that he remained in the country after the fall of Troy, and founded a new kingde (Iliad, xx. 308; Hymn to Aphrodite, 196) is now generally considered to be of comparatively late origin. The story of his emigration is post-Homeric, and set forth in its fullest development by Virgil in the Aeneid. Carrying his aged father and household gods on his back and leading his little son Ascanius by the hand, he makes his way to the coast, his wife Creusa being lost during the confusion of the flight. After a perilous voyage to Thrace, Delos, Crete and Sicily (where his father dies), he is cast up by a storm, sent by Juno, on the African coast. Refusing to remain with Dido, queen of Carthage, who in despair puts an end to her life, he sets sail from Africa, and after seven years’_ wandering lands at the mouth of the Tiber. He is hospitably received by Latinus, king of Latium, is betrothed to his daughter Lavinia, and founds a city called after her, Lavinium. Turnus, king of Rutuli, a rejected suitor, takes up arms against him and Latinus, but is defeated and slain by Aeneas on the river Numicius. The story of the Aeneid ends with the death of Turnus. According to Livy (i. 1. 2), Aeneas, after reigning a few years over Latium, is slain by the Rutuli; after the battle, his body cannot be found, and he is supposed to have been carried up to heaven. He receives divine honours, and is worshipped under the name of Jupiter Indiges (Dionysius Halic. i. 64). SeealllA. Hild, La Légende d'Ene'e avant Yergile (1883); F. Cauer, De F _ is Graecis ad Romam conduamvperltnennbus (1884) and Pie Romuche Aeneassage, von Naewus bis ergilius (1886); G. Boisslcr, “ La Légende d‘Enée" in Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept. 1883; A. Forstemann, Zur Gesehiehte des Aeneasmythu: (1894); articles in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopddie (new ed., 1894); Roscher's Lexicon der Mythologie; Daremberg and Saglio's Dielionnaire des antiquile's; Preller's Griechische and ro'mische Mythologie; and especially Schwegler, Ro'mische Geschichle (I867).

Romances—The story of Aeneas, as a sequel to the legend of Troy, formed the subject of several epic romances in the middle ages. The Roman d’Enéas (c. 1160, or later), of uncertain authorship (attributed by some to Benoit de Sainte-More), the first French poem directly imitated from the Aeneid, is a fairly close adaptation of the original. The trouvére, however, omits the greater part of the wanderings of Aeneas, and adorns his narrative with gorgeous descriptions, with accounts of the marvellous properties of beasts and stones, and of single combats among the knights who figure in the story. He also elaborates the episodes most attractive to his audience, notably those of Dido and Aeneas and Lavinia, the last of whom plays a far more important part than in the Aeneid. Where possible, he substitutes human for divine intervention, and ignores the idea

[graphic]

of the glorification of Rome and Augustus, which dominates the Virgilian epic. On this work were founded the Encide or Eneil (between 1180 and 1190) of Heinrich von Veldeke, written in Flemish and now only extant in a version in the Thuringian dialect, and the Eneydos, written by William Caxton in 1490.

See Enéas, ed. J. Salverda de Grave (Halle, 1891); see also A. Pci', Essai say 11' roman: d' Enéas (Paris, 1856); A. Duval in Hist. liltcraire de la France, xix.; Veldeke's Eneidc, ed. Ettmiiller (Leipzig, 18?2) and O. Behaghel_(Heilbronn, 1882); Eneydos, ed_. J. Furni: val (1890). For Italian versmns see E G. Parodi in Sludi dr filologia romanza (v. 1887).

AENEAS TACTICUS (4th century 5.0.), one of the earliest Greek writers on the art of war. According to Aelianus Tacticus and Polybius, he wrote a number of treatises (Timur/mare.) on the subject; the only one extant deals with the best methods of defending a fortified city. An epitome of the whole was made by Cineas, minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. The work is chiefly valuable as containing a large number of historical illustrations. Aeneas was considered by Casaubon to have been a contemporary of Xenophon and identical with the Arcadian general Aeneas of Stymphalus, whom Xenophon (Hellenica, vii. 3) mentions as fighting at the battle of Mantinea (362 13.0.).

Editions in I. Casaubon's (1619), Gronovius' (1670) and Ernesti's (1763) editions of l’olybius; also separately, with notes, by J. C. Orclli (Leipzig, 1818). Other texts are those of W. Riistow and H. Kochly (Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller, vol. i. Leipzig, 185%) and A. Hug, Prolegomena Crrlzca ad Aeneae . . . editionem ( lll'lCh_ University, 1874). See also Count Beausobre, Commentaires sur la dé ense des places d'Aeneas (Amsterdam, 1757); A. Hug, Aeneas v_on_ lyrnphalos (Ziirich, 187K); C. C. Lange, De Aeneae colmmenlario polzorcelieo (Berlin, 18 9); l H. Meyer, Observations in Aeneam Tacticum (Halle, 1835;; Haase, in Johns Jahrbuch, 1835, xiv. 1; Max jtihns, Gesch. der Kriegswissenschaflen, i. pp. 26-28 (Munich, 1889); Ad. Bauer, in Zeitschrift filr allg. Geschiehte, 6%., 1886, i.; T. H. \Villiams in American Journal of Philology, xxv. 4; E Schwartz in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie (Stuttgart, 1894).

AENFSIDEMUS. Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century B.C. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third sceptical school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon. His chief work was the Pyrrhonian Principles addressed to Lucius Tubero. His philosophy consisted of four main parts, the reasons for scepticism and doubt, the attack on causality and truth, a physical theory and a theory of morality. Of these the two former are important. The reasons for doubt are given in the form of the ten “ tropes ”: (1) different animals manifest diflerent modes of perception; (2) similar difierences are seen among individual men; (3) even for the same man, sense-given data are self—contradictory, (4) vary from time to time with physical changes, and (5) according to local relations; (6) and (7) objects are known only indirectly through the medium of air, moisture, &c., and are in a condition of perpetual change in colour, temperature, size and motion; (8) all perceptions are relative and interact one upon another; (9) our impressions become less deep by repetition and custom; and (10) all men are brought up with different beliefs, under different laws and social conditions. Truth varies infinitely under circumstances whose relative weight cannot be accurately gauged. There is, therefore, no absolute knowledge, for every man has difierent perceptions, and, further, arranges and groups his data in methods peculiar to himself; so that the sum total is a quantity with a purely subjective validity. The second part of his work consists in the attack upon the theory of causality, in which he adduces almost entirely those considerations which are the basis of modern scepticism. Cause has no existence apart from the mind which perceives; its validity is ideal, or, as Kant would have said, subjective. The relation between cause and effect is unthinkable. If the two things are diflerent, they are either simultaneous or in succession. If simultaneous, cause is eflect and effect cause. If not, since efiect cannot precede cause, cause must precede effect, and there must be an instant when cause is not effective, that is, is not itself. By these and similar arguments he arrives at the fundamental principle of Scepticism, the radical and universal opposition of causes; irawl )Wyrp X670: évrlxetrat. Having reached

[ocr errors]

this conclusion, he was able to assimilate the physical theory of Heraclitus, as is explained in the Hypolyposcs of Sextus Empiricus. For admitting that contraries co-exist for the perceiving subject, he was able to assert the co-existence of contrary qualities in the same object. Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal. All actions are product of pleasure and pain, good and evil. The end of ethical endeavour is the conclusion that all endeavour 'is vain and illogical. The main tendency of this destructive scepticism is essentially the same from its first crystallization by Aenesidemus down to the most advanced sceptics of to-day (see SCEPTICISM). For the immediate successors of Aenesidemus see AGRIPPA, Saxrus EMPIRICUS. See also CARNEADES and ARCESILAUS. Of the Ivapc'ol/etm )\t')'YOL nothing remains; we have, however, an analysis in the M yriobiblion of Photius.

See Zeller's History of Greek Philosophy; E. Saisset, Enc'sidéme, Pascal, Kant; Ritter and Preller, §§ 364-370.

AEOLIAN HARP (Fr. harps éolierme; Ger. Aolsharfe, W indharfe ; Ital. arpa d’ E010), a stringed musical instrument, whose name is derived from Aeolus, god of the wind. The aeolian harp consists of a sound-box about 3 ft. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. deep, made of thin deal, or preferably of pine, and having beech ends to hold the tuning-pins and hitch-pins. A dozen or less catgut strings of different thickness, but tuned in exact unison, and left rather slack, are attached to the pins, and stretched over two narrow bridges of hard wood, one at each end of the sound-board, which is generally pro_ vided with two rose sound-holes. To ensure a proper passage for the wind, another pine board is placed over the strings, resting on pegs at the ends of the sound-board, or on a continuation of the ends raised from I to 3 in. above the strings. Kaufmann of Dresden and Heinrich Christoph Koch, who improved the aeolian harp, introduced this contrivance, which was called by them W indfang and WimUIiigel; the upper board was prolonged beyond the sound-box in the shape of a funnel, in order to direct the current of air on to the strinng The aeolian harp is placed across a window so that the wind blows obliquely across the strings, causing them to vibrate in aliquot parts, i.e. (the fundamental note not being heard) the half or octave, the third or interval of the twelfth, the second octave, and the third above it, in fact the upper partials of the strings in regular succession. With the increased pressure of the wind, the dissonances of the 11th and 13th overtones are heard in shrill discords, only to give place to beautiful harmonies as the force of the wind abates. The principle of the natural vibration of strings by the pressure of the wind was recognized in ancient times; King David, we hear from the Rabbinic records, used to hang his kinnor (kilhara) over his bed at night, when it sounded in the midnight breeze. The same is related of St Dunstan of Canterbury, who was in consequence charged with sorcery. The Chinese at the present day fly kites of various sizes, having strings stretched across apertures in the paper, which produces the effect of an aerial chorus.

See Athanasius Kircher, Musurgia Universalis, where the aeolian harg is first described (1602—1608), p. 148; Mathew Young, Bishop of lonfert, Enquiry into the Prinez al Phenomena of Sounds and

Musical Strings, p5)“ 170-182 (Lon on, 1784); Gettingcn Pocket

Calendar (X792); endel's illusikalisehes Conversations-Lake”, article “ Aeolsharfe." An illustration is given in Rees' EncycloPedia, plates, vol. ii. Misc. pl. xxv. (K. .

AEOLIS (AEOLIA), an ancient district of Asia Minor, colonized at a very early date by Aeolian Greeks. The name was applied to the coast from the river Hermus to the promontory of Lectum, is. between Ionia to S. and Troas to N. The Aeolians founded twelve cities on the mainland, including Cyme, and numerous towns in Mytilene: they were said also to have Settled in the Troad and even within the Hellespont.

AEOLUS, in Greek mythology, according to Homer the son of Hippotes, god and father of the winds, and ruler of the island of Aeolia. In the Odyssey (x. I) he entertains Odysseus, gives him a favourable wind to help him on his journey, and a bag in which

[graphic]

the unfavourable winds have been confined. Out of curiosity, or with the idea that it contains valuable treasures, Odysseus’ companions open the bag; the winds escape and drive them back to the island, whence Aeolus dismisses them with bitter reproaches. According to Virgil, Aeolus dwells on one of the Aeolian islands to the north of Sicily, Lipara or Strongyle (Stromboli), where he keeps the winds imprisoned in a vast cavern (Virgil, Am. i. 52). Another genealogy makes him the son of Poseidon and Arne, granddaughter of Hippotes, and a descendant of Aeolus, king of Magnesia in Thessaly, the mythical ancestor of the tribe of the Aeolians (Diodorus iv. 67).

AEON, a term often used in Greek (aldw) to denote an indefinite or infinite duration of time; and hence, by metonyrny, a being that exists for ever. In the latter sense it was chiefly used by the Gnostic sects to denote those eternal beings or manifestations which emanated from the one incomprehensible and inefi'able God. (See Gnosrrcrsn.)

AEPINUS, FRANZ ULRICH THEODOR (1724—1802), German natural philosopher, was born at Rostock in Saxony on the 13th of December 1724. He was descended from John Aepinus (1499—1553), the first to adopt the Greek form (airuvbs) of the family name Hugk or Huck, and a leading theologian and controversialist at the time of the Reformation. After studying medicine for a time, Franz Aepinus devoted himself to the physical and mathematical sciences, in which he soon gained such distinction that he was admitted a member of the Berlin academy of sciences. In 17 57 he settled in St Petersburg as member of the imperial academy of sciences and professor of physics, and remained there till his retirement in 1798. The rest of his life was spent at Dorpat, where he died on the 10th of August 1802. He enjoyed the special favour of the empress Catherine 11., who appointed him tutor to her son Paul, and endeavoured, without success, to establish normal schools throughout the empire under his direction. Aepinus is best known by his researches, theoretical and experimental, in electricity and magnetism, and his principal work, Tenlamen Theoriae Electricitatis at M agnelismi, published at St Petersburg in 1759, was the first systematic and successful attempt to apply mathematical reasoning to these subjects. He also published a treatise, in 1761, De distributione oaloris Per tellurem, and he was the author of memoirs on difierent subjects in astronomy, mechanics, optics and pure mathematics, contained in the journals of the learned societies of St Petersburg and Berlin. His discussion of the effects of parallax in the transit of a planet over the sun’s disc excited great interest, having appeared (in 1764) between the dates of the two transits of Venus that took place in the 18th century.

AEQUI, an ancient people of Italy, whose name occurs constantly in Livy’s first decade as hostile to Rome in the first three centuries of the city’s existence. They occupied the upper reaches of the valleys of the Anio, Tolenus and Himella; the last two being mountain streams running northward to join the Nar. Their chief centre is said to have been taken by the Romans about 484 B.C. (Diodorus xi. 40) and again about ninety years later (id. xiv. 106), but they were not finally subdued till the end of the second Samnite war (Livy ix. 45, ix. 1; Diod. xx. 101), when they seem to have received a limited form of franchise (Cic. Ofl. i. n, 3 5). All we know of their subsequent political condition is that after the Social war the folk of Cliternia and Nersae appear united in a res Publica Aequiculorum, which was a municipium of the ordinary type (C.I.L. ix. p. 388). The Latin colonies of Alba Fucens (304 B.C.) and Carsioli (298 13.0.) must have spread the use of Latin (or what passed as such) all over the district; through it lay the chief (and for some time the only) route (Via Valeria) to Luceria and the south.

Of the language spoken by the Aequi before the Roman conquest we have no record; but since the Marsi (q.v.), who lived farther east, spoke in the 3rd century 13.0. a dialect closely akin to Latin, and since the Hernici (q.a.), their neighbours to the south-west, did the same, we have no ground for separating any of these tribes from the Latian group (see LATINI). If we could be certain of the origin of the q in their name and of the relation between its shorter and its longer form (note that the i in Aequiculus is long—Virgil, Aen. 744—which seems to connect it with the locative of aequum “a plain,” so that it would mean “dwellers in the plain ”; but in the historical period they certainly lived mainly in the hills), we should know whether they were to be grouped with the q or the p dialects, that is to say, with Latin 0n the one hand, which preserved an original q, or with the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian (and the Volsci were the constant allies of the Aequi), on the other hand, in which, as in the Iguvine and Samnite dialects, an original q is changed into p. There is no decisive evidence to show whether the q in Latin aequus represents an Indo-European q as in Latin quis, Umbro-Volsc. 91's, or an Indo-European k + u as in equus, Umb. ekvo-. The derivative adjective Aequicus might be taken to range them with the Volsci rather than the Sabini, but it is not clear that this adjective was ever used as a real ethnicon; the name of the tribe is always Aequi, or Aequicoli.

At the end of the Republican period the Aequi appear, under the name Aequiculi or Aequicoli, organized as a municipium, the territory of which seems to have comprised the upper part of the valley of the Salto, still known as Cicolano. It is probable, however, that they continued to live in their villages as before. Of these Nersae (mod. Nesce) was the most considerable. The polygonal terrace walls, which exist in considerable numbers in the district, are shortly described in Romische M itteilungen (1903), 147 seq., but require further study.

See further the articles MARSI, VOLSCI, LATIN], and the references there given; the lace-names and other scanty records of the dialect are collecte by R. S. Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 300 if. (R. S. C.)

AERABII (from Lat.- aes, in its subsidiary sense of “polltax”), originally a class of Roman citizens not included in the thirty tribes of Servius Tullius, and subject to a poll-tax arbitrarily fixed bythe censor. They were (1) the inhabitants of conquered towns which had been deprived of local self-govern— ment, who possessed the jus conubti and jus commercii, but no political rights; Caere is said to have been the first example of this (353 B.C.); hence the expression “in tabulas Caeritum referre ” came to mean “ to degrade to the status of an aerarius ”: (2) full citizens subjected to civil degradation (infamia) as the result of following certain professions (e.g. acting), of dishonourable acts in private life (e.g. bigamy) or of conviction for certain crimes; (3) persons branded by the censor. Those who were thus excluded from the tribes and centuries had no vote, were incapable of filling Roman magistracies and could not serve in the army. According to Mommsen, the aeraril were originally the non-assidui (non~holders of land), excluded from the tribes, the comitia and the army. By a reform of the censor Appius Claudius in 312 B.C. these non-assidui were admitted into the tribes, and the aerarii as such disappeared. But in 304, F abius Rullianus limited them to the four city tribes, and from that time the term meant a man degraded from a higher (country) to a lower (city) tribe, but not deprived of the right of voting or of serving in the army. The expressions “ tribu movere” and “ aerarium facere,” regarded by Mommsen as identical in meaning (“ to degrade from a higher tribe to a lower”), are explained by A. H. J. Greenidge—the first as relegation from a higher to a lower tribe or total exclusion from the tribes, the second as exclusion from the centuries. Other views of the original aerarit are that they were :—artisans and freedmen (Niebuhr); inhabitants of towns united with Rome by a ho:pitium pubtieum, who had become domiciled on Roman territory (Lange); only a class of degraded citizens, including neither the dues sine sufl'ragio nor the artisans (Madvig); identical with the capite censi of the Servian constitution (Belot, Greenidge).

See A. H. J. Greenidge, Infamia in Roman Low (1894). Where Mommsen's theory is criticized; E. Belot, Histoire des chevaliers remains, i. . 200 (Paris, 1866); L. Pardon, De Aerariis (Berlin, 1853); P. \ illems, Le Droit public romain (1883); A. S. Wilkins in Smith's Diet. of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., l89!) ; and the usual handbooks of antiquities.

'AERARXUM (from Lat. aes, in its derived sense of “ money ”), the name (in full, aerarium stabulum, treasure-house) given in ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense

[graphic]

to the public finances. The treasury contained the moneys and accounts of the state, and also the standards of the legions; the public laws engraved on brass, the decrees of the senate and other papers and registers of importance. These public treasures were deposited in the temple of Saturn, on the eastern slope of the Capitoline hill, and, during the republic, were in charge of the urban quaestors (see QUAasron), under the superintendence and control of the senate. This arrangement continued (except for the year '45 n.c., when no quaestors were chosen) until 28 ac, when Augustus transferred the aerarium to two praej'ecti oerarii, chosen annually by the senate from ex-praetors; in 23 these were replaced by two praetors (praetores aerarii or ad aerarium), selected by lot during their term of office; Claudius in AD. 44 restored the quaestors, but nominated by the emperor for three years, for whom Nero in 56 substituted two ex-praetors, under the same conditions. In addition to the common treasury, supported by the general taxes and charged with the ordinary expenditure, there was a special reserve fund, also in the temple of Saturn, the aerarium-sanctum (or sanctius), probably originally consisting of the spoils of war, afterwards maintained chiefly by a 5% tax on the value of all manumitted slaves, this source of revenue being established by a lex Manlia in 357. This fund was not to be touched except in cases of extreme necessity (Livy vii. 16, xxvii. 10). Under the emperors the senate continued to have at least the nominal management of the aerarium, while the emperor had a separate exchequer, called fiscus. But after a time, as the power of the emperors increased and their jurisdiction extended till the senate existed only in form and name, this distinction virtually ceased. Besides creating the fiscus, Augustus also established in AD. 6 a military treasury (aerarium mtlitare), containing all moneys raised for and appropriated to the maintenance of the army, including a pension fund 'for disabled soldiers. It was largely endowed by the emperor himself (see M onumentum Ancyranum, iii. 35) and supported by the proceeds of the tax on public sales and the succession duty. Its administration was in the hands of three praefectt aerarii militaris, at first appointed by lot, but afterwards by the emperor, from senators of praetorian rank, for three years. The later emperors had a separate aerarium privatum, containing the moneys allotted for their own use, distinct from the fiscus, which they administered in the interests of the empire.

The tribuni aerarii have been the subject of much discussion. They are supposed by some to be identical with the curatores tribuum and to have been the officials who, under the Servian organization, levied the war-tax (tributum) in the tribes and the poll-tax on the aerarii (q.r'.). They also acted as paymasters of the equites and of the soldiers on service in each tribe. By the lex Aurelia (70 8.6.) the list of judices was composed, in addition to senators and equites, of tribum' aerarii. Whether these were the successors of the above, or a new order closely connected with the equites, or even the same as the latter, is uncertain. According to Mommsen, they were persons who possessed the equestrian census, but no public horse. They were removed from the list of judices by Caesar, but replaced by Augustus. According to Madvig, the original tribuni aerarii were not officials at all, but private individuals of considerable means, quite ' distinct from the curatores tribuum, who undertook certain financial work connected with their own tribes. Then, as in the case of the equites, the term was subsequently extended to include all those who possessed the property qualification

that would have entitled them to serve as tribuni aerarii.

See Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 29, with Fumeaux's notes; 0. Hirschfeld, “ Das Aerarium militare in der romischen Kaiserzeit," in Fleckeisen's Jahrbuch, vol. xcvii. (1868); S. Herrlich, De Aeran'o et Fisco Romanorum (Berlin, 1872); and the usual handbooks and dictionaries of antiquities. On the tribuni aerarii see E. Belot, Hist. des cheualiers romains, ii. 276; J. N. Madvig, Opuscula Academica, ii. p. 242; J. B. Misppu et, Les Institutions polmques des Romams (1883), ii. p. 208; ommsen, Romisches Staatsrecht, in. p. 189; A. S. Wilkins in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).

AERATED WATERS. Waters charged with a larger proportion of carbon dioxide than they will dissolve at ordinary

« السابقةمتابعة »