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accompanied on his journeys as representative of the foreign office. He was present with the king during the campaigns of 1866 and 1870—71. In 1851 he published anonymously Babylon and Jerusalem, a slashing criticism of the views of the Countess von Hahn-Hahn ((7.1).).
See Heinrich Abeken, e1'n schlichles Leben in be'wegler Zéil (Berlin, [898), by his widow. This is valuable by reason of the letters written from the Prussian headquarters.
ABEL (Hebrew for breath), the second son of Adam, slain by Cain, his elder brother (Gen. iv. 1-16). The narrative in Genesis which tells us that “ the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his ofl'ering, but unto Cain and to his ofiering he had not respect,” is supplemented by the statement of the New Testament, that “ by faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain ” (Heb. xi. 4), and that Cain slew Abel “ because his own works were evil and his brother’s righteous” (1 John iii. 12). See further under CAIN. The name has been identified with the Assyrian ablu, “son,” but this is far from certain. It more probably means “ herdsman ” (cf. the name Jabal), and a distinction is drawn between the pastoral Abel and the agriculturist Cain. If Cain is the eponym of the Kenites it is quite possible that Abel was originally a South Judaean demigod or hero; on this, see Winckler, Geseh. Israels, p. 189; E. Meyer, Israelilen, p. 395. A sect of Abelilae, who seem to have lived in North Africa, is mentioned by Augustine (De H aeresibus, lxxxvi.). '
ABEL, SIR FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, BART. (1827—1902), English chemist, was born in London onthe 17th of July 1827. After studying chemistry for six years under A. W. von Hoimann at the Royal College of Chemistry (established in London in 1845), he became professor of chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in 1851, and three years later was appointed chemist to the War Department and chemical referee to the government. During his tenure of thisotfice, which lasted until 1888, he carried out a large amount of work in connexion with the chemistry of explosives. One of the most important of his investigations had to do with the manufacture of gun— cotton, and he developed a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with practically no danger and at the same time yielded the product in a form that increased its usefulness. This work to an important extent prepared the way for the “ smokeless powders ” which came into general use towards the end of the 19th century; cordite, the particular form adopted by the British government in 1891, was invented jointly by him and Professor James Dewar. Our knowledge of the explosion of ordinary black powder was also greatly added to by him, and in conjunction with Sir Andrew Noble he carried out one of the most complete inquiries on record into its behaviour when fired. The invention of the apparatus, legalizedin 1879, for the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official position. His first instrument, the open-test apparatus, was prescribed by the act of .1868, but, being found to possess certain defects, it was superseded in 1879 by the Abel close-test instrument (see PETROLEUM). In electricity Abel studied the construction of electrical fuses and other applications of electricity to warlike purposes, and his work on problems of steel manufacture won him in 1897 the Bessemer medal of the Iron and Steel Institute, of which from 1891 to 1893 he was president. He was president of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (then the Society of Telegraph Engineers) in 1877. He became a member of the Royal Society in 1860, and received a royal medal in 1887. Hetook an important part in the work of the Inventions Exhibition (London) in 1885, and in 1887 became organizing secretary and first director of the Imperial Institute, a position he held till his death, which occurred in London on the 6th of September 1902. He was knighted in 1891, and created a baronet in 1895.
Among his books were—Handbook of Chemistry (with C. L. Bloxam) , M odem History of Gunpowder (1 866), Gun-comm (1866), On Explosive Agents (1872), Researches in Explosive: (1875), and
.enter Christiania University in 1821.
Electricin applied to Explosive Parke!“ (1884). He also Wrote several important articles in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
ABEL, KARL FRIEDRICH (1725—1787), German musician, was born in Kothen in 1725, and died on the 20th of June 1787 in London. He was a great player on the viola da gamba, and composed much music of importance in its day for that instrument. He studied under Johann Sebastian Bach at the Leipzig Thomasschule; played ior ten years (1748—1758) under A. Hasse in the band formed at Dresden by the elector of Saxony; and then, going to England, became (in 1759) chamber-musician to Queen Charlotte. He gave a concert of his own compositions in London, performing on various instruments, one of which, the pentachord, was newly invented. In 1762 Johann Christian Bach, the eleventh son of Sebastian, came to London, and the friendship between him and Abel led, in 1764 or 1765, to the establishment of the famous concerts subsequently known as the Bach and Abel concerts. ' For ten years these were organized by Mrs Cornelys, whose enterprises were then the height of fashion. In 1775 the concerts became independent of her, and were continued by Abel unsuccessfully for a year after Bach’s death in 1782. At them the works of Haydn were first produced in England. After the failure of his concert undertakings Abel still remained in great request as a player on various instruments new and old, but he took to drink and thereby hastened his death. He was a man of striking presence, of whom several fine portraits, including two by Gainsborough, exist. ,
ABEL, NIEIS HENRIK (1802—1829), Norwegian mathematician, was born at Findoe on the 25th of August 1802. In 1815 he entered the cathedral school at Christiania, and three years later he gave proof of his mathematical genius by his brilliant solutions of the original problems proposed by B. Holmboé. About this time, his father, a poor Protestant minister, died, and the family was left in straitened circumstances; but asmall pension from the state allowed Abel to His first notable work was a proof of the impossibility of solving the quintic equation by radicals. This investigation was first published in 1824 and in abstruse and difficult form, and afterwards (1826) more elaborately in the first volume of Crelle’s Journal. Further state aid enabled him to visit Germany and France in 1825, and having visited the astronomer Heinrich Schumacher (1780— 1850) at Hamburg, he spent six months in Berlin, where he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle, who was then about to publish his mathematical journal. This project was warmly encouraged by Abel, who contributed much to the success of the venture. From Berlin he passed to Freiberg, and here he made his brilliant researches in the theory of functions, elliptic, hyperelliptic and a new class known as Abelians being particularly studied. In 1826 he moved to Paris, and during a ten months’ stay he met the leading mathematicians of France; but he was little appreciated, for his work was scarcely known, and his modesty restrained him from proclaiming his researches. Pecuniary embarrassments, from which he had never been free, finally compelled him to abandon his tour, and on his return to Norway he taught for some time at Christiania. In 1829 Crelle obtained a post for him at Berlin, but the offer did not reach Norway until after his death near Arendal on the 6th of April.
The early death of this talented mathematician, of whom Legendre said “ quelle léle celle du jeune Norwegian! ", cut short a career of extraordinary brilliance and promise. Under Abel’s guidance, the prevailing obscurities of analysis began to be cleared, new fields were entered upon and the study of functions so advanced as to provide mathematicians with numerous ramifications along which progress could be made. His works, the greater part of which originally appeared in Crelle’: Journal, were edited by Holmbolé and published in 1839 by the Swedish government, and a more complete edition by L. Sylow and S. Lie was published in 1881.
For further details of his mathematical investigations see the articles Gnoms, Tnnonv or, and Funcrrous or Conruzx VARIABLES.
See C. A. Bjerknes, Niels Henrik Abel: Tableau de sa vie et son action scientifique (Paris, 1885); Lucas de Peslouan, Niels Henrik Abel (Paris..'1906).
ABEL (better ABELL), THOMAS (d. 1540), an English priest who. was martyred during the reign of Henry VIII. The place and date of his birth are unknown. He was educated at Oxford and entered the service of Queen Catherine some time before r528, when he was sent by her to the emperor Charles V. on a mission relating to the proposed divorce. On his return he was presented by Catherine to the living of Bradwell, in Essex, and remained to, the last a staunch supporter of the unfortunate queen. In 1533, he published his Invicta Veritas (with the fictitious pressmark of Luneberge, to avoid suspicion), which contained an answer to the numerous tracts supporting Henry’s ecclesiastical claims. After an imprisonment of more than six years, Abel was sentenced to death for denying the royalsupremacy in the church, and was executed at Smithfield on the 30th of July 1540. There is still to be seen on the wall of his prison in the Tower the symbol of a bell with an A upon it and the name Thomas above, which he carved during his confinement. He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII.
See I. Gillow's Bibl. Dictionary 0 Eng. Calholics, vol. i.; Calendar of State Papers of Henry VIII., vo s. iv.-vii. passim.
ABELARD, PETER (1079—1142), scholastic philosopher, was born at Pallet (Palais), not far from Nantes, in 1079. He was the eldest son of a noble Breton house. The name Abaelardus (also written Abailardus, Abaielardus, and in many other ways) is said to be a corruption of H abelardm, substituted by himself for a nickname Bajolardus given to him whena student. As a boy, he showed an extraordinary quickness of apprehension, and, choosing a learned life instead of the knightly career natural to a youth of his birth, early became an adept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy, meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle transmitted through Latin channels, was the great subjectof liberal study in the episcopal schools. Roscellinus,’ the famous canon of‘ Compiégne, is mentioned by himself as his teacher; but whether he heard this champion of extreme Nominatism in early youth, when he wandered about from school to school for instruction and exercise, or some years later, after he had already begun to teach for himself, remains uncertain. His wanderings finally brought him to Paris, still under the age 'of twenty. There, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame, he sat for a while under the teaching of William ofChampeaux, the disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of Realists, but, presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued in the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till then dominant in the early Middle'Age. First, in the teeth of ‘opposition' from the metropolitan teacher, while yet only twenty-two, he proceeded to set up a school of his own at Melun, whence, for more direct competition, he removed to Corbeil, nearer Paris. The success of his teaching was signal, though for a time he had to quit the field, the strain proving too great for his physical strength. -On his return, after 1 108, he found William lecturing no longer at Notre-Dame, but in a monastic retreat outside the city, and there battle was again joined between them. Forcing upon the Realist a material change of doctrine, he was once more victorious, and thenceforth he stood supreme. His discomfited rival still had power to keep him from lecturing in Paris, butsan failed in this last efiort also. From Melun, where he- had resumed teaching, Abelard passed to the capital, and setup his school on the heights of St Genevieve, looking over None-Dame. From his success in dialectic, he next turned to theology and attended the lectures of Anselm at Laon. His triumph mm the theologian was complete; the pupil was able to give lectures, without previous training or special study, which Were' acknowledged superior to those of the master. Abelard was new/at the height of his fame. He stepped into the chair at Notre-Dame, being also nominated canon, about the yeal'll‘ZSJ ' " '-"‘- ' '
Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard now did for a time. Distinguished in figure and manners, he was seen surrounded by crowds—it is said thousands—of students, drawn from all countries by the fame of his teaching, in which acuteness of thought was relieved by simplicity and grace of exposition. Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and feasted with universal admiration, he came, as he says, to think himself the only philosopher standing in the world. But a change in his fortunes was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had hitherto lived a very regular life, varied only by the excitement of conflict: now, at the height of his fame, other passions began to stir within him. There lived at that time, within the' precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle, the canon Fulbert, a young girl named Heloise, of noble extraction, and born about 1101. Fair, but still more remarkable for her knowledge, which extended beyond Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew, she awoke a feeling of love in the breast of Abelard; and with intent to win her, he sought and gained a footing in Fulbert’s house as a regular inmate. Becoming also tutor to the maiden, he used the unlimited power which he thus obtained over her for the purpose of seduction, though not without cherishing a real afiection which she returned in unparalleled devotion. Their relation interfering with his public work, and being, moreover, ostentatioust sung by himself, soon became known to all the world except the too-confiding Fulbert; and, when at last it could not escape even his vision, they were separated only to meet in secret. Thereupon Heloise found herself pregnant, and was carried off by her lover to Brittany, where she gave birth to a son. To appease her furious uncle, Abelard now proposed a marriage, under the condition that it should be kept secret, in order not to mar his prospects of advancement in the church; but of marriage, whether public or secret, Heloise would hear nothing. She appealed to him not to sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor did she finally yield to the arrangement without the darkest forcbodings, only too soon to be realized. The secret of the marriage was not kept by F ulbert; and when Heloise, true to her singular purpose, boldly denied it, life was made so unsupportable to her that she sought refuge in the convent of Argenteuil. Immediately Fulbert, believing that her husband, who aided in the flight, designed to be rid of her, conceived a dire revenge. He and some others broke into Abelard’s chamber by night, and perpetrated on him the most brutal mutilation. Thus cast down from his pinnacle of greatness into an abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the brilliant master only the life of a monk. The priesthood and ecclesiastical office were canonically closed to him. Heloise, not yet twenty, consummated her work of self-sacrifice at the call of his jealous love, and took the veil.
It was in the abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now aged forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out of sight. Finding, however, in the doister neither calm nor solitude, and having gradually turned again to study, he yielded after a year to urgent entreaties from without and within, and went forth to reopen his school at the priory of Maisoncelle (1120). His lectures, now framed in a devotional spirit, were heard again by crowds of students, and all his old influence seemed to have returned; but old enmities were revived also, against which he was no longer able as before to make head. No sooner had he put in writing his theological lectures (apparently the Introductia ad Theologiam that has come down to us), than his adversaries fell foul of his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma. Charging him with the heresy of Sabellius in a provincial synod held at Soissons in 1121, they procured by irregular practices a condemnation of his teaching, whereby he was made to throw his book into the flames and then was shut up in the convent of St Médard at Soissons. After the other, it was the bitterest possible experience that could befall him, nor, in the state of mental desolation into which it plunged him, could he find any comfort from being soon again set free. The life in his own monastery proved no more congenial than formerly. For this Abelard himself was partly responsible. He took a sort of malicious pleasure in irritating the monks. Quarijocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of Athens. When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius’ Hislori'a Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of
Corinth. Life in the monastery was intolerable for such a‘
troublesome spirit, and Abelard, who had once attempted to escape the persecution he had called forth by flight to a monastery at Provins, was finally allowed to withdraw. In a desert place near Nogent-sur-Seine, he built himself a cabin of stubble and reeds, and turned hermit. But there fortune came back to him with a new surprise. His retreat becoming known, students flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him with their tents and huts. When he began to teach again he found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the new oratory they built for him by the name of the Paraclete.
Upon the return of new dangers, or at least of fears, Abelard left the Paraclete to make trial of another refuge, accepting an invitation to preside over the abbey of St Gildas-de-Rhuys, on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany. It proved a wretched exchange. The region was inhospitable, the domain a prey to lawless exaction, the house itself savage and disorderly. ' Yet for nearly ten years he continued to struggle with fate before he fled from his charge, yielding in the end only under peril of violent death. The misery of those years was not, however, unrelieved; for he had been able, on the breaking up of Heloise’s convent at Argenteuil, to establish her as head of a new religious house at the deserted Paraclete, and in the capacity of spiritual director he often was called to revisit the spot thus made doubly dear to him. All this time Heloise had lived amid universal esteem for her knowledge and character, uttering no word under the doom that had fallen upon her youth; but now, at last, the occasion came for expressing all the pent-up emotions of her soul. Living on for some time apart (we do not know exactly where), after his flight from St Gildas, Abelard wrote, among other things, his famous H istoria Calamitatum, and thus moved her to pen her first Letter, which remains an unsurpassed utterance of human passion and womanly devotion; the first being followed by the two other Letters, in which she \finally accepted the part of resignation which, now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to her. He not long after was seen once more upon the field of his early triumphs lecturing on Mount St Genevieve in 1136 (when he was heard by John of Salisbury), but it was only for a brief space: no new triumph, but a last great trial, awaited him in the few years to come of his chequered life. As far back as the Paraclete days, he had counted as chief among his foes Bernard of Clairvaux, in whom was incarnated the principle of fervent and unhesitating faith, from which rational inquiry like his was sheer revolt, and now this uncompromising spirit was moving, at the instance of others, to crush the growing evil in the person of the boldest ofiender. After preliminary negotiations, in which Bernard was roused by Abelard’s steadfastness to put forth all his strength, a council met at Sens (1141), before which Abelard, formally arraigned upon a number of heretical charges, was prepared to plead his cause. When, however, Bernard, not without foregone terror in the prospect of meeting the redoubtable dialectician, had opened the case, suddenly Abelard appealed to Rome. The stroke availed him nothing; for Bernard, who had power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation passed at the council, did not rest a moment till a second condemnation was procured at Rome in the following year. Meanwhile, on his way thither to urge his plea in person, Abelard had broken down at the abbey of Cluny, and there, an utterly fallen man, with spirit of the humblest, and only not bereft of his intellectual force, be lingered but a few months before the approach of death. Removed by friendly hands, for the relief of his suflerings,
to the priory of St Marcel, near ChaIOn-sur-Saone,‘he died on the amt of April 1142_. First buried‘a‘t’St Marcel, his'rema'in‘s soon after were carried off in secrecy to the Paraclete, and givEn _ over to _the loving care of Heloise, who' in'tiine ca'me herself to rest beside them (1164). The bones, of the pair were shifted more than once afterwards, but they' were marvellously preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French Revolution, and now they lie united in the Well-known tomb in the cemetery of Pére-la-Chaise at Paris. _ ' _ "
Great as was the influence exerted by Abelard on the'minds of his contemporaries and the course of medieval thought, he has been little known in modern times but fer'his Conneition with Heloise. Indeed, it was not till the rgth'century, [when Cousin in 1836 issued the collection entitled Quarag'es inedils d'Abélard, that his philosophical performance'could be iud'ged at first hand; of his strictly philosophical works only one, the ethical treatise Scila te ipsum, having been published earliel', namely, in 1721. Cousin’s collection, besides, givirig 'ext'ra‘cts from the theological work Sic at N on (an assemblage‘of'opposité opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the Fathers [as basis for discussion, the main interest'lin which lies'in the fact‘that there is no attempt to reconCile the diflerent‘ opinions), inelndes the Dialectica, commentaries 'on‘ logical works Of, _ Aristotle, Porphyry and Boéthius, and a fragment,“ De, Generipu'r et Speciebus. The last-named work, and also"the psxchological treatise De I ntellecti'bus, published apart by Cousin (in Frdgnlenh Philosophiques, vol. ‘ ii.), are now 'considered upon internal evidence not to be by Abelard himself, but only to have sprung out of his school. A genuine work, the Clarsulae sake'rwll’orlghyrium, from which Charles de Rémusat, in his classical monograph Abelard (1845), has given extracts, remains in manuscript. ' ,
The general importance of Abelard lies in his having fixed more decisively than any one before him theseholastic manner of philosophizing, with its object of giving a formally rational expression to the received ecclesiastical vdoctrine. However his own particular interpretations may have'been condemned they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the church. Through him was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendancy of the philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became firmly established in the half-century after his death, when first ‘the' completed Organon, and gradually all the other works of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools: before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato that the prevailing Realis Songht to lean. As regards his so-called Conceptualism and his attitude to the question of Universals, see SCHOLASTICISM. Outside of his dialectic, it was in ethics that Abelard shewed greatest activity of philosophical thought; laying very particular stress upon the subjective intention as determining, if not the meral character, at least the moral value, of human action. His thought in this direction, wherein be anticipated something of modern speculation, is the more remarkable because his scholastic successors accomplished least in the field of morals, hardly venturing to bring the principles and rules of conduct .under pure philosophical discussion, even after the great ethical inquiries of Aristotle became fully known to them.
BiatiocaAPiiY.—Abelard's own‘works remain the best sources for his life, especially his Historia Calamitatum, an autobiogra hy, and the correspondence with Heloise. The literature on A elard is extensive, but consists principally of monographs on different aspects of his philosophy. Charles de Rémusat's Abélard _(2 vols., 184 ) remains an authority; it must be distinguished from his drama Abé ard (1877), which is an attempt to give a picture of medieval life. McCabe's life of Abelard is written closely from the sources: See also the valuable analysis by Nitsch in the article “Abalard in Hauck's Realencyklopiidie . prof. Theol. u. Kirclie, 3rd ed., _1896. There is a comprehensive bib iography in U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist. du moyen dge, s. “Abatlard.” (G. C. R.; J. T. S.')
ABELIN, JOHANN PHILXPP, an early 16th-century German chronicler, was born, probably, at Strasburg, and died there between the years 1634 and 1637. He wrote numerous histories over the pseudonyms of Philipp Arlanibfius, Abeleus and Johann Ludwig Gottfried or Gotofredus, his earliest works of importance
being his history of the German wars of Gustavus Adolphus,
entitled Arma Suecica (pub. 1631—1634, in 12 parts), and the'
Inventerium Sueciac (1632)—both compilations from existing records. His best known work is the T lwutrum Europacum, a series of chronicles of the chief events in the history of the world down to 1619. He was himself responsible for the first two volumes. It was continued by various writers and grew to twenty-one volumes (Frankf. 1633—1738). The chief interest of the work is, however, its illustration by the beautiful copperplate engravings of Matthaus Merian (1593—1650). Abelin also wrote a history of the antipodes. H isloria Antipodum (posthumously pub. Frankf. 16 5 5), and a history of India.
See G. Droysen, Arlam'bacus, Godofredus, _A belinus (Berlin, 1864); and notice in Allgememe Dcutschc BZOgIGPhtE.
ABENCERRAGES, a family or faction that is said to have held a prominent position in the Moorish kingdom of Granada in the 15th century. The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf ben-Scrragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived. Nothing is known of the family with certainty; but the name is familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de Hita, Guerra: civilcs do Granada, which celebrates the feuds of the Abencerragcs and the rival family of the Zegris, and the cruel treatment to which the former were subjected. J. P. de Florian’s Gonsalvc de Cardoue and Chateaubriand’s Le dernier des Abencerragcs are imitations of Perez de Hita’s work. The hall of the Abencerrages in the Alhambra takes its name from being the reputed scene of the massacre of the family.
ABENDANA, the name of two Jewish theologians. (1) JACOB (1630—1695), rabbi (Hakham) of the Spanish Jews in London from 1680. Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian theologians. (2) ISAAC (c. 1650—1710), his brother, taught Hebrew at Cambridge and afterwards at Oxford. He compiled a Jewish Calendar and wrote Discourses on the Ecclesiastical and Civil Polity of the Jews (1706). ,
ABENEZRA (IBN EZRA), or, to give him his full name, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR IBN EZRA (1092 or 1093—1167), one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. He was born at Toledo, left his native land of Spain before 1140 and led until his death a life of restless wandering, which took him to North Africa, Egypt, Italy (Rome, Lucca, Mantua,Verona),Southern F rance(N arbonne, Beziers), Northern France (Dreux), England (London), and back again to the South of France. At several of the above-named places he remained for some time and developed a rich literary activity. In his native land he had already gained the reputation of a distinguished poet and thinker; but, apart from his poems, his works, which were all in the Hebrew language, were written in the second period of his life. With these works, which cover in the first instance the field of Hebrew philology and Biblical exegesis, be fulfilled the great mission of making accessible to the Jews of Christian Europe the treasures of knowledge enshrined in the works written in Arabic which he had brought with him from Spain. His grammatical writings, among which M oznayim (“ the Scales,” written in 1140) and Zahol (“ Correctness,” written in 1141) are the most valuable, were the first expositions of Hebrew grammar in the Hebrew language, in which the system of Hayyuj and his school prevailed. He also translated into Hebrew the two writings of Hayyfij in which the foundations of the system were laid down Of greater original value than the grammatical works of Ibn Ezra are his commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, of which, however, a part has been lost. His reputation as an intelligent and acute expounder of the Bible was founded on his commentary on the Pentateuch, of which the great popularity is evidenced by the numerous commentaries which were written upon it. In the editions of this commentary (ed. princ. Naples 1488) the commentary on the book of Exodus is replaced by a second, more complete commentary of Ibn Ezra, while the first and
shorter commentary on Exodus was not printed until 1840. The great editions of the Hebrew Bible with rabbinical commentaries contained also commentaries of Ibn Ezra’s on the following books of the Bible: Isaiah, Minor Prophets, Psalms, Job, Pcntateuch, Daniel; the commentaries on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah which hear his name are really those of Moses Kimhi. Ibn Ezra wrote a second commentary on Genesis as he had done on Exodus, but this was never finished. There are second commentaries also by him on the Song of Songs, Esther and Daniel. The importance of the exegesis of Ibn Ezra consists in the fact that it aims at arriving at the simple sense of the text, the so-called “ Pcsohat,” on solid grammatical principles. It is in this that, although he takes a great part of his cxegctical material from his predecessors, the originality of his mind is everywhere apparent, an originality which displays itself also in the witty and lively language of his commentaries. To judge by certain signs, of which Spinoza in his Tractatus
Theologico Politicus makes use, Ibn Ezra belongs to the earliest pioneers of the criticism of the Pentateuch. His commentaries, and especially some of the longer excursuses, contain numerous contributions to the philosophy of religion. One writing in particular, which belongs to this province (Yosod Méra), on the division and the reasons for the Biblical commandments, he wrote in 1158 for a London friend, Joseph b. Jacob. In his philosophical thought neo-platonic ideas prevail; and astrology also had a place in his view of the world. He also wrote various works on mathematical and astronomical subjects. Ibn Ezra died on the 28th of January 1167, the place of his death being unknown. '
. Amon the literature on Ibn Ezra may be especially mentioned: M. Frie lander, Essays on the Wrilin s of Ibn Ezra (London, 1877); W. Bacher, Abraham Ibn Ezra als rammalikrr (Strasburg, 1882 ; M. Steinscbneider, Abraham Ibn Ezra, in the Zeil‘schr'i t fiir Mmhematik and Physik, Band xxv., Supplement: D. Rosin. ie Religionsphilasaphie Abraham Ibn Ezra’s in vols. xlii. and xliii. of the Mom!schrifl fl‘ir Geschichte und Wissenschaff des Judenfhums; his Diwan w’as edited by T. Egers (Berlin, 1886): a collection of his poems, Reime and Gvdichte, with translation and commentary, were published by D, ROsin in several annual reports of the Jewish theological Seminary at Breslau (1885—1894). (W. BA.)
ABENSBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom _of Bavaria, on the Abens, a tributary of the Danube, 18 m. S.W. of Regensburg, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. 2202. It has a small spa, and its sulphur baths are resorted to for the cure of rheumatism and gout. The town is the Castra Abusina of the Romans, and Roman remains exist in the neighbourhood. Here, on the 20th of April 1809, Napoleon gained a signal victory over the Austrians under the Archduke 'Louis and General Hiller. -, , ,
ABEOKU'I‘A, a town of. British West Africa in the Egba division of the Yoruba country, S. Nigeria Protectorate. It is situated in 7° 8’ N., 3° 25’ E., on the Ogun river, 64 m. N. of Lagos by railway, or 81 m. by water. Population, approximately 60,000. Abeokuta lies in a beautiful and fertile country, the surface of which is broken by masses of grey granite. It is spread over an extensive area, being surrounded by mud walls 18 miles in extent. Abeokuta, under the reforming zeal of its native rulers, was largely transformed during the early years of the 20th century. Law courts, government offices, prisons and a substantial bridge were built, good roads made, and a large staff of sanitary inspectors appointed. The streets are generally narrow and the houses built of mud. There are numerous markets in which a considerable trade is done in native products and articles of European manufacture. Palmoil, timber, rubber, yams and Shea-butter are the chief articles of trade. An official newspaper is published in the Yoruba and English languages. Abeokuta is the headquarters of the Yoruba branch of the Church Missionary Society, and British and American missionaries have met with somev success in their civilizing work. In their schools about 2000 children are educated. The completion in 1899 of a railway from Lagos hclPed not only to develop trade but to strengthen generally, the.iufluence of the white man.
Abeokuta (a word meaning “under the“ rocks”), dating
from 1825', owes its origin to the incessant inroads of the slavehunters from Dahomey and Ibadan, which compelled the village populations scattered over the open country to take refuge in this rocky stronghold against the common enemy. Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs, religious rites and even the very names of their original villages. Yet this apparently incoherent aggregate held its ground successfully against the powerful armies often sent against the plate 'both by the king of Dahomey from the west, and by the people of Ibadan from the north-east. ‘
The district of Egba, of which Abeokuta is the capital, has an estimated area of 3000 sq. m. and a population of some 3 50,000. It is officially, known as the Abeokuta province of the Southern Nigeria protectorate. It contains luxuriant forests of palmtrees, which constitute the chief wealth of the people. Cotton is indigenous and is grown for export. The Egbas are enthusi~ astic farmers and have largely adopted European methods of cultivation. They are very tenacious of their independence, but accepted without opposition the establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human sacrifices, and exercising control over the Working of the laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy. The administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial functions. The president of this council, or ruling chief ——chosen from among the members of the two recognized reigning families—is called the alake, a word meaning. “Lord of Ake,” Ake being the name of the principal quarter of Abeokuta, after the ancient capital of the Egbas. The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties. A visit of the alake to England in 1904 evoked considerable public interest. The chief was a man of great intelligence, eager to study western civilization, and an ardent agriculturist. "
See the ublications of the Church Missionary Society dealing with the oruba Mission; Col. A. B. Ellis's The Yoruba-speaking People: (London, [894); and an article on Abeokuta by Sir Wm. Macgregor, sometime governor of Lagos, in the African Society‘s Journal, No. xii. (London. July 1904).
ABERAVON, a contributory parliamentary and municipal borough of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the right bank of the Avon, near its mouth in Swansea Bay, 11 m. E.S.E. of Swansea and 170 m. from London by rail. Pop. (1901) 7553. It has a station on the Rhondda and Swansea Bay railway and is also on‘ the main South Wales line of the Great Western, whose station, however, is at Port Talbot, half a mile distant, on the eastern side of. the Avon.\ The valley of the.Avon, which is only some three miles leng,-has been from about 1840 a place of much metallurgical activity. There are tinplate and engineering works within the 'borough. At Cwmavon, 1% m. to the northeast, are large copper-smelting works established in 1838, acquired two years later by the governor and Company of the Copper Miners of England, but now worked by the Rio Tinto Copper Company. There are also iron, steel and tinplate worksbothat 'Cwmavon and at Port Talbot, iwhich, when it consisted only of docks, was appropriately knoWn as Aberavon Port. '
The town derives its name from the river Avon (corrupted from .Avan), which also gave its name to a medieval lordship. On the Norman conquest at Glamorgan, Caradoc, the eldest son of the defeated prince, Lestyn ab Gwrgan, continued to hold this lordship, and for the defence of the- passage of the river built here a castle whose foundations are still traceable in a field near the churchyard. His descendants (who from the 13th century onwards styled themselves De Avan or D’Avene) established, under the protection of the castle, a chartered town, which in 1372 received a further charter from Edward Le Despenser, into whose family the lordship had come on an exchange of lands. In modern times these charters were not actedlupon, the town being deemed a borough by prescription, but in 1861 it was incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act. Since 1832 it has belonged1to the SWansea parliamentary 'dis
were collected in 1687.
trict of boroughs, uniting with Kehfig,‘ Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885 the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member. " ABERCARN, an urban district in'the southern parliamentary' division of 'Monmouthshire, England, win. N.W. of'New‘port by the Great Western railway. Pop'. (1901) 12,607. ' There are collieries, ironworks and tinplate works in the district; the town, which lies in the middle portion of the Eb'bw valley,being situated on the south-eastern flank' of the great mining region of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire. ' ABERCORN, JAMES HAMILTON IST EARL or (c. 1575—1618), was the eldest son of Claud Hamilton,‘Lord Paisley (4th son of. James, 2nd earl of Arran, and duke of Chatelherault), and of Margaret, daughter of George, 6th Lord‘Seton'. ‘ He was made sheriFf of Linlithgow in 1600, received large grants of lands in Scotland and Ireland, was created in 1603 baron of Ahercorn, and on the 10th of July 1606 was rewardedzf'or his services in the matter ofthe union by 'being made earl of Abercorn, and Baron Hamilton, Mount'Castle‘an'd Kilpatrick. He married Marion, daughter of Thomas, 5th Lord Boyd, and- left five sons, of whom the eldest, baron of Strabane, sticceeded-hii’n as 2nd earl of Abercorn. ' He'diod 'on the 231d of March 1618. The title of Abercorn, held. by the‘ head of the Hamilton family; became a marquessatc in 1790,..and a dukedom-in'1868, the 2nd duke of 'Abercorn (b. 1838) being a prominent Unionist politician and chairman of the British South AfriCa Companyl ABERCROMBIE, JOHN (1780—1844» "Scottish physician, was the son of the Rev'. George Abercrombie of Aberdeen, where he was born on the 10th of October 1780. - He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and after graduating as MD. in 1803 .he settleddowm to practise in that city, where he soon attained a' leading position.~ From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and-Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Discascs of the Brain and Spinal Cord,’ and of his Researches on the Disease: of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828. He also found time for philosophical speculations, and in 1830 he pub~ lishedhis Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and the Investigation of Truth, which was followed in 1833 by a sequel,’ The Philosophy of thc ‘Moml Feelings. Both works, though showing little originality of thought, achieved wide popularity. He died at Edinburgh on the 14th of November 1844. i ' - " ‘ ABERCROMBY, DAVID, a 17th-century Scottish physician who was sufficiently noteworthy a generation after the probable
' date of hisdeath to have his Nova M edicinoe Praxis reprinted ‘at Paris in 1740. 'vencreae saepe dbsquc mr-rcurio ac scmper absque salivulione
mercuriali curondo methodur (1684) was translated into French; Dutch and German. Two other works by him were Dc Pulsus Variations (London, 168 5), and Ar: explorandl medicasfacullalcs' plantarum ex solo soflorc (London, 1685*1688). His Opuscula These professional writings gave him a place and'memorial'in A. von Heller’s Bibl-ioIhcca Medicinae Pracl. (4 vols. 8vo, 1779, tom. iii. p. 610); but he claims notice rather by his remarkable controversial books in theology and philosophy than -by his medical writings. “Bred up at Douai as a Jesuit, he abjured popery, and published Prolcsloncy proved Sofcr than Popery (London, 1686). 'But the most noticeable of his productions is A Discourse of W1"! (London, 1685), which contains some of the most characteristic and most definitely~put metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of common sense. It was followed by Academia Scicnliurum (1687), and by A Moral Trcalisc of the Power of Interest (1690), dedicated to Robert Boyle. A Short Account of Scots Divincs, by him, was printed at Edinburgh in 1833, edited by James Maidmcnt. The exact date of hisideath is unknown, but according to Haller he was alive early in the 18th century. ’
ABERCROMBY, PATRICK (1656—c. 1716), Scottish physician and antiquarian, was the third son of Alexander Abercromby of Fetterneir in Aberdeenshire, and brother of Francis Aber