« السابقةمتابعة »
parts of the country. The harbour is good and safe, and agricul— tural produce is exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports. The cathedral of the 13th century (extensively restored) is the largest church in Denmark. There is a museum of art and antiquities. To the south-west (13 m. by rail), a picturesque region extends west from the railway junction of Skanderborg, including several lakes, through which flows the Gudenaa, the largest river in Jutland, and rising ground exceeding 500 ft. in the Himmelbjerg. The railway traverses this pleasant district of moorland and wood to Silkeborg, a modern town having one of the most attractive situations in the kingdom. The bishopric of Aarhus dates at least from 951.
AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see Exonus ; Moses). The greater part of his life-history is preserved in late Biblical narratives, which carry back existing conditions and beliefs to the time of the Exodus, and find a precedent for contemporary hierarchical institutions in the events of that period. Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah) to meet Moses at the “ mount of God ” (Horeb, Ex. iv.27), he plays onlya secondary part in the incidents at Pharaoh’s court. After the “ exodus ” from Egypt a striking account is given of the vision of the God of Israel vouchsafed to him and to his sons Nadab and Abihu on the same holy mount (Ex. xxiv. 1 seq. 9—1 1), and together with Hur he was at the side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii. 8-16). Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of the Law (xxiv. 12-15), and when the people, in dismay at the prolonged absence of their leader, demanded a god, it was at the instigation of Aaron that the golden calf was made (see CALF, GOLDEN). This was regarded as an act of apostasy which, according to one tradition, led to the consecration of the Levites, and almost cost Aaron his life (cp. Deut. ix. 20). The incident paves the way for the account of the preparation of the new tables of stone which contain a series of laws quite distinct from the Decalogue (q.'v.) (Ex. xxxiii. seq.). Kadesh, and not Sinai or Horeb, appears to have been originally the scene of these incidents (Deut. xxxiii. 8 seq. compared with Ex. xxxii. 26 sqq.), and it. was for some obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num. xx.). In what way they had not “ sanctified ” (an allusion in the Hebrew to Kfidésh “ holy ”) Yahweh is quite uncertain, and it would appear that it was for a similar oflence that the sons of Aaron mentioned above also met their death (Lev.x. 3 ; cp. Num.xx. 12, Deut. xxxii. 51).v Aaron is said to have died at Moserah (Deut. x. 6), or at Mt. Hor ; the latter is an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num. xx. 23, xxxiii.37 ; for Moserah see ib. 30-31), and consequently not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the traditional scene from the time of Josephus (A nl. iv. 4. 7).
Several difficulties in the present Biblical text appear to have arisen from the attempt of later tradition to find a place for Aaron in certain incidents. In the account of the contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num. xii), Aaron occupies only a secondary position, and it is very doubtful whether he was originally mentioned in the older surviving narratives. It is at least remarkable that he is only thrice mentioned in Deuteronomy (ix. 20, x. 6, xxxii. 50). The post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of Egypt, represent him as high~priest, and confirm his position by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of the other tribes (Num. xvii. ; for parallels see Gray, comm. ad loc., p. 217). The latter story illustrates the growth of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of priestly ritual : the old account of Korah’s revolt against the authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a) the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b) the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites against the rest of the Levites, a development which can scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv. 15 seq.).
Aaron's son Eleazar was buried in an Ephraimite locality known after the grandson as the“ hill of Phinehas ‘ (Josh. xxiv. 33). Little
historical information has been preserved of either. The name Phinehas (apparentl of Egyptian origin) is better known as that of a son of Eli, a mem r of the priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have belonged. The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical names and those of clans related to Moses is ve noteworthy, and it is a curious coincidence that the name of aron's sister Miriam appears in a genealo y of Caleb (1 Chron. iv. 17) with Jether (cp. JETHRO) and He er (cp. Kern-res). In view of the confusion of the traditions and the difficulty of interpreting the details sketched above, the recovery of the hirtorical Aaron is a work of peculiar intricacy. He may well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and R. H. Kennett has argued in favour of the view that he was the founder of the cult at Bethel (foam. 0 Theol. Stud, 1905, p . 161 sqq.), corresponding to the Mosaite ounder of Dan (4.0.). his throws no light upon the name, which still remains quite obscure; and unless Aaron (Aharon) is based upon Aron, " ark " (Redslob, R. P. A. Dozy, J. P. N. Land), it must be placed in a line with the other un-Hebraic and difficult names associated with M0ses and Aaron, which are, apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin.
For the literature and a general account of the Jewish riesthood, see the articles Levrrns and PRIEST. (g. A. C.)
AARON'S ROD, the popular name given to various tall flowering plants (“ hag taper,” “golden rod,” &c.). In architecture the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the Biblical references in Exodus vii. 10 and Numbers xvii. 8).
AARSSENS, or AARSSEN, FRANCIS VAN (1572—1641), a celebrated diplomatist and statesman of the United Provinces. His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France. He took a considerable part in the negotiations of the twelve years’ truce in 1606. His conduct of affairs having displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by Oldenbarneveldt in 1616. Such was the hatred he henceforth conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his very utmost to eflect his ruin. He was one of the packed court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to death. For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain rests on the memory of Aarssens. He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.
AASEN, [VAR (1813—1896), Norwegian philologist and lexicographer, was born at Aasen i Orsten, in Sfmdmore, Norway, on the 5th of August 1813. His father, a small peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsson, died in 1826. He was brought up to farmwork, but he assiduously cultivated all his leisure in reading, and when he was eighteen he opened an elementary school in his native parish. In 1833 he entered the household of H. C. Thoresen, the husband of the eminent writer Magdalene Thoresen, in Hero, and here he picked up the elements of Latin. Gradually, and by dint of infinite patience and concentration, the young peasant became master of many languages, and began the scientific study of their structure. About 1841 he had freed himself from all the burden of manual labour, and could occupy his thoughts with the dialect of his native district, the Sondmore; his first publication was a small collection of folk-songs in the Sondmore language (1843). His remarkable abilities now attracted general attention, and he was helped to continue his studies undisturbed. His Grammar of the Norwegian Dialects (1848) was the result of much labour, and of journeys taken to every part of the country. Aasen’s famous Dictionary of the Norwegian Dialects appeared in its original form in 1850, and from this publication dates all the wide cultivation of the popular language in Norwegian, since Aasen really did no less than construct, out of the different materials at his disposal, a popular language or definite folke-maal for Norway. With certain modifications, the most important of which were introduced later by Aasen himself, this artificial language is that which has been adopted ever since by those who write in dialect, and which later enthusiasts have once more endeavoured to foist up'on Norway as her official language in the place of Dano-Norwegian. Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas, The Heir (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg. Aasen continued to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary. He lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the peasants became more and more the watchword of the'popular party. Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention to his philological investigations ; and the Storthing— conscious of the national importance of his work—treated him in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in years. He continued his investigations to the last, but it may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his Dictionary, he added but little to his stores. Ivar Aasen holds perhaps an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons and their songs. He died in Christiania on the 23rd of September 1896, and was buried with public honours. (E. G.)
AB, the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the eleventh of the civil year of the Jews. It approximately corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the I 5th of Augtist. The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the Jews with 'other calendar names after the Babylonian exile. Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab. On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar (586 13.0.) and of the second by.Titus (AD. 70).
ABA. (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and called after, Antoine d’Abbadie ; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in Bulgaria; (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs.
ABABDA (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of classical writers), a nomad tribe of African “ Arabs ” of Hamitic origin. They extend from the'Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea, and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile. They call themselves “ sons of the Jinns.” With some of the clans of the Bisharin (q.v.) and possibly the Hadendoa (q.v.) they represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman times. They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at last subsidized them. In the middle ages they were known as Beja (q.v.), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda. From time immemorial they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar. To-day many of them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian desert. They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian invasion (A.D. r820—r82 2). They are still great trade carriers, and visit very distant districts. The Ababda of Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary “ chief.” Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no tribute. Indeed he is paid asubsidy, a portion of the roaddues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin robbers. The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him. The Ahabda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin, their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a. powerful nation. The Abibda generally speak Arabic (mingled with Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect, ToBedawict. Those of Kosseir will not speak this before strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious dialect would bring ruin on them. Those nearest the Nile have much fellah blood in them. As a tribe they claim an Arab origin, apparently through
their sheikhs. They have adopted the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked. They are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these latter. They are lithe and well built, but small: the average height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan, who are obviously of Arab origin. Their complexion is more red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair luxuriant. They hear the character of being treacherous and faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never beg. Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after the British occupation of Egypt. Theirchief settlements are in Nubiafiwhere they live in villages and employ themselves in agriculture. Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then hawk the salt fish in the interior. Others are pedlars, while charcoalburning, wood-gathering and trading in gums and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many. Unlike the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as did their ancestors in classic times. They have few horses, using the camel as beast of burden or their “ mount ” in war. They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter eaten either raw or roasted. They are very superstitious, believing, for example, that evil-would overtake a family if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his home far from his wife’s village. In the Mahdist troubles (1882—1898) many “friendlies ” were recruited from the tribe.
For their earlier histo see BEJA; see also BISHARIN, HADENDOA, KABBABISII; and t e following authoritiesz—Sir F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (Lond. 1891) ; Giuseppe Ser i, A nca: Antroflologia delta Stirpw Camitrca (Tunn, 1897); A. .
eane, Ethnology 0 Egyptian Sudan (Lond. 1884); Anglo-Egy tion Sudan, edited by ount Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von ussegger, Die Reisen in A frika (Stuttgart, 1841—1850). (T. A. J.)
ABACA, or ABAKA, a native name for the plant M are textilis, which prod cos the fibre called Manila Hemp (q.v.).
ABACUS Gr. dfiafi, a slab; Fr. abaque, tailloir), in architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column. Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface for the architrave or arch it has to carry. In the Greek Doric order the abacus is a plain square slab. In the Roman and Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding. In the Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a carved ovolo moulding. In later examples the abacus is square, except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly curved over the same. In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic capital, the abacus is square with a fillet on the top of an ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes. In the Greek Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding carved. In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the same was retained in France during the medieval period;
from an ancient monument. It contains seven long and seven shorter rods or bars, the former having four perforated beads running on them and the latter one. The bar marked I indiCates units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads on the shorter bars denote fives,——five units, five tens, &c. The
rod 9 and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces ; and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce.
, The Swan-Pan of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles the Roman abacus in its construction and use.
Computations are ' made with it by means of r' ‘ balls of bone or ivory running on slender bamboo ' . rods, similar to the simpler , . board, fitted up with beads
‘ strung on wires, which is employed in teaching the ‘ rudiments of arithmetic in English schools.
The name of “abacus” is also given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the “logical machine,” analogous to the mathematical abacus. It is constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set' of logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which these Combinations are affected by the addition of attributes or other limiting words, in. to simplify mechanically the solution of logical problems. These instruments are all more or less elaborate developments of the “ logical slate,” on which were written in vertical columns all the combinations of symbols or letters which could _be made logically out of a definite number of terms. These were compared with any given premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed off. In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed at will, in accordance with any given series of premises. The principal examples. of such machines are those of W. S. Jevons (Element. Lessons in Logic, c. xxiii.), John Venn (see his Symbolic Logic, 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan Marquand (see American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 188 5, pp. 303—7, and Johns Hopkins U nivcrsily Studies in Logic, 1883).
ABADDON, a Hebrew word meaning “ destruction.” In poetry it comes to mean “place of destruction," and so the underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6 ; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev. ix. n Abaddon ('Afiafiodw) is used of hell personified, the prince of the underworld. The term is here explained as Apollyon (q.'v.), the “ destroyer.” W. Baudissin (Herzog-Hauck, Realcncyklopadie) notes that Hades and Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names, just as shcmayya in Dan. iv. 23, shdmayim (“ heaven ”), and makfim (“ place ”) among the Rabbins, are used of God.
ABADEH, a small walled town of Persia, in the province of Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m. from the former and 170 m. from the latter place. Pop. 4000. It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district, which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices, and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays, sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees.
ABAE (’Afiru), a town in the NE. corner of Phocis, in Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state. The oracle was, however, still consulted, e. g. by the Thebans before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple, was undertaken by Hadrian. The sanctity of the shrine ensured certain privileges to the people of Abae (Bull. Corresp. Hell. vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the Romans. The polygonal walls of the acropolis may still be seen in a fair state of preserva
tion on a circular hill standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho; one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls below. The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the town. An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found.
See also \V. M. 'Lcake, Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 163; Journal of Hellenic Studies, xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke).
ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m. S.S.W. of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54°20' N., long. 91°4o’ E. This is considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics. Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707. Pop. 2000.
ABADONE, the Spanish name used in California for various species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl. This sort of Haliotis is also commonly called “ ear-shell,” and in Guernsey “ ormer ” (Fr. orrnier, for oreille de mer). The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and other places on the southern Californian coast, and when polished makes a beautiful ornament. The mollusc itself is often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan.
ABANA (or AMANAH, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR, the “ rivers of Damascus” (2 Kings v. 12), now generally identified with the Barada (i.e. “ cold”) and the A'waj (i.e. “ crooked ”) respectiVely, though if the reference to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern Taura. Both streams run from west to east across the plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the borders of the great Arabian desert. John M‘Gregor, who gives an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the Jordan, afiirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as one of the most complete and extensive in the world. As the Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or “ rivers,” the name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana.
ABANCOURT, CHARLES XAVIER JOSEPH DE FRANQUEVILLE D’ (1 758—1792) , French statesman, and nephew of Calonne. He was Louis XVI.’s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August. Commanded by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent to Orleans to be tried. At the end of August the Assembly ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude Fournier, “ the American.” At Versailles they learned of the massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792. Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime.
ABANDONMENT (Fr. abandonnement, from abandormer, to abandon, relinquish; abandonner was originally equivalent to mettred bandon, to leave to the jurisdiction, i.e. of another, bandon being from Low Latin bandum, bannum, order, decree, “ ban "), in law, the relinquishment of an interest, claim, privilege or possession. Its signification varies according to the branch of the law in which it is employed, but the more important uses of the word are summarized below.
ABANDONMENT 01‘ AN ACTION is the discontinuance of proceedings commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action or for other reasons. Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875, considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring another action on the same suit (see NONSUIT) ; but since 1875 this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who has delivered his reply (see PLEADING), and afterwards wishes to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter.
ABANDONMENT 1N MARINE INSURANCE is the surrender of the ship or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive total loss of the thing insured. For the requisites and effects of abandonment in this sense see INSURANCE, MARINE.
ABANDONMENT or WIFE AND CHILDREN is dealt with under DESERTION, and the abandonment or exposure of a young child under the age of two, which is an indictable misdemeanour, is dealt with under CHILDREN, CRUELTY T0.
ABANDONMENT or DOMICILE is the ceasing to reside permanently in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new domicile. The presumptions which will guide the court in. deciding whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be inferred from the facts of each individual case. See DOMICILE.
ABANDONMENT or AN EASEMEN-r is the relinquishment of some accommodation or right in another’s land, such as right of way, free access of light and air, 81c. See BASEMENT.
ABANDONMENT or RAILWAYS has a legal signification in England recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it.
ABANO, PIETRO D' (1250—1316), known also as PETRUS DE APONO or APONENSIS, Italian physician and philosopher, was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name in 12 50, or, according to others, in 1246. After studying medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee. Perhaps this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher’s stone. He was twice brought to trial by the Inquisition ; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he died (1316) before the second trial was completed. He was found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian writers. His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum quae inter philosopher et medicos versanlur (Mantua, 1472 ; Venice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remcdiis (1472), of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593.
ABANO BAGNI, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei ; it is 6 m. S.W. by rail from Padua. Pop. (1901) 4556. Its hot springs and mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Romans as A poni fans or Aquac Palam'nae. Some remains of the ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, Trattalo dei Bagni d’ Abano, Padua, 1789). An oracle of Geryon lay near, and the so-called sortes Praencslinae (C.I.L. i., Berlin, 1863; 1438—1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century.
ABARIS, a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770 3.0., or two or three centuries later. According to the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of the god ; be healed the sick, foretold the future, worked miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36 ; Iamblichus, De Vil. Pythag. xix. 28). Suidas credits him with several works : Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony.
ABATED, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round the letters so Is to leave the letters or ornament in relief.
ABATEMENT (derived through the French abatlre, from the Late Latin ballere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or doing away with ; a term used especially in various legal phrases.
ABArEuENr or A NUISANCE is the remedy allowed by law to a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the peace is committed in doing so. In the case of private nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See N UISANCE.) .
AnArEuENr or raEEnoLD takes place where, after the death of the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of possession. It differs from intrusion, which is a similar entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man ; and from disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion of a person Seised of the freehold. (See F REEHOLD.)
ABATEHENT or DEBTS AND LEGACIES. When the equitable assets (see ASSETS) of a deceased person are not sufiicient to satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate proportionately, and they must accept a dividend. Also, in the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given specially to any particular legacy (see LEGACY). Annuities are also subject to the same rule as general legacies.
ABATEMENT 1N PLEADING, or plea in abatement, was the defeating or quashing of a. particular action by some matter of fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant. It did not involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action subsisting. In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at one time a. common practice in answer to an indictment, and was set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed, by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant. Its efiect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law Act 1826, which required the court to amend according to the truth, and the Criminal Procedure Act 1851, which rendered description of the defendant unnecessary. All pleas in abatement are now abolished (R.S.C. Order 21, r. 20). See PLEADINo.
ABATEMENT 1N LITIGATION. In civil proceedings, no action abates by reason of the marriage, death or bankruptcy of any of the parties, if the cause of action survives or continues, and does not become defective by the assignment, creation or devolution of any estate or title pendenle lite (R.S.C. Order 17, r. I). Criminal proceedings do not abate on the death of the prosecutor, being in theory instituted by the crown, but the crown itself may bring about their termination without any decision on the merits and without the assent of the prosecutor.
ABATEMENI or FALSE mom‘s. By the Merchant Stripping Act 1854, the general lighthouse authority (see LIGHTHOUSE) has power to order the extinguishment or screening of any light which may be mistaken for alight proceeding from a lighthouse.
ABATEMENT 1N COMMERCE is a deduction sometimes made at a custom-house from the fixed duties on certain kinds of goods, on account of damage or loss sustained in warehouses. The rate and conditions of such deductions are regulated, in England, by the Customs Consolidation Act 1853. (See also DRAWBACK; REBATE.)
ABATEMENT IN HERALD“ is a badge in coat-armour, indicating some kind of degradation or dishonour. It is called also rebatemenl.
ABATI, or DELL’ AanA'ro, NICCOLO (1512—1571), a celebrated fresco-painter of Modena, whose best works are there and at Bologna. He accompanied Primaticcio to France, and assisted in decorating the palace at Fontainebleau (1 5 52—1 571). His pic~ tures exhibit a combination of skill in drawing, grace and natural colouring. Some of his case] pieces in oil are in different collections ; one of the finest, in the Dresden Gallery, represents the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul.
ABATIS, AEArrrs or AEBATT'Is (a French word meaning a heap of material thrown), a term in field fortification for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the tops directed towards'the enemy and interlaced or tied with wire. The abatis is used alone or in combination with wire-entanglements and other obstacles.
ABA'I'I‘OIR (from abattre, to strike down), a French word often employed in English as an equivalent of “ slaughter-house ” (an), the place where animals intended for food are killed.
ABAUZIT, FIRHIN (1679—1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of Protestant parents at Uzés, in Languedoc. His father died when he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his escape. For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their flight. Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in languages, physics and theology. In 1698 he went to Holland, and there became acquainted with Pierre Bayle, P. Jurieu and J. Basnage. Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his discoveries. Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of his Principia an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when sending him the Commercium Epistolicum, said, “ You are well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me." The reputation of Abauzit induced William III. to request him to settle in England, but he did not accept the king’s offer, preferring to return to Geneva. There from 171 5 be rendered valuable assistance to a society that had been formed for translating the New Testament into French. He declined the offer of the chair of philosophy in the university in 1723, but accepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the city of his adoption. Here he died at a good old age, in 1767. Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful versatility. Whatever chanced to be discussed,it used to be said of Abauzit, as of Professor W. Whewell of more modern times, that he seemed to have made it a subject of particular study. Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to him, in his Nomelle H éloire, a fine panegyric; and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit. Little remains of the labours of this intellectual giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into their possession, because their own religious opinions were different. A few theological, archaeological and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the J ournal H elvélique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's- Dictionnaire dc musique (1 767). He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply from Dr Leonard Twells. He also edited and made valuable additions to J. Spon’s Histoire de la réjmblique de Genéve. A collection of his writings was published at Geneva in 1770 ((Euvrcs de feu M. Abauzit), and another at London in 1773 (Emma: diverses de M. Abauzit). Some of them were translated into English by Dr Edward Harwood (1774).
Information regardin Abauzit will be found in J. Senebier's Histoire Litlérairc dc Gen 0, Harwood's Miscellanies, and W. Orme’s Bibliotheca Biblica (I824).
’ABAYE, the name of a Babylonian ’amnra (q.v.), born in the middle of the 31d century. He died in 33g.
‘ABBA ’ARIKA, the name of the Babylonian ’amora (q.v.) of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud. He is commonly known as Rab.
ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the downfall of the western caliphate. It lasted from about 1023 till 1091, but during the short period of its existence was singularly active and typical of its time. The founder of the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 1023. He was the chief of an Arab family settled in the city from the first days of the conquest. The Beni-abbad were not of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely, made an illustrious
pedigree for them when they had become powerful. They were, however, very rich. Abd-ul-Qfisim gained the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping at the fragments of the caliphate. At first he professed to rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, but when his power became established he dispensed with this show of republican government, and then gave himself the appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor who professed to be the caliph Hishain II. When Abd-ul-Qasim died in 1042 he had created a state which, though weak in itself, was strong as compared to the little powers about it. He had made his family the recognized leaders of the Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada. Abbad, surnamed El Motaddid, his son and successor, is one of the most remarkable figures in Spanish Mahommedan history. He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the stamp of Filipo Maria Visccnti. El Motaddid was a poet and a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of wine, a sceptic and treacherous t0 the utmost degree. Though he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted, from his “lair” in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of Seville. He killed with his own hand one of his sons who had rebelled against him. On one occasion be trapped a number of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room of a bath. It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the enemies he had killed—those of the meaner men to be used as flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special chests. His reign until his death on the 28th of February 1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief rival the king of Granada. These incessant wars weakened the Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little states. After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and forced him to pay tribute. His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim Abenebet—who reigned by the title of El Motamid—was the third and last of the Abbadides. He was a no less remarkable person than his father and much more amiable. Like him he was a poet, and a favourer of poets. El Motamid went, however, considerably further in patronage of literature than his father, for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn Ammar. In the end the vanity and featherheadedness of Ibn Ammar drove his master to kill him. El Motamid was even more influenced by his favourite wife, Romaica, than by his vizir. He had met her paddling in the Guadalquivir, purchased her from her master, and made her his wife. The caprices of Romaica, and the lavish extravagance of Motamid in his efforts to please her, form the subject of many stories. In politics he carried on the feuds of his family with the Berbers, and in his efiorts to extend his dominions could be as faithless as his father. His wars and his extravagance exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by taxes. In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of Alphonso VI. of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental barbarity. He had endeavoured to pay part of his tribute to the Christian king with false money. The fraud was detected by a Jew, who was one of the envoys 0f Alphonso. El Motamid, in a moment of folly and rage, crucified the Jew and imprisoned the Christian members of the mission. Alphonso retaliated by a destructive raid. When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085, El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see SPAIN, History, and ALMORAVIDES). During the six years which preceded his deposition in 1091, El Motamid behaved with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political folly. He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide. It was probably during this period that he sur— rendered his beautiful daughter Zaida to the Christian king, who