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M‘Grigor (1778—1851), the military surgeon and director-general of the Army Medical Department, who was thrice elected lord rector of the College.

Bridges—The Dee is crossed by four bridges,-—the old bridge, the Wellington suspension bridge, the railway bridge, and Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street. The first, till 1832 the only access to the city from the south, consists of seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 ft. high, and was built early in the 16th century by Bishops Elphinstone and Dunbar. It was nearly all rebuilt in 1 718—1723, and in 1842 was widened from ml to 26 ft. The bridge of Don has five granite arches, each 75 ft. in span, and was built in 1827—1832. A little to the west is the Auld Brig o’ Balgownie, a picturesque single arch spanning the deep black stream, said to have been built by King Robert 1., and celebrated by Byron in the tenth canto of Don Juan.

H arbour.—A defective harbour, with a shallow sand and gravel bar at its entrance, long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but under various acts since 1773 it was greatly deepened. The north pier, built partly by Smeaton in 177 5—1781, and partly by Telford in 1810—1815, extends nearly 3000 ft. into the North Sea. It increases the depth of water on the bar from a few feet to 22 or 24 ft. at spring tides and to 17 or 18 ft. at neap. A wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 6000 ft. of quay, was completed in 1848 and called Victoria Dock in honour of the queen’s visit to the city in that year. Adjoining it is the Upper Dock. By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee near the harbour was diverted from the south at a cost of £80,000, and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres formerly made up) were provided on the north side of the river for the Albert Basin (with a graving dock), quays and warehouses. A breakwater of concrete, 1050 ft. long, was constructed on the south side of the stream as a protection against south-easterly gales. On Girdleness, the southern point of the bay, a lighthouse was built in 1833. Near the harbour mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns.

Industry.-—Owing to the variety and importance of its chief industries Aberdeen is one of the most prosperous cities in Scotland. Very durable grey granite has been quarried near Aberdeen for more than 300 years, and blocked and dressed paving “setts,” kerb and building stones, and monumental and other ornamental work of granite have long been exported from the district to all parts of the world. This, though once the predominant industry, has been surpassed by the deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from beam-trawling, introduced in 1882, and steam line fishing in 1889, and threaten to rival if not to eclipse those of Grimsby. Fish trains are despatched to London daily. Most of the leading industries date from the 18th century, amongst them woollens (1703), linen (1749) and cotton (1779). These give employment to several thousands of operatives. The paper—making industry is one of the most famous and oldest in the city, paper having been first made in Aberdeen in 1694. Flax-spinning and jute and combmaking factories are also very flourishing, and there are successful foundries and engineering works. There are large distilleries and breweries, and chemical works employing many hands. In the days of wooden ships ship-building was a fiourish~ ing industry, the town being noted for its fast clippers, many of which established records in the “ tea races.” The introduction of trawling revived this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron vessels. Of later origin are the jam, pickle and potted meat factories, hundreds of acres having been laid down in strawberries and other fruits within a few miles of the city.

H istory.—Aberdeen was an important place as far back as the 12th century. William the Lion had a residence in the city, to which he gave a charter in 1 179 confirming the corporate rights granted by David I. The city received other royal charters later. It was burned by the English king, Edward 111., in 1336, but it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New Aberdeen. The burgh records are the oldest in Scotland. They begin in 1398 and with one brief break are complete to the present day. For many centuries the city was subject to attacks by the neighbouring barons, and was strongly fortified,


but the gates Were'all removed by 1770. In 1497 a blockhousa

was built at the harbour mouth as a protection against the

English. During the struggles between the Royalists and Covenanters the city was impartially plundered by both sides. In 1715 the Earl Marischal proclaimed the Old Pretender at Aberdeen, and in 1745 the duke of Cumberland resided for a short time in the city before attacking the Young Pretender. The motto on the city arms is “ Bon Accord," which formed the watchword of the Aberdonians while aiding Robert Bruce in his battles with the English.

Population—In 1396 the population was about 3000. By 1801 it had become 26,992; in 1841 it was 63,262; (1891) 121,623; (1901) 153,503

Anrnomrras—The charters of the bu h; extracts from the council register down to 1625, and selections from the letters, Euildry and treasurer's accounts, forming 3 vols. of the Spalding

lub; Cosmo lnnes, Registrant Episcopatus Aberdonensis, S lding Club; Walter Thom, The History ofAberdeen (1811); Robert ilson, Historical Account and Delineation of Aberdeen (1822); William Kennedy, The Annals 0 Aberdeen (1818); Orem, Description of the Chanonr , Cathedral a King's College of Old Aberdeen, 1724-1725 (1820); ir Andrew Leith Hay of Rannes, The Castellated Architecture of berdeen; Giles, SPecimens of Old Castellated Houses of Aberdeen i18é8); James Bryce, Lives 0 Eminent Men of Aberdeen (18 1);

. ordon, Description of Bot Towns of Aberdeen (Spalding Club, 1842); oseph Robertson, The Book of Eon-A ccord (Aberdeen, 1839); W. R0 bie, Aberdeen: its Traditions and History (Aberdeen, 1893); C. G. Burr and A. M. Munro, Old Landmarks of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1886); A. M. Munro, Memorials of the Aldermen, Provost: and Lord Prouosts of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); P. J. Anderson, Charters, 8a., illustrating the History of the Royal Burgh 0 Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1890); Selections from the Records of Marisc College (New 5 aldin Club, 188%? 1898-1899);CI. Cooper, Chartulary of the Chart of t Nicholas ( ewISIpalding lub, 1888, 1892); G. Cadenhead, Sketch of the Territorial istory of the Burgh 0 Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1876); W. Cadenhead, Guide to the City 0 Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); Aéssmith, H istory and Antiquities of ew and Old Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1 2 .

ABERDEEN, a city and the county-seat of Brown county, South Dakota, U.S.A., about 12 5 m. N .E. of Pierre. Pop. (1890) 3182; (1900) 4087, of whom 889 were foreign born; (1905) 5841; (1910) 10,753. Aberdeen is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St Paul, the Great Northern, the Minneapolis and St Louis, and the Chicago and North Western railways. It is the financial and trade centre for the northern part of the state, a fine agricultural region, and in 1908 had five banks and a number of wholesale houses. The city is the seat of the Northern Normal and Industrial School, a state institution, and has a Carnegie library; the principal buildings are the court house and the government buildings. Artesian wells furnish good water-power, and artesian-well supplies, grain pitchers, brooms, chemicals and flour are manufactured. The municipality owns and operates the water-works. Aberdeen was settled in 1880, and was chartered as a city in 1883.

ABBRDEENSHIRE, a north-eastern county of Scotland, bounded N. and E. by the North Sea, S. by Kincardine, Forfar and Perth, and W. by Inverness and Banfi. It has a coast-line of 65 m., and is the sixth Scottish county in area, occupying 1,261,887 acres or 1971 sq. m. The county is generally hilly, and from the south—west, near the centre of Scotland, the Grampians send out various branches, mostly to the north-east. The shire is popularly divided into five districts. Of these the first is Mar, mostly between the Dee and Don, which nearly covers the southern half of the county and contains the city of Aberdeen. It is mountainous, especially Braemar (q.v.), which contains the greatest mass of elevated land in the British Isles. The soil on the Dee is sandy, and on the Don loamy. The second district, Formartine, between the lower Don and Ythan, has a sandy coast, which is succeeded inland by a clayey, fertile, tilled tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses and tilled land. Buchan, the third district, lies north of the Ythan, and, comprising the north-east of the county, is next in size to Mar, parts of the coast being bold and rocky, the interior bare, low, flat, undulating and in places peaty. On the coast, 6 m. S. of Peterhead, are the Bulle1s of Buchan—a. basin in which the sea, entering by a natural arch, boils up violently in stormy weather. Buchan Ness is the most easterly point of Scotland. The fourth

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district, Garioch, in the centre of the shire, is a beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley. formerly called the granary of Aberdeen. Strathbogie, the fifth district, occupying a considerable area south of the Deveron, mostly consists of hills, moors and mosses. The mountains are the most striking of the physical features of the county. Ben Macdhui (4296 ft.), a magnificent mass, the second highest mountain in Great Britain, Braeriach (4248), Cairntoul (4241), Ben-na-bhuaird (3924), Ben Avon (3843), “dark ” Lochnagar (3786), the subject of a well-known song by Byron, Cairn Eas (3 5 56), Sgarsoch (3402), Culardoch (29 5 3), are the principal heights in the division of Mar. Farther

north rise the Buck of Cabrach (2368) on the Bantfshire border,

Tap o' Noth (r830), Bennachie (1698), a beautiful peak which from its central position is a landmark visible from many different parts of the county, and which is celebrated in John Imlah’s song, “ O gin I were where Gadie rins,” and Foudland (r 529). The chief rivers are the Dee, 90 m. long; the Don, 82 m. ; the Ythan, 37 m., with mussel-beds at its mouth; the Ugie, 20 m., ,and the Deveron, 62 m., partly on the boundary of Banfi'shire. ' The rivers abound with salmon and trout, and the pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable pearl in the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan. Loch Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, 1310 ft. above the sea, 2% m. long and 4}; to 1% m. broad,_lies some 8% m. SW. of Ballater, and has Altnagiuthasach, a royal shooting-box, near its south-western end. Loch Strathbeg, 6 m. S.E. of Fraserburgh, is only separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land. There are noted chalybeate springs at Peterhead, F raserburgh, and Pannanich near Ballater. Geology—The greater part of the county is composed of crystalline schists belonging to the metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Highlands. In the upper parts of the valleys of the Dee and the Don they form well-marked groups, of which the most characteristic are (I) the black schists and phyllites, with calcfiintas, and a thin band of tremolite limestone, (2) the main or Blair Atholl limestone, (3) the quartzite. These divisions are folded on highly inclined or vertical axes trending north-east and south-west, and hence the same zones are repeated over a considerable area. The quartzite is generally regarded as the highest member of the series. Excellent sections showing the component strata occur in Glen Clunie and its tributary valleys above Braemar. Eastwards down the Dee and the Don and northwards across the plain of Buchan towards Rattray Head and Fraserburgh there is a development of biotite gneiss, partly of sedimentary and perhaps partly of igneous origin. A belt of slate which has been quarried for roofing purposes runs along the West border of the county from Turrifi by Auchterless and the Foudland Hills towards the Tap o’ Noth near Gartly. The metamorphic rocks have been invaded by igneous materials, some before, and by far the larger series after the folding of the strata. The basic types of the former are represented by the sills of epidiorite and hornblende gneiss in Glen Muick and Glen Callater, which have been permeated by granite and pegmatite in veins and lenticles, often foliated. The later granites subsequent to the plication of the schists have a wide distribution on the Ben Macdhui and Ben Avon range, and on Lochnagar; they stretch eastwards from Ballater by Tarland to Aberdeen and north to Bennachie. Isolated masses appear at Peterhead and at Strichen. Though consisting mainly of biotite granite, these later intrusions pass by intermediate stages into diorite, as in the area between Balmoral and the head-waters of the Cairo. The granites have been extensively quarried at Rubislaw, Peterhead and Kemnay. Serpentine and troctolite, the precise age of which is uncertain, occur at the Black Dog rock north of Aberdeen, at Belhelvie and near Old Meldrum. Where the sehists of sedimentary origin have been pierced by these igneous intrusions, they are charged with contact minerals such as sillimanite, cordierite, kyanite and andalusite. Cordierite-bearing rocks occur near Ellon, at the foot of Bennachie, and on the top of the Buck of Cabrach. A banded and mottled calc-silicate hornfels occurring with the limestone at Derry Falls, W. N.W. of Braemar, has yielded malacolite, wollastonite, brown idocrase, garnet, sphene and hornblende. A larger list of minerals has

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been obtained from an exposure of limestone and associated beds in Glen Gairn, about four miles above the point where that river joins the Dee. Narrow belts of Old Red Sandstone, resting unconformably on the old platform of slates and schists, have been traced from the north coast at Peterhead by Turriff to F yvie, and also from Huntly by Gartly to Kildrummy Castle. The strata consist mainly of conglomerates and sandstones, which, at Gartly and at Rhynie, are associated with lenticular bands of andesite indicating contemporaneous volcanic action. Small outliers of conglomerate and sandstone of this age have recently been found in the course of excavations in Aberdeen. The glacial deposits, especially in the belt bordering the coast between Aberdeen and Peterhead, furnish important evidence. The ice moved eastwards off the high ground at the head of the Dee and the Don, while the mass spreading outwards from the Moray Firth invaded the low plateau of Buchan; but at a certain stage there was a marked defection northwards parallel with the coast, as proved by the deposit of red clay north of Aberdeen. At a later date the local glaciers laid down materials on top of the red clay. The committee appointed by the British Association (Report for 1897, p. 3 3 3) proved that the Greensand, which has yielded a large suite of Cretaceous fossils at Moreseat. in the parish of Cruden, occurs in glacial drift, resting probably on granite. The strata from which the Moreseat fossils were derived are not now found in place in that part of Scotland, but Mr Jukes Brown considers that the horizon of the fossils is that of the lower Greensand, of the Isle of Wight or the Aptien stage of France. Chalk fiints are widely distributed in the drift between Fyvie and the east coast of Buchan. At Plaidy a patch of clay with Liassic fossils occurs. At several localities between Logie Coldstone and Dinnet a deposit of diatomite (Kieselguhr) occurs beneath the peat. ,

Flora and Fauna—The tops of the highest mountains have an arctic flora. At the royal lodge on Loch Muick, 1350 ft. above the sea, grow latches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, 81c. Some ash-trees, four or five feet in girth, are growing at 1300 ft. above the sea. Trees, especially Scotch fir and larch, grow well, and Braemar is rich in natural timber, said to surpass any in the north of Europe. Stumps of Scotch fir and oak found in peat are sometimes far larger than any lnow growing. The mole is found at 1800 ft. above the sea, and-the squirrel at 1400.' Grouse, partridges and hares are plentiful, and rabbits are often too numerous. Red deer abound in Braemar, the deer forest being the most extensive in Scotland.

Climate and A griculture.—The climate, except in the mountainous districts, is comparatively mild, owing to the proximity of much of the shire to the sea. The mean annual temperature at Braemar is 43-6° F., and at Aberdeen 45-8". The mean yearly rainfall varies from about 30 to 37 in. The summer climate of the upper Dee and Don valleys is the driest and most bracing in the British Isles, and grain is cultivated up to 1600 ft. above the sea, or 400 to 500 it. higher than elsewhere in North Britain. Poor, gravelly, clayey and peaty soils prevail, but tile-draining, bones and guano, and the best methods of modern tillage, have greatly increased the produce. Indeed, in no part of Scotland has a more productive soil been made out of such unpromising material. F arm-houses and steadings have much improved, and the best agricultural implements and machines are in general use. About two-thirds of the population depend entirely on agriculture. Farms are small compared with those in the south-eastern counties. Oats are the predominant crop, wheat has practically gone out of cultivation, but barley has largely increased. The most distinctive industry is cattle-feeding. A great number of the home-bred crosses are fattened for the London and local markets, and Irish animals are imported on an extensive scale for the same purpose, while an exceedingly heavy business in dead meat for London and the south is done all over the county. Sheep, horses and pigs are also raised in large numbers.

Fisheries.—~A large fishing population in villages along the coast engage in the white and herring fishery, which is the next most important industry to agriculture, its development having been due almost exclusively to the introduction of steam trawlers. The total value of the annual catch, of which between a half and a third consists of herrings, amounts to £1,000,000. Haddocks are salted and rock-dried (speldings) or smoked (finnans). The ports and creeks are divided into the fishery districts of Peterhead, Fraserburgh and Aberdeen, the last of which includes also three Kincardineshire ports. The herring season for Aberdeen, Peterhead and F raserburgh is from June to September, at which time the ports are crowded with boats from other Scottish districts. There are valuable salmonfishings—rod, net and stake-net—on the Dee, Don, Ythan and Ugie. The average annual despatch of salmon from Aberdeenshire is about 400 tons.

Other Industries.—Manufactures are mainly prosecuted in or near the city of Aberdeen, but throughout the rural districts there is much milling of corn, brick and tile making, smith-work, brewing and distilling, cart and farm-implement making, casting and drying of peat, and timber-felling, especially on Deeside and Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, laths and barrelstaves. There are a number of paper-making establishments, most of them on the Don near Aberdeen.

The chief source of mineral wealth is the noted durable granite, which is quarried at Aberdeen, Kemnay, Peterhead and elsewhere. An acre of land on being reclaimed has yielded £40 to £50 worth of causewaying stones. Sandstone and other rocks are also quarried at different parts. The imports are mostly coal, lime, timber, iron, slate, raw materials for the textile manufactures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuffs, bones, guano, sugar, alcoholic liquors, fruits. The exports are granite (roughdressed and polished), flax, woollen and cotton goods, paper, combs, preserved provisions, oats, barley, live and dead cattle.

Communications.—From the south Aberdeen city is approached by the Caledonian (via Perth, F orfar and Stonehaven), and the North British (via Dundee, Montrose and Stonehaven) railways, and the shire is also served by the Great North of Scotland railway, whose main line runs via Kintore and Huntly to Keith and Elgin. , There are branch lines from various points opening up the more populous districts, as from Aberdeen to Ballater by Deeside, from Aberdeen to F raserburgh (with a branch at Maud for Peterhead and at 1511011 for Cruden Bay and Boddam), from Kintore to Alford, and from Inverurie to Old Meldrum and also to Macduff. By sea there is regular communication with London, Leith, Inverness, Wick, the Orkneys and~ Shetlands, Iceland and the continent. The highest of the macadamized roads crossing the eastern Grampians rises to a point 2200 ft. above sea-level.

Population and Government—In 1891 the population numbered 284,036 and in .1901 it was 304,439 (of whom 159,603 were females),or 154 persons to the sq. m. In 1901 there were 8 persons who spoke Gaelic only, and 1333 who spoke Gaelic and English. The chief towns are Aberdeen (pop. in 1901, 153,503), Bucksburn (2231), Fraserburgh (9105), Huntly (4136), Inverurie (3624), Peterhead (11,794), Turriff (2273). The Supreme Court of Justiciary sits in Aberdeen to try cases from the counties of Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine. The three counties are under a sheriff, and there are two sherifis-substitute resident in Aberdeen, who sit also at Fraserburgh, Huntly, Peterhead and Turrifi. The sheriff courts are held in Aberdeen and Peterhead. The county sends two members to parliament —one for East Aberdeenshire and the other for West Aberdeenshire. The county town, Aberdeen (q. .), returns two members. Peterhead, Inverurie and Kintore belong to the Elgin group

of parliamentary burghs, the other constituents being Banfl, '

Cullen and Elgin. The county is under school-board jurisdiction, and there are also several voluntary schools. There are higher-class schools in Aberdeen, and secondary schools at Huntly, Peterhead and Frascrburgh, and many of the other schools in the county earn grants for secondary education. The County Secondary Education Committee dispense a large sum, partly granted by the education department and partly contributed by local'authorities from the “residue” grant, and support, besides the schools mentioned, local classes and lectures


in agriculture, fishery and other technical subjects, in addition to subsidizing the agricultural department of the university of Aberdeen. The higher branches of education have always been thoroughly taught in the schools throughout the shire, and pupils have long been in the habit of going directly from the schools to the university.

The native Scots are long-headed, shrewd, careful, canny, active, persistent, but reserved and blunt, and without demonstrative enthusiasm. They have a physiognomy distinct from the rest of the Scottish people, and have a quick, sharp, rather angry accent. The local Scots dialect is broad, and rich in diminutives, and is noted for the use of e for 0 or u, f for wh, d for Ih, 81c. So recently as 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language of almost every family in Braemar, but now it is little used.

H istory.—~The country now forming the shires of Aberdeen

and Banff was originally peopled by northern Picts, whom

Ptolemy called Taixali, the territory being named Taixalon. Their town of Devana, once supposed to be the modern Aberdeen, has been identified by Prof. John Stuart with a site in the parish of Peterculter, where there are remains of an ancient camp at Normandykes, and by Dr W. F. Skene with a station on Loch Davan, west of Aboyne. So-called Roman camps have also been discovered on the upper Ythan and Deveron, but evidence of effective Roman occupation is still to seek. Traces of the native inhabitants, however, are much less equivocal. Weems or earth-houses are fairly common in the west. Relics of crannogs or lake-dwellings exist at Loch Ceander, or Kinnord, 5 m. north-east of Ballater, at Loch Goul in the parish of New Machar and elsewhere. Duns or forts occur on hills at Dunecht, where the dun encloses an area of two acres, Barra near Old Meldrum, Tap 0’ Noth, Dunnideer near Insch and other places. Monoliths, standing stones and “Druidical” circles of the pagan period abound, and there are many examples of the sculptured stones of the early Christian epoch. Efiorts to convert the Picts were begun by Ternan in the 5th century, and continued by Columba (who founded a monastery at Old Deer), Drostan, Maluog and Machar, but it was long before they showed lasting results. Indeed, dissensions within the Columban church and the expulsion of the clergy from Pictland by the Pictish king Nectan in the 8th century undid most of the progress that had been made. The Vikings and Danes periodically raided the coast, but when (1040) Macbethascended the throne of Scotland the Northmen, under the guidance of Thorfinn, refrained from further trouble in the north-east. Macbeth was afterwards slain at Lumphanan (1057), a cairn on Perkhill marking the spot. The influence of the Norman conquest of England was felt even in Aberdeenshire. Along with numerous Anglo-Saxon exiles, there also settled in the country Flemings who introduced various industries, Saxons who brought farming, and Scandinavians who taught nautical skill. The Celts revolted more than once, but Malcolm Canmore and his successors crushed them and confiscated their lands. In the reign of Alexander I. (d. 1124) mention is first made of Aberdeen (originally called Aberdon and, in the Norse sagas, Apardion), which received its charter from William the Lion in 1179, by which date its burgesses had already combined with those of Banfl, Elgin, Inverness and other trans-Grampian communities to form a free Hanse, under which they enjoyed exceptional trading privileges. By this time, too, the Church had been organized, the bishopric of Aberdeen having been established in 1150. In the 12th and 13th centuries some of the great Aberdeenshire families arose, including the earl of Mar (c. 1122), the Leslies, Freskins (ancestors of the dukes of Sutherland), Durwards, Bysets, Comyns and Cheyncs, and it is significant that in most cases their founders were immigrants. The Celtic thanes and their retainers slowly fused with the settlers. They declined to take advantage of the disturbed condition of the country during the wars of the Scots independence, and made common cause with the bulk of the nation. Though John Comyn (d. 1300?), one of the competitors for the throne, had considerable interests in the shire, his claim received locally little support. In 1296 Edward I. made a triumphal march to the north to terrorize the more turbulent'nobles. Next year William Wallace surprised the English garrison in Aberdeen, but failed to capture the castle. In 1303 Edward again visited the county, halting at the castle of Kildrummy, then in the possession of Robert Bruce, who shortly afterwards became the acknowledged leader of the Scots and made Aberdeen his headquarters for several months. Despite the seizure of Kildrummy Castle by the English in 1306, Bruce’s prospects brightened from 1308, when be defeated John Comyn, earl of Buchan (d. 1313?), at Inverurie. For a hundred years after Robert Bruce’s death (1329) there was intermittent anarchy in the shire. Aberdeen itself was burned by the English in 1336, and the re-settlement of the districts of Buchan and Strathbogie occasioned constant quarrels on the part of the dispossessed. Moreover, the crown had embroiled itself with some of the Highland chieftains, whose independence it sought to abolish. This policy culminated in the invasion of Aberdeenshire by Donald, lord of the Isles, who was, however, defeated at Harlaw, near Inverurie, by the earl of Mar in 1411. In the 15th century two other leading county families appeared, Sir Alexander Forbes being created Lord Forbes about 1442, and Sir Alexander Seton Lord Gordon in 1437 and earl of Huntly in 1445. Bitter feuds raged between these families for a long period, but the Gordons reached the height of their power in the first half of the 16th century, when their domains, already vast, were enhanced by the acquisition, through marriage, of the earldom of Sutherland (1514). Meanwhile commerce with the Low Countries, Poland and the Baltic had grown apace, Camp~ vere, near Flushing in Holland, becoming the emporium of the Scottish traders, while education was fostered by the foundation of King’s College at Aberdeen in 1497 (M arischal College followed a century later). At the Reformation so little intuition had the clergy of the drift of opinion that at the very time that religious structures were being despoiled in the south, the building and decoration of churches went on in the shire. The change was acquiesced in without much tumult, though rioting took place in Aberdeen and St Machar’s cathedral in the city suffered damage. The 4th earl of Huntly offered some resistance, on behalf of the Catholics, to the influence of Lord James Stuart, afterwards the Regent Murray, but was defeated and killed at Corrichie on the hill of Fare in 1562. As years passed it was apparent that Presbyterianism was less generally acceptable than Episcopacy, of which system Aberdeenshire remained for generations the stronghold in Scotland. Another crisis in ecclesiastical afiairs arose in 1638, when the National Covenant was ordered to be subscribed, a demand so grudgingly responded to that the marquis of Montrose visited the shire in the following year to enforce acceptance. The Cavaliers, not being disposed to yield, dispersed an armed gathering of Covenanters in the affair called the Trot of Turriff (1639), in which the first blood of the civil war was shed. The Covenanters obtained the upper hand in a few weeks, when Montrose appeared at the bridge of Dee and compelled the surrender of Aberdeen, which had no choice but to cast in its lot with the victors. Montrose, however, soon changed sides, and after defeating the Covenanters under Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1644), delivered the city to rapine. He worsted the Covenanters again after a stiff fight on the 2nd of July 1645, at Alford, a village in the beautiful Howe of Alford. Peace was temporarily restored on the “ engagement ” of the Scots commissioners to assist Charles I. On his return from Holland in 16 50 Charles II. was welcomed in Aberdeen, but in little more than a year General Monk entered the city at the head of the Cromwellian regiments. The English garrison remained till 1659, and next year the Restoration was efiusively hailed, and prelacy was once more in the ascendant. Most of the Presbyterians conformed, but the Quakers, more numerous in the shire and the adjoining county of Kincardine than anywhere else in Scotland, were systematically persecuted. After the Revolution (1688) episcopacy passed under a cloud, but the clergy, yielding to force majeure, gradually accepted the inevitable, hoping, as long as Queen Anne lived, that prelacy might yet be recognized as the national form of Church government. Her death dissipated these dreams, and as George 1., her successor,


was antipathetic to the clergy, it happened that Jacobitism and episcopalianism came to be regarded in the shire as identical, though in point of fact the non-jurors as a body never countenanced rebellion. The earl of Mar raised the standard of revolt in Braemar (6th of September 1715); a fortnight later James was proclaimed at Aberdeen cross; the Pretender landed at Peterhead on the 22nd of December, and in February 1716 he was back again in France. The collapse of the first rising ruined many of the lairds, and when the second rebellion occurred thirty years afterwards the county in the main was apathetic, though the insurgents held Aberdeen for five months, and Lord Lewis Gordon won a trifling victory for Prince Charles Edward at Inverurie (231d of December 1745). The duke of Cumberland relieved Aberdeen at the end of February 1746, and in April the Young Pretender was a fugitive. Thereafter the people devoted themselves to agriculture, industry and commerce, which developed by leaps and bounds, and, along with equally remarkable progress in education, transformed the aspect of the shire and made the community as a whole one of the most prosperous in Scotland. ~

See W. Watt, History of Aberdeen and Ban (Edinburgh, 1900); Collections for a Hirtwy of the Shires of Aber em and Benji” (edited b Dr Joseph Robertson, Spaldin ClutB; Sir A. Leith-Hay, Castles (ZZAberdeenshue (Aberdeen. 1887); J. awdson, Inverune and the

rldom of the Garioch (Edinburgh, 1878); Pratt, Buchan (rev. by R. Anderson), (Aberdeen, 1900); A. I. M'Connochie, Deeside_(Aberdeen, 1895).

ABERDOUR, a village of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pleasantly situated on the shore of the Firth of Forth, 17; m. N.W. of Edinburgh by the North British railway and 7 m. N .W. of Leith by steamer, it is much resorted to for its excellent sea-bathing. There are ruins of a castle and an old decayed church, which contains some fine Norman work. About 3 111. SW. is Donibristle House, the seat of the earl of Murray (Moray), and the scene of the murder (Feb. 7, 1592) of James, 2nd (Stuart) earl of Murray. The island of Inchcolm, or Island of Columba, % m. from the shore, is in the parish of Aberdour. As its name implies, its associations date back to the time of Columba. The primitive stone-roofed oratory is supposed to have been a hermit’s cell. The Augustinian monastery was founded in 1123 by Alexander I. The buildings are well preserved, consisting of a low square tower, church, Cloisters, refectory and small chapterhouse. The island of Columba was occasionally plundered by English and other rovers, but in the 16th century it became the property of Sir James Stuart, whose grandson became 2nd earl of Murray by virtue of his marriage to the elder daughter of the 1st earl. From it comes the earl’s title of Lord St Colme (161 1).

ABERDOVEY (Aberdyfi: the Dyfi is the county frontier), a seaside village of Merionethshire, North Wales, on the Cambrian railway. Pop. (1901) 1466. It lies in the midst of beautiful scenery, 4 m. from Towyn, on the N. bank of the Dyfi estuary, commanding views of Snowdon, Cader Idris, Arran Mawddy and Plynlimmon. The Dyfi, here a mile broad, is crossed by a ferry to Borth sands, whence a road leads to Aberystwyth. The submerged “ bells of Aberdovey " (since Seithcnnin “ the drunkard ” caused the formation of Cardigan Bay) are famous in a Welsh song. Aberdovey is a health and bathing resort.

ABERFOYLE, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, 34} m. N. by W. of Glasgow by the North British railway. Pop. of parish (1901) 1052. The village is situated at the base of Craigmore (1271 ft. high) and on the Laggan, a head-water 0f the Forth. Since 1885, when the duke of Montrose constructed a road over the eastern shoulder of Craigmore to join the older road at the entrance of the Trossachs pass, Aberfoyle has become the alternative route to the Trossachs and Loch Katrine. Loch Ard, about 2 m. W. of Aberfoyle, lies 105 ft. above the sea. It is 3 m. long (including the narrows at the east end) and 1 m. broad. Towards the west end is Eilean Gorm (the green isle), and near the north-western shore are the falls of Ledard. Two 1n. N.W. is Loch Chon, 290 ft. above the sea, 1% m. long, and about h m. broad. It drains by the Avon Dhu to Loch Ard, which is drained in turn by the Laggan. The slate quarries on Craigmore are the only industry in Aberfoyle. ' ABERGAVENNY, a market town and municipal borough' in the northern parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, 14 m. W. of Monmouth on the Great Western and the London and North-Western railways. Pop. (1901) 7795. It is situated at the junction of a small stream called the Gavenny with the river Usk; and the site, almost surrounded by lofty hills, is very beautiful. The town was formerly walled, and has the remains of a castle built soon after the conquest, frequently the scene of border strife. The church of St Mary belonged originally to a. Benedictine monastery founded early in the 12th century. The existing building, however, is Decorated and Perpendicular, and contains a fine series of memorials of dates from the 13th to the 17th century. There is a free grammar school, which till 18 57 had a fellowship at Jesus College, Oxford. Breweries, ironworks, quarria, brick fields and collieries in the neighbourhood are among the principal industrial establishments. Abergavenny was incorporated in 1899, and is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 825 acres.

This was the Roman Gobanm'um, a small fort guarding the road along the valley of the Uslt and ensuring (Luiet among the hill tribes. There is practically no trace of this fort. A ergavenny(Bergavenny) grew up under the protection of the lords of Abergavenny, whose title dated from William I. Owing to its situation, the town was frequently embroiled in the border warfare of the 12th and 13th centuries, and Giraldus Cambrensis relates how in 1175 the castle was seized by the Welsh. Hamelyn de Baalun, first lord of Abergavenny, founded the Benedictine priory, which was subsequently endowed by William de Braose With a tenth of the profits of the castle and town. At the dissolution of the priory part of this endowment went towards the foundation of a free grammar school, the site itself passing to the Gunter family. During the Civil \Var prior to the siege of Raglan Castle in 1645, Charles I. visited Abergavenny, and presided in person over the trial of Sir Trevor Williams and other parliamentarians. In r639 Abe venny received a charter of incorporation under the title of baili and burgesses. A charter with extended privileges was drafted in 16 7, but appears never to have been enrolled or to have come into e ect. Owing to the refusal of the chief officers of the corporation to take the oath of allegiance to William III. in 1688, the charter was annulled, and the town subsequently declined in rosperit . The act of 27 Henry VIII., which provided that h onmout , as county town, should return one burgess to parliament, further stated that other ancient Monmouthshire boroughs were to contribute towards the payment of the member. In consequence of this clause Abergavenny on various ocmsions shared in the election, the last instance being in 1685. Reference to a market at Aber avenny is found in a charter ranted to the prior by William de raose (d. 1211). The right to old two weekly markets and three yearly fairs, as hitherto held, was confirmed in I657. Abe avenny was celebrated for the production of Welsh flannel, and a so for the manufacture, whilst the fashion prevailed, of periwigs of goats' hair.

The title of Baron Abergavenny, in the Neville family, dates from Edward Neville ((1. I476), who was the youngest son of the lst earl of Westmoreland by Joan Beaufort. dau hter of John of Gaunt. He married the heiress of Richard, earl 0 Worcester, whose father had inherited the castle and estate of Abergavenny, and was summoned in 1392 to parliament as Lord Bergavenny. Edward Neville was summoned to parliament with this title in I450. His direct male descendants ended in 1587 in Henry Neville, but a cousin, Edward Neville (d. 1622), was confirmed in the barony in 1604. From him it has descended continuously. the title being increased to an earldom in 1784; and in 1876 William Nevill (sic), 5th earl (b. 1826), an indefati ble and powerful supporter of the Conservative party, was creat Ist marquess of Abergavenny. (See NEVILLE.)

ABERIGH-MACKAY, GEORGE ROBERT (1848—1881), AngloIndian writer, son of a Bengal chaplain, was born on the 25th of July 1848, and was educated at Magdalen College School and Cambridge University. Entering the Indian education department in 1870, he became professor of English literature in Delhi College in 1873, tutor to the raja of Rutlam 1876, and principal of the Rajkumar College at Indore in r877. He is best known for his book Twenty-one Day: in India (1878—1879), a satire upon Anglo-Indian society and modes of thought. This book gave - promise of a successful literary career; but the author died at the age of thirty-three.

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1680—1740), Irish Presbyterian divine, was born at Coleraine, county Londonderry, where his father was Nonconformfst minister, on the 19th of October 1680. In his thirteenth year he entered the university of Glasgow, and on concluding his course there went on to Edinburgh, where his


intellectual and social attainments gained him a ready entrance into the most cultured circles. Returning home he received licence to preach from his Presbytery before he was twenty-one. In 1701 he was urgently invited to accept charge of an important congregation .in Antrim; and after an interval of two years, mostly spent in further study in Dublin, he was ordained there on the 8th of August 1703. Here he did notable work, both as a debater in the synods and assemblies of his church and as an evangelist. In 1712 he lost his wife (Susannah Jordan), and the loss desolated his life for many years. In 1717 he was invited to the congregation of Usher’s Quay, Dublin, and contemporaneously to what was called the Old Congregation of Belfast. The synod assigned him to Dublin. After careful consideration he declined to accede, and remained at Antrim. This refusal was regarded then as ecclesiastical high-treason; and a controversy of the most intense and disproportionate character followed, Abernethy standing firm for religious freedom and repudiating the sacerdotal assumptions of all ecclesiastical courts. The contro

vversy and quarrel bears the name of the two camps in the con

flict, the “ Subscribers ” and the “ Non-subscribers.” Out-andout evangelical as John Abernethy was, there can be no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds of that after-struggle

, (1821—1840) in which, under the leadership of Dr Henry Cooke,

the Arian and Socinian elements of the Irish Presbyterian Church ' were thrown out. Much of what he contended for, and which the “ Subscribers " opposed bitterly, has been silently granted in the lapse of time. In 1 726 the “ N on-subscribers,” spite of an almost wofully pathetic pleading against separation by Abernethy, were cut 05, with due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian Church. ' In 1730, although a “Non-subscriber,” he was invited to Wood Street, Dublin, whither he removed. In 1731 came on

-the greatest controversy in which Abernethy engaged, viz. in

relation to the'Test Act nominally, but practically on the entire question of tests and disabilities. His stand was “ against all laws that, upon account of mere difierences of religious opinions and forms of worship, excluded men of integrity and ability from serving their country.” He was nearly a century in advance of his age. He had to reason with those who denied that a Roman Catholic or Dissenter could be a “ man of integrity and ability." His Tracts—afterwards collected—did fresh service, generations later, and his name is honoured by all who love freedom of conscience and opinion. He died in December 1740. See Dr Duehal's Life, prefixed to Sermons (r762); Diary in MS., 6 vols. 4to; Reid's Presbyterian Church in Ireland, iii. 234. ABERNETHY, JOHN (1764—1831), English surgeon, grandson of John Abernethy (see above), was born in London on the 3rd of April 1764. His father was a London merchant. Educated at Wolverhampton grammar school, he was apprenticed in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke (r745—18r5), surgeon to St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. He attended the anatomical lectures of Sir William Blizard (1743—1835) at the London Hospital, and was early employed to assist as “demonstrator ”; he also attended Percival Pott’s surgical lectures at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, as well as the lectures of John Hunter. On Pott’s resignation of the office of surgeon of St Bartholomew’s, Sir Charles Blicke, who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded him, and Abernethy was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787. In this capacity he began to give lectures at his house in Bartholomew Close, which were so well attended that the governors of the hospital built a regular theatre (1790—1791), and Abernethy thus became the founder of the distinguished school of St Bartholomew’s. He held the office of assistant-surgeon of the hospital for the long period of twenty-eight years, till, in 1815, he was elected principal surgeon. He had before that time been appointed lecturer in anatomy to the Royal College of Surgeons (r814). Abernethy was not a great operator, though his name is associated with the treatment of aneurism by ligature of the external iliae artery. His Surgical Observations on the Constitutional Origin and Treatment of Local Disease: (r8og)—known as “ My Book," from the great frequency with which he referred his patients to it, and to page 72 of it in particular, under that name—was one of the earliest popular works on medical science.

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