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gametogenesis of a pigmented individual; that is, in Mendelian fashion. Or, to express it otherwise, an albino extracted from yellow parents, bred with an albino extracted from black parents, will give an albino offspring whose gametes in equal numbers are bearers of the black and yellow determinants. And when one of these albinoes is bred with a pure coloured individual, a mixed ofl'spring will appear in the first generation. Some of the individuals will be one or other of the two colours, the determinants of which were home by the albino, and others the colour of the pigmented parent. But in such albino crosses the colour characters are latent because albinoes do not carry the whole of the complements for colour production. They carry only some determinant or determinants which are capable of developing colOur when they interact with some other determinant or determinants carried alone by pigmented individuals. Whether albinoes carry the tyrosinase or other ferment, or whether they carry the chromogen or chromogens, is not yet settled. Miss Durham’s work suggests that they carry the latter. But that they never bear both is proved by the, fact that, when albinoes are crossed with each other, none but albinoes ever result in the offspring. One apparent exception to this rule only is known, and this almost certainly was due to error.
It is not only among albino animals that colour factors are carried in a latent condition, but also in white flowers. W. Bateson has shown this to be the case for the sweet-pea (Lalhyrus odoratus), var. Emily Henderson, and for certain white and cream stocks (M allhinla). When white Emily Henderson (the race having round pollen grains) is crossed with a bluesflowered pea, purple offspring result. Similarly, when white Emily Henderson (long pollen grains) is crossed with white Emily Henderson (round pollen grains), the offspring wholly consists of the reversionary purple type, and sometimes wholly of a red bicolor form known as “ Painted Lady.” These two types never appear in the same family. With the stocks, when a whiteflowered and hairless form is crossed with a cream-flowered and hairless one, all the offspring are purple and hairy. Bateson considers that the purple colour is due to the simultaneous existence in the plant of two colour factors which may be designated by C and R. If either one of these two is absent the plant is colourless. Cream-coloured flowers are regarded as white because cream is due to yellow plastids and not to sap colour. Thus the cream plant may carry C and the white one R. When they are crossed the two factors for colour production are brought together. Obviously, we may regard C as a tyrosinase and R as a chromogen, or vice versa; and in the case of the white sweet~ pea crossed with a blue-flowered one, and producing purple oflspring, we may imagine that the white flower brought in an additional tyrosinase or a chromogen not present in the blue flower, which, when combined or mixed with the chromogen or tyrosinase for blue, gave purple. A similar explanation may apply to C. Correns’s experiment, in which he crossed white M irabilis jalapa with a yellow form, and always obtained redflowered offspring.
In heredity, complete albinism among animals is always recessive; and partial albinism (piebald) is always recessive to complete pigmentation (self-coloured). When an albino mouse, rat, guinea-pig or rabbit is crossed with either a pure self or pure pied-coloured form, the offspring are similar to, though not always exactly like, the coloured parent; provided, of course, that the albino is pure and is not carrying some colour or pattern determinant which is dominant to that of the coloured parent used. No albinoes, in such a case, will appear among the first generation, but if the individuals of this (F.1) generation are crossed inter se or back crossed with the albino parent, then albino individuals reappear among the oflspring. In the former case they would form one~quarter of the individuals of this second (F4) generation. and in the latter, one-half.
The recessive nature of albinism and its distribution in Mendelian fashion is almost certainly as true for man as for lower forms. This has been shown by W. C. Farabee for negroes ln Coanoma county, Mississippi. The facts are as follows. An albino negro married a normal negress. They had three children,
all males. All three sons married, and two of them had only normal children, judged of course by somatic characters. But the third son married twice, and by the first wife had five normal and one albino children, and by the second, six normal and three albino children. If we assume that the two negresses which the third son married were themselves carrying albinism recessive —an exceedingly probable condition considering that albino negroes are not uncommon—the result is accurately in accordance, as W. E. Castle has shown, with Mendelian expectation. For there is expected in the ofl'spring of this third son coloured individuals and albinoes in the proportion of 3:1. There is actually r1:4, which is the nearest possible approximation with the number I 5. '
The operation of Mendelian processes in human heredity is further shown by the close relationship that exists between the appearance of albinoes and cousin marriages. An albino is a homozygote; that is, all its gametes are carrying the character of albinism and none of them bear the alternative character ——the allelomorph—of pigmentation. By pigmentation is here meant all those factors which go to its production. Now such a gametic (egg or sperm) constitution can only result when two individuals, all or some of whose gametes are pure with regard to the character albinism, meet in fertilization. Hence it is readily seen that it is among cousin marriages that the greater probabilities exist that two individuals bearing identical characters will meet, than in the population at large. This can be illustrated in the following scheme. Let A stand for a pure albino and (A)N for a normal person, who nevertheless carries the character albinism (A) recessive. Then, in the scheme below, if A” and (A)Nb are two brothers who both marry normal wives N, their children N(A) in the first case will be all normal in appearance but will be carrying albinism recessive; and in the second case some will be pure normal individuals N, and some will be like the children of the first brother, i.e. N(A). Now, if one of these latter children of the second brother marries a cousin—a child of the first brother,——-their offspring, if large enough, will consist of some pure normals N, impure normals
, N(A), and of albinoes A.
No other rational explanation of the close relationship between albinism and cousin marriages is at present forthcoming. And, when the whole facts are borne in mind, there can be no reason~ able doubt that the Mendelian principles offer an intelligible solution of the problem.
A popular conception exists that albinoes are less constitu~ tionally strong than the pigmented individuals of the same species. In support of this belief there is more or less scientifically ascertained evidence. Conversely, there is, however, conclusive evidence that in some instances and in respect of certain qualities the opposite belief is true.
To deal with the former belief first, we have the remarkable case cited by Charles Darwin on the authority of Professor I. J. Wyman. In Virginia the paint-root plant (Ladmanlhes tincton'a) occurs abundantly, and Professor Wyman noticed that all the pigs in this district were black. Upon inquiry of the farmers he found that all the white pigs born in a litter were destroyed, because they could not be reared to maturity. The root of this plant, when eaten by white pigs, caused their bones to turn to a pink colour and their hoofs to fall off, but the black pigs could eat the same plant with impunity. Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characteriZed by it were injurioust affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren. Heusinger has shown that white sheep and pigs are injured by the ingestion of certain plants, while the pigmented individuals may eat them without harm. In Devonshire and in parts of Kent the farmers entertain a marked prejudice against white pigs, because “the sun blisters their skin.” More remarkable is the case of certain cattle, whose skin is piebald, marked by a general ground colour over which are scattered patches of unpigmented coat. In these animals, in certain inflammatory skin eruptions, caused by the ingestion of harmful plants, the albinotic areas are alone affected. And with certain cutaneous diseases accompanied by constitutional disturbances which afiiict cattle, the afiection in the skin appears on the patches bearing white hairs, the other parts remaining apparently healthy. Such cases suggest that we should be more correct in regarding, not albinism as correlated with constitutional defects, but rather pigmentation as correlated with powers of immunity or increased resistance against certain injurious processes. In the West Indies “the only horned cattle fit for work are those which have a good deal of black in them; the white are terribly tormented by the insects and they are weak and sluggish in proportion to the black.”
Coming to man, it is known that some albino negroes are peculiarly sensitive to the bites of insects; and with Europeans it is a generally observed fact that the fairer individuals are more seriously afiected by the bites of fleas and bugs than are darker ones. Dr Twining, in the British Association Reports for 1845, p. 79, cites some instances described by Humboldt, who says that the copper-coloured natives of the high plain of Bogoto, and at a lower level on the Magdalena river, were generally free from goitre. Professor Poflig, also cited by Dr Twining, states that on the east side of the Andes in Chile, in some of the races which live there, he did not see a single case of goitre, and yet in the white inhabitants, who live exactly as the natives, it prevails in a great degree.
Turning now to instances of the opposite kind, it is known that silkworms which spin colourless cocoons are more resistant to the attacks of a certain deadly fungus than are those which spin the yellow ones. In some parts ofNorth America it is found that the white peaches are much less liable to the attack of a disease known as the “yellows” than are the yellow-fleshed ones. In the region of the Mississippi, Farabee has observed that the albino negroes are taller and broader than the blackskinned individuals. We may assume that increased stature and breadth imply some sort of inherent physical superiority, and if such an assumption is valid we have in man evidence that albinism is correlated not with constitutional defectiveness but with greater perfectness.
But the question as to whether albinoes are more or less constitutionally vigorous than pigmented individuals of the same species may be tested by exact measurement. In r893 W. D. Halliburton and T. G. Brodie, in ascertaining the physiological properties of nucleo-proteids, found that when they were intravascularly injected into pigmented rabbits, coagulation of the blood resulted, but of the eight albinoes which they used, none clotted. At a subsequent period (1897) Halliburton and J. W. Pickering showed that the three synthesized colloids of Grimaux in the same way produced coagulation in pigmented animals, but failed to do so in albinoes. Pickering, still later, showed, in the case of four Norway hares, two of which were injected while in their pigmented or summer coat, and two while in their albino or winter coat, that coagulation occurred in the former cases but not in the latter.
Quite recently, however, the author of this article has made a more detailed examination of the question, operating upon several hundreds of rabbits. And he found that all albinoes do not fail to clot when intravascularly injected with nucleoproteids. Only about 9% of them thus failed absolutely to manifest any-trace of coagulation. But about 7 % showed an exceedingly limited coagulation, in which the clot was colourless and flocculent, and confined to the heart. The rest gave a typical and more or less wide-spread coagulation. Moreover, it was 'found that all the failures of coagulation occurred when the .nucleo-proteid used was obtained from pigmented animals. When it was. derived from albinoes no failures occurred. All
pigmented animals clotted when the nucleo-proteid was derived from either source. The Himalayan rabbits reacted like complete albinoes, and 12% of them failed to clot when injected with nucleo-proteid extracted from pigmented animals. P
The interesting fact was thus ascertained that all albinoes are not alike. To students of heredity this is precisely what would have been expected. For, as the facts above described show, albinoes, though apparently identical externally, are yet the carriers of different hereditary characters. Among albino rats, for instance, the author of this article has reason to believe, upon theoretical grounds resting on an experimental basis, that prob~ ably no less than thirteen types exist. With rabbits and mice there must be a still larger number.
In the intravascular coagulation experiments above described, all the rabbits were carefully weighed, and the amount of nucleoproteid injected until coagulation occurred was measured. This would give for albinoes and pigmented individuals the amount per kilogramme of body-weight required to kill in each case, and would afiord a measurement of the relative resistance of the two races. It was found that the resistance of albinoes towards the coagulative effects of injected nucleo‘proteids was to that of pigmented individuals as 1-5 to re. In this case, the greater constitutional vigour of the albino is thus accurately demonstrated. But it does not necessarily follow that with other materials and with other constitutional qualities the state of things would not be reversed.
One other feature remains to be mentioned. Albinism appears, in the prOCesses of heredity, to he sometimes indissolubly correlated with certain peculiar traits. It is well known that the long-haired albino rabbit, called Angora, when at rest, has the habit of swaying its head sideways in a peculiar fashion. C. C. Hurst has shown that the long-haired and albino characters are always accompanied in heredity with the swaying habit. The Angora character never occurs without it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.—G. M. Allen,“Heredity of Coat Colour in Mice," Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. vol. xl. No. 2; W. Bateson, Mendel‘s Principies o Heredity, a Defence (Cambridge, 1902); W. Bateson and E. R. unders, “ Ex erimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity," Reports to the volution Committee of the R0 '01 Socict , Report I. (London, 1901); W. Batcson, E. R. Saunders, R. Punnett and C. C. Hurst, Re arts to the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, Report 11. ( ondon, 1905); \VI Bateson, E. R. Saunders and R. C. Punnett, " Further Experiments on Inheritance in Sweet-Peas and Stocks,” Proc. Roy. Soc. B. vol. bcxvii.; W. E. Castle, “ Note on Mr Farabee’s Observations, ” Science, N.S. vol. xvii. (New York); " Mendel’s-Law of Heredity," Science, N.S. vol. xviii. (New York); W. E. Castle and G. M. Allen, “ Mendel's Law and the Heredity of Albinism," Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. vol. xxxviii.; L. Cuénot, “L'hérédité de la pigmentation chez les souris," Arch. d. Zool. ExPér. et cm. Notes ct Revue, sér. 3, tom. 10, and sér. 4, tom. 1 and 2; Charles Darwin, Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vols. i. and ii., and ed. (London, r899); L. Doncaster, " Inheritance of Coat Colour in Rats," Proc. Comb. Phil. Soc. vol. xiii. (Camb., 1906); V. von Ducceschi, Rendiconti delta R. Accad. dei Lincei, vol. ii.; Archiz-io di Fisiologia, vol. i.; Florence M. Durham, “Tyrosinases in the Skins of Pigmented Vertebrates," Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. lxxiv.; W. C. Farabee, “Notes on Negro Albinism," Science, N.S. vol. xvii. (New York); Furth v. Schneider, Beitr. 2. Chem. Phys. 14. Path. Bd. 1; W. Haacke. "Ueber Wesen Ursachen und Vererbun von Albinismus und Scheckung, &c., Biol. Centralbl. Bd. 15; alliburton and Brodie, Journ. Phys. Camb. and Lond. vols. xiv., xvi., xvii., xviii. ; Halliburton and Pickerin , Journ. Phys. vol. xviii.; C. C. Hurst, “Experimental Studies on lferedity in Rabbits," Journ. Lin. Soc. Zool. vol. xxix.; Geo. P. Mudge, “ Intravascular Coagulation and Albinism, Preliminary Note," Proc. Phys. Soc., 1905; Packard, Memoirs of National Academg og Scierlces.(1888); Pickering, Journ. Phys. vols. xviii. and xx.; . . Poulton, Colour of Animals (Lond., 1890); Twining, Brit. Assoc. Re arts, 18 5; H. M. Vernon, Variation in Animals and Plants (Lon on, 1903 ; F. H. Welch, “ Winter Coat in Lepus americanus, " Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869. . (G. P. M.)
ALBINONI, TOMASSO (c. 1674—0. 1745), Italian musician, was born at Venice. He was a prolific composer of operas attracting contemporary attention for their originality, but is more remarkable as a composer of instrumental music, which greatly attracted the attention of Bach, who wrote at least two fugues on Albinoni’s themes and constantly used his bases for harmony exercises for his pupils. \, "n M“ ALBINOVANUS PBDO, Roman poet, flourished during the Augustan age. He wrote a Theseis, referred to in a letter from his intimate friend Ovid (Ex Panto, iv. 10), epigrams which are commended by Martial (ii. 77, v. 5) and an epic poem on the exploits of Germanicus. He had the reputation of being an excellent raconteur, and Quintilian (x. i. 90) awards him qualified praise as a writer of epics. All that remains of his works is a beautiful fragment, preserved in the Suasorioe (i. 15) of the rhetorician Seneca,from a description of the voyage of Germanicus (A.D. 16) through the river Ems to the Northern Ocean, when he was overtaken by the storm described by Tacitus (Ann. ,ii. 23). The cavalry commander spoken of by the historian is probably identical with the poet. Three elegies were formerly attributed to Pedo by Scaliger; two on the death of Maecenas (In Obitum M aecenalis and De Verbis M aecenah's moribundi), and one addressed to Livia to console her for the death of her son Drusus (Consolalio ad Liviam de M orte Drusi or Epicédion Drusi, usually printed with Ovid’s works); but it is now generally agreed that they are not by Pedo. The Consolatio has been put down as late as the 15th century as the work of an Italian imitator, there being no M85. and no trace of the poem before the publication of the edilia Princeps of Ovid in 1471. There is an English Verse translation of the elegies by Plumptre (1907).
See Bahrens, Poetae Lalini Minores (1879) and Frogmenta Poetarum Lotinarum (1886); Haupt, O cula, i. (1875); Haube, Beitrag zur Kenntm's das Albinovonus P (1880).
ALBINUS (originally WEISS), BERNHARD SIEGFRIED (1697—1770), German anatomist, was born on the 24th of February 1697, at Frankfort-on-Oder, where his father, Bernhard Albinus ( 16 5 3—1721), was professor of the practice of medicine. In 1702 the latter was transferred to the chair of medicine at Leiden, and it was there that Bernhard Siegfried began his studies, having for his teachers such men as H. Boerhaave and Nikolaus Bidloo. Having finished his studies at Leiden, he went to Paris, where, under the instruction of Sébastien Vaillant (1669—1722), J. B. Winslow (1669—1760) and others, he devoted himself especially to anatomy and botany. After a year’s absence he was, on the recommendation of Boerhaave, recalled in 1719 to Leiden to be a lecturer on anatomy and surgery. Two years later he succeeded his father in the professorship of these subjects, and speedily became one of the most famous teachers of anatomy in Europe, his class-room being resorted to not only by students but by many practising physicians. In 1745 Albinus was appointed professor of the practice of medicine, being succeeded in the anatomical chair- by his brother Frederick Bernhard (1715—1778), who, as well asanother brother, Christian Bernhard (1700—1 7 52), attained considerable distinction. Bernhard Siegfried, who was twice rector of his university, died on the 9th of September 1770 at Leiden.
ALBION (in Ptolemy 'Ahoulwv; Lat. Albion, Pliny 4.16[ 301,102), the most ancient name of the British Islands, though generally restricted to England. The name is perhaps of Celtic origin, but the Romans took it as connected with albus, white, in reference to the chalk-cliffs of Dover, and A. Holder (Alt-Keltischer Sprachschalz, 1896) unhesitatingly translates it Weissland, “ whiteland.” The early writer (6th cent. 13.0.) whose periplus is translated by Avienus (end of 4th cent. A.D.) does not use the name Britannia; he speaks of mice: 'Iépvwv ml 'ANStévwv (“ island of the Ierni and the Albiones ”). So Pytheas of Massan (4th cent. 13.0.) speaks of 'Ahflwv and 'Iipwl. From the fact _ that there was a tribe called the Albiones on the north coast of Spain in Asturia, some scholars have placed Albion in that neighbourhood (see G. F. Unger, Rhein. M us. xxxviii., 1883, pp. 156496). The name Albion was taken by medieval writers from Pliny and Ptolemy.
ALBION, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Kalamazoo river, 21 in. W. of Jackson. Pop. (1890) 3763; (1900) 4519,0f whom 622 were foreign-born; (1904) 4943; (1910) 5833. Albion is served by the Michigan Central and the Jackson division of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. railways, and by an inter-urban electric line. The city has a public park and a public library. The W. part of the city has most of the
factories; the principal manufactures are flour, agricultural implements, windmills, gasolene engines, harness and proprietary medicines. On a commanding site in the E. part of the city is Albion College (Methodist Episcopal; co-educational), embracing a College of Liberal Arts, a preparatory department, a conservatory of music, a school of art, a school of oratory, a normal course, and a commercial department. The college was incorporated in 183 5 as Spring Arbor Seminary, and in 1839 by an amended charter was located at Albion, where it'was first opened in 1843 under the name of the Wesleyan Seminary of Albion; in 1849 it became the Wesleyan Seminary and Female Collegiate Institute, with power to grant degrees to women only; but in 1861 the present name was adopted and the college was permitted to grant degrees to men and women. In 1906 it had a library of 16,500 volumes, a faculty of 19, and an enrolment of 483 (211 being women). The municipality owns and operates the water-works, the water»supply being obtained from artesian wells. Albion was settled in 1831, was incorporated as a village in 1866 and was chartered as a city in 188 5.
ALBION, a village and the county-seat of Orleans county, New York, U.S.A., about 30 m. W.N.W. of Rochester. Pop. (1890) 4586; (1900) 4477, (984 being foreign-born and 43 negroes) ; (1905, state census) 5174; (1910) 5016. The village is served by the New York Central & Hudson River railway, by the Bufialo, Lockport 81 Rochester electric railway, and by the Erie Canal. In Albion are the Western House of Refuge for Women (a state institution established in 1890), a public park, the Swan Library, and the county buildings, including the court house, the jail and the surrogate’s office; and about 2 m. to the SE. is the beautiful Mount Albion Cemetery. Albion is the centre of the Medina sandstone industry, and lies in the midst of a good farming region, of which it is the principal shipping point, especially for apples, cabbages and beans. The village manufactures agricultural implements, vinegar, evaporated fruit, and canned fruit and vegetables, and has two large coldstorage houses. Albion was settled in 1812, was incorporated in 1823 and became the county-seat in 1825.
ALBI’I‘E, a mineral of the felspar group, belonging to the division of the plagiodaser (41.11.). It is a sodium and aluminium silicate, NaAlSiaOa, and crystallizes in the anorthic system. Like all the felspars it possesses two cleavages, one perfect and the other less so, which are here inclined at an angle of 86° 24'. On the more perfect cleavage, which is parallel to the basal plane (P), is a system of fine striations, parallel to the second cleavage (M), due to twinning according to the "‘ albite law ” (figs. 1 and 2). The hardness is 6, and the specific gravity 2.63. The colour is usually pure white, hence the name (from the Lat. albus) for the species.
Albite forms an essential constituent of many acidic igneous and FIG- 1crystauine rocks; Twinned crystals of in granites, diorites, andesites, 810., it occurs asa primary mineral, whilst in crystalline schists, phyllites and crystalline limestones it is of secondary (metamorphic)origin. The beautifully developed crystals so abundant in crystal-lined crevices of Alpine granites and gneisses have been deposited, with other minerals, from solution; the crystals lining veins in the slates of Tintagel in Cornwall have the same origin. ‘
Several varieties of albite are distinguished, of which the following may be here specially mentioned. Periclinc (from the G1. reptkais, “ sloping ”) is the name given to large opaque white crystals from the chlorite-schists of the Alps; they are tabular parallel to the direction of perfect cleavage and are twinned according to the “ pericline law." Peristen'le
(from the Gr. repwrepfz, a dove) is characterized by a beautiful bluish sheen, somewhat resembling that seen on the neck of a. pigeon; it is found mainly in Ontario. Aventurine and moonstone varieties occur, though these special appearances are more usually displayed by the oligoclase and orthoclase felspars respectively. _ (L. J. S.)
’ALBO, JOSEPH, a. Spanish Jewish theologian of the 1 5th century. He was author of a very popular book on the philosophy of Judaism, entitled ‘Iqqarim or Fundamentals. Maimonides in the 12th century had formulated the principles of Judaism in thirteen articles; Albo reduced them to three: (i) The Existence of God, (ii) Revelation and (iii) Divine Retribution. Albo set the example of minimizing Messianism in the formulation of Jewish beliefs. Though be fully maintained the Mosaic authorship of the Law and the binding force of tradition, he discriminated between the essential and the non-essential in the practices and beliefs of Judaism. An English translation of the 'Iqqarim appeared in the H ebrew Review, vols. i.-iii.
ALBOIN (d. 572 or 573), king of the Lombards, and conqueror of Italy, succeeded his father Audoin about 565. The Lombards were at that time dwelling in Noricum and Pannonia (archduchy of Austria. Styn'a and Hungary, west of the Danube). In alliance with the Avars, and Asiatic people who had invaded central Europe, Alboin defeated the Gepidae, a powerful nation on his eastern frontier, slew their king Cunimund, whose skull he fashioned into a drinking-cup, and whose daughter Rosamund he carried off and made his wife. Three years later (in 568), on the alleged invitation of Narses (q.v.), who was irritated by the treatment he had received from the emperor Justin IL, Alboin invaded Italy, probably marching over the pass of the Predil. He overran Venetia and the wide district which we now call Lombardy, meeting with but feeble resistance till he came to the city of Ticinum (Pavia), which for three years (569—572) kept the Lombards at bay. While this siege was in progress Alboin was also engaged in other parts of Italy, and at its close he was probably master of Lombardy, Piedmont and Tuscany, as well as of the regions which afterwards went by the name of the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. In 572 or 573, however, he was assassinated by his chamberlain Peredeo at the instigation of Queen Rosamund. whom Alboin had grievoust insulted by forcing her to drink wine out of her father’s skull. After his death. and the short reign of his successor Cleph the Lombards remained for more than ten years in a state of anarchy.
The authorities for the history of Alboin are Proco ius, Paulus Diaconus and Agnellus (in his history of the church of venna).
ALBONI, MARIETTA (1823—1894), Italian opera-singer, was born at Cesena, Romagna, and was trained in music-at Bologna, where she became a pupil of Rossini. She had a magnificent contralto voice, and in 1843 made her first appearance at La Scala, Milan, being recognized at once as a public favourite. In England her reputation was established by her appearance at Covent Garden in 1847, and she had brilliant success all over Europe in the leading operatic roles; in 1853 she repeated these triumphs in the United States. Indeed, with the exception of M alibranshe had no compeer among the contraltos of thecentury, the old Italian school of singing finding in her a really great representative. She married first Count A. Pepoli, who died in 1866, and secondly (1877) a French oflicer, M. Zieger; she lived in Paris after her first marriage, and died at Ville d’Avray in 1894.
ALBORNOZ, GIL ALVAREZ DE, Spanish cardinal, was born at Cuenca early in the 14th century. He was the son of Gil Alvarez de Albornoz and of Dona Teresa de Luna, sister of Kimono de Luna, archbishop of Toledo. He was educated at Saragosa, while his uncle was bishop of that see, and studied law at Toulouse. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatiava, and became a member of the king’s council while young. In 1337 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alphonso XI. At the battle of Tarifa he fought against a great invasiop from Africa in 1340, and at the
taking of Algeciras in 1344 he led the armed levy of his archbishopric. In 1343 he had been sent to Pope Clement VI. at Avignon to negotiate a grant of a tax on the revenues of the Churchfor the Crusade. His military and diplomatic ability became known to the pope, who made him a cardinal in r 350. Albornoz left Spain on the death of the king Alphonso XI. in that year, and never returned. It has been said, but not on contemporary evidence, that he fled from fear of Peter the Cruel. In 13 53 Innocent VI. sent him as a legate into Italy, with a view to the restoration of the papal authority in the states of the Church. He was recalled in 1357, but was sent again to Italy after a brief interval, and in 1362 had paved the way for the return of Urban V. to Rome. As legate, Albornoz showed himself to be an astute manager of men and effective fighter. He began by making use of Rienzi, whose release from prison at Avignon he secured. After the murder of the tribunev in 1354 Albornoz pursued his task of restoring the pope’s authority by intrigue and force with remarkable success. As a mark of gratitude the pope appointed him legate'at Bologna in 1367, but'he died at Viterbo the same year. According to his .own desire his remains were carried to Toledo, where Henry of Castile causedthem to be entombed with almost royal honours. A work by Albornoz on the constitution of the Church of Rome,.first printed at Jesi in 1473, is now very rare. The college of St Clement at Bologna was founded by Albornoz for the benefit of Spanish students.
See “ De Vita et Rebus Gestis Aegidii-Albornotii," (in Se nlveda's OPem ~Omm'a, vol. iv. (I780); Cardenat Albornoz def aweite egminrier des Ktrchenstaales, by Dr H. J. Wurm (1892). v ' ‘
ALBRECHTSBERGER, JOHANN ~GEORG (1736— 1809), Austrian musician, was'born at Kloster-Neuburg, near Vienna, on the 3rd of February 1736, He studied musical composition under the court organist, Mann, and became one of the most learned and skilful contrapuntists‘ of , his age..,_,, After being employed as organist at Raab and Maria-,Taferl, he was appointed in 1772 organist to the court of Vienna, and in 1792 Kapellmeislcr of St Stephen’s cathedral. His fameas a theorist attracted to him in the Austrian capital 3. large number of pupils, some of whom afterwards became eminent musicians. Among these were Beethoven, Hummel, Moscheles and Josef. Weiglv (1766—1846). Albrechtsberger died in Vienna-on the 7th of March 1809. His published compositions consist of preludes, fugues and sonatas for the piano and organ, string quartets, &c.;,but the greater proportion of his works, vocal and instrumental, exists only in manuscript. They are in the library of the Vienna Gesellschaft der M usikfreunde. Probably the. most valuable service he rendered to music was in his theoretical works. In 1790 he published at Leipzig a treatise on composition,lof which a third edition appeared in 1821. A collection of his writings _on harmony, in three volumes, was published under the careof hispupil Ignaz von Seyfried (1776—1841) in 1826. There is an English version of this published by N ovellorin 18 5-5. Beethoven knew his own needs when he put himself under Albrechtsberger on finding that Haydn wasth thoroughly dispOsed for the trouble of training him; and though Albrechtsberger could see nothing in him, and warnedhisother pupils against “ that young man who would never turn out anything in good style,’ ’ he justified Beethoven’s confidence, . -!
ALBRET. The lordship ,(seigneurie) of Albret (Labrit, Lebret), situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal, families of France in the middle ages. Its members distinguished themselves in the local wars of that epoch; and during the 14th century they espoused the English cause for some time, afterwards transferring their support to the side of France. Arnaud Amanieu, lord of Albret, helped to take Guienne from the English. His son Charles became constable of France, and was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415. Alain the Great, lord of Albret (d. 1522), wished to marry Anne of Brittany, and to that end fought against Charles \I'III.; but his hopes being defeated by the betrothal of Anne to Maximilian of Austria, be surrendered Nantes to the French in 1486. At that time the house of Albret had attained considerable territOrial importance, due in great part to the liberal grants which it had obtained from successive kings of France. John of Albret, son of Alain, became king of Navarre by his marriage with Catherine of Foix. Their son Henry, king “of Navarre, was created duke of Albret and peer of France in 1550. By his wife Margaret, sister of the French king, Francis 1., he had a daughter, Jeanne d’Albret, queen of Navarre, who married Anthony de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, and became the mother of Henry IV., king of France. The dukedom of Albret, united to the crown of France by the accession of this prince, was granted to the family of La Tour d’Auvergne in 1651, in exchange for Sedan and Raucourt. > - . i
To a younger branch of"this house belonged Jean d’Albret, seigneur of Orval, count of Dreux and of Rethel, governor of Champagne (d. 1524), who was employed by Francis I. in many diplomatic negotiations; more particularly in his intrigues to get himself elected emperor in 1519. - (M. P."‘)
ALBRIGHT, JACOB (1759—1808), American clergyman, was born near Pottstown, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of May 17 59. He was of “ Pennsylvania-German ” parentage, his name being originally Albrecht, and was educated'in the Lutheran faith. At an early age he became a tile-burner. In 1790 he was converted to Methodism, and in 1796 determined to devote himself to preaching that faith among the Pennsylvania Germans. His eflorts met with great success, and in 1800 he founded what was virtually a new and independent church organization on the Methodist system, of which he became the presiding elder, and eventually (1807) bishop. This church is officially the Evangelical Association, . but its adherents have been variously known as “ New Methodists." “ Albrights," and “ Albright Brethren.”v Albright died on the 18th of May 1808, atMiihlbach, Pennsylvania. I m I
ALBUERA, OPALBUHERA, LA, a small village of Spain, in the province of Badajoz, 13 m. S.E. of the town of that name. Pop. (1900) 820. Albuera is celebrated on account'of the victory gained there on the 16th of May 1811 by the British, Portuguese and Spaniards, under Marshal Beresford, over the French army commanded by Marshal'Soult.‘ (See PENINSULAR WAR.)
ALBUFERA DE VALENCIA, a lagoon, 7 m. S. of Valencia in Spain, about; 12 m. in length and 4 in breadth, 12v ft. being its greatest depth. It communicates with the sea by a narrow outlet, which can be opened or closed at pleasure. The lake is crown property, and is of great value from the fish and wildfowl with which it abounds. Rice is grown in large quantities by the inhabitants of the adjoining villages. In 1812 Marshal Suchet was created duke of Albufera by Napoleon for his conquest of Valencia, and invested with the domain; but the battle of Vittoria in 1813 deprived him of his possession, though he still retained the title. Subsequently the revenues of Albufera were conferred upon the duke of Wellington in token of the gratitude of the Spanish nation. (See PENINSULA}: WAR.)
ALBULAE AQUAE, a group of springs, 4 111. W. of Tibur, the water of which is bluish, strongly impregnated with sulphur and carbonate of ' lime, and rises at a temperature of about 75° F. Remains of a Roman thermal establishment exist near the principal spring, the so-called Lago delia Regina (which is continually diminishing in size owing to the deposit left by the water), and dedicatory inscriptions in honour of the waters have been found. The baths are still frequented by the Romans, though the modern establishment is about 1 m. S. on the high road.
See 'I‘. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, ii. 117.
ALBULA PASS, now the principal route from the N. to the Upper Engadine in the Swiss canton of the Grisons. It was already frequented in the 13th century, while a carriage road (highest point, 7 5o 5 ft.) wasconstructed across it in 1865, but for a long time it was not as much used as the easier and more direct Julier Pass (7504 ft.), until the opening of the railway in 1903, which has vastly increased its practical importance. Starting from Coire the Rhine valley is followed to Reichenau (6} m.), and then that of the Hinter Rhine to Thusis (10} m.). The line then runs through the grand Schyn gorge (cut by the Albula torrent) to Tiefenkastell- (71} m.), where it leaves the Julier road on the right
(S.) and continues to follow the course of the Albula past Filisur and Bergiin (12% m.) to the mouth (5879 ft.) of the great tunnel (3ii m. in length; highest point, 5987 ft.) which has been pierced below the pass. The descent lies through the Bevers glen to Bevers (2% m.), where the Upper Engadine is reached, about 5 m. below St. Moritz, which is 56 m. from Coire by this route. (W. A. B. C.)
ALBUM (Lat. albus, white), in ancient Rome, a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees, edicts and other public notices were inscribed in black. The Annales Maximi of the Pontifex Maximus, the annual edicts of the praetor, the lists of Roman and municipal senators (decuriones) and jurors (album indicum) were exhibited in this manner. In medieval‘ and modern times album denotes a book of blank pages in which verses, autographs, sketches, photographs and the like are collected. It is also applied to the official list of matriculated students in a university, and to the roll in which a bishop inscribes the names of his clergy. In law, the word is the equivalent of mailles blanches, for rent paid in silver (“ white ”) money. ,
ALBUMAZAR, more properly ABU-MAASCHAR (805—88 5), Arab astronomer, was born at Balkh, flourished at Bagdad, and died at Wasid in Central Asia. His principal works are: Dr Magnis Conjunctionibus (Augsburg, 14.89); Introduclon‘um in Aslronomiam (Venice, 1506); and Flares Astrologici (Augsburg, 1488). He maintained in the first that the world, created when the seven planets were in conjunction in the first degree of Aries, will come to an end at a like conjunction in the last degree of Pisces.
See Biog. Um‘wrselle (Iourdain); Lalande, Biblio raphie Astronomg'g'ue; Poggendorfl', Biog. literarisches Handwb'rter uch; Houzeau, B: l. Astronomtque.
ALBUMIN, or ALBUMEN (Lat. albus, white), an organic substance typical of a group of bodies (albumins or albuminates) of very complicated chemical composition. They are sometimes called the histogenetic bodies or proteids, because they are essential to the building up of the animal organism. The vegetable kingdom is the original source of albuminous substances, the albumins being found in greatest quantity in the seed. They also occur in the fluids of the living organism. The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry. It has attracted the attention of many workers, and has formed the subject of a huge literature. In this field Béchamp, Cohnheim, Albrecht Kossel, and, especially, Emil Fischer and his pupils have been extremely active. The general trend of. these researches lies in the study of the decomposition or “ breaking down” products of the albumin molecules; once these are accurately determined, the synthesis of an albumin is but a matter of time. Already we have proceeded far in our knowledge of the decomposition products, and certain simple proteids have been synthesized.
The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55 %,
18-14%, S=o-96 %, O= 22-66 %, which points to the
formula CmHlmNmSfiOm, corresponding to the molecular weight 16,954. A high molecular weight characterizes these substances, but so far no definite value has been determined by either physical or chemical means; A. P. Sabanezhev obtained the value 15,000 by Raoult’s method for purified egg albumin. All albumins are laevo-rotatory; and on incineration a small amount of inorganic ash is invariably left. They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances. A remarkable change occurs when many albumins are boiled with water, or treated with certain acids, their solubility and general characters being entirely altered, and the fluid becoming coagulated. This change is seen