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in the transformation of the ‘ white ” of an egg on boiling. Albumins are generally detected by taking advantage of this property, or of certain colour changes. The reagents in common use are: Millon’s reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this .gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration
(biuret reaction). Boiling with dilute mineral acids, or baryta water, decomposes albumins into carbon dioxide, ammonia and fatty amino- and other acids. These decomposition products include:
I | or a-pyrrolidin carboxylic acid, HOOC‘CH-NH'CHQ'CHZ'CHg, hydroxyproline, phenyl alanine or phenyl-a-aminopropionic acid, CsHs- CH2- CH (NHQ) -COOH,tyrosine or p-hydroxyphenyl-aaminopropionic acid, phenyl ethylamine, p-hydroxyphenyl ethylamine, tryptophane or indol aminopropionic acid, A. cystin (protein-cystin) or a-amino-B-thioglyceric aCid “ disulphide,” (S-CHz-CH(NH2)-COOH)2, B. cystin (stone-cystin), or a-thio-B-aminoglyceric acid “ disulphide,” (NHi-CHY'CH : SCOOH)2. This list is not exhaustive; other products are given in Gustav Mann, Chemistry of the Proteids (1906), to which reference should be made for a complete account of this class of compounds. ' The complexity of composition militates in a great measure
against a rational classification of albumins by purely chemical
considerations. Such classifications have been ata'"'"" tempted by A. Kossel and by W. Kiihne and E. P. Pick; cation 0! . “hymns. but in the present state of our knowledge, however,
the older classification of E. Dreschel and F. HoppeSeyler, based primarily on solubilities and distribution, may be conveniently retained. This classification is with certain modifications as follows :—
' myoglobulin and myoalbumin are also found in muscles.
IV. Albuminoids. (r) Collagen. (2) Keratin. (3) Elastin. (4) Fibroin. (5) Spongin,&c. (6) Amyloid. (7) Albumoid. (8) Colouring matters derived from albumin.
Albumins prawn—Albumin (as classified above) are soluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies, and in saturated neutral salt solutions; they are coagulated by heat. “ Scrumalbumin,” or “ blood-albumin,” possibly CmHmNisOm, occurs in blood-serum, lymph, chyle, milk, &c.; its coagulation temperature is about 67°. It differs from egg-albumin in its specific rotation (—57° to —64°), and in being slowly coagulated by alcohol and ether. Egg-albumin is the chief constituent of the white of egg; this fluid also contains a globulin and a mucoid. It coagulates at about 56°, and its specific rotation is —3o~7o°. “ Lact-albumin " occurs in all kinds of milk. The globulins are insoluble in water and in dilute acids, but soluble in alkalies and in neutral salt solutions; these solutions are coagulated on boiling. “ Serum-globulin,” also termed globulin or fibrino-plastic globulin, paraglobulin and paraglobin, occurs in blood serum; “ cell-globulins ” occur in many organs—liver, kidneys, pancreas and the thyroid gland, also in muscle-plasma; “ crystalline,” a globulin occurring in two forms a. and B, is found in the lens of the eye; “egg-globulin” and “lactoglobulin ” occur respectively in the white of egg and in milk. Plant albumins or phyto~albumins have been chiefly investigated in the case of those occurring in seeds; most are globulins, insoluble in pure water, but soluble in salt solutions; “ edestin,” a globulin of this class, is very widely distributed. Other varieties or classes of these compounds are: plant caseins, phyto-vitellines, legumins and conglutins. Fibrinogen occurs in the blood plasma, and is changed by a ferment into fibrin, to which the clotting of blood is due. Fibrinogen is insoluble in water, but soluble in salt solutions; it has three difierent coagulation temperatures, 56°, 67°, 75°. Fibrin, produced from fibrinogen by a ferment, is a jelly-like substance, coagulable by heat, alcohol, &c. The muscle-albumins include “ myosin " or paramyosinogen, a globulin, which by coagulation induces rigor mortis, and the closely related “ myosinogen ” or rnyogen; The nucleo-albumins or phospho-globulins are insoluble in water and acids, but soluble in alkalies, and have an acid reaction. “ Caseinogen ” (after W. D. Halliburton) is the chief albumin of milk; its composition varies with the animal. ‘It is insoluble in water, while its salts are readily soluble. “ Eucasein ” is the ammonium salt; “ nutrose ” and “ plasmon ” are sodium salts. By the rennet ferment caseinogen is converted into casein, a substance resembling caseinogen in being soluble in water, but differing in having an insoluble calcium salt. The formation of casein involves the curdling of milk. Other phosphoglobulins are vitelline, found in the yolk of hens’ eggs, and ichthulin, found in the eggs of fish. Histories are a class of albumins soluble in water and acids, but essentially basic in character; hence ,they are precipitated by alkalies. It is remarkable that many histones are soluble in an excess of alkali. They do not exist in a free state, but in combination with a “ prosthetic group ” (after A. Kossel) they give rise to important cell constituents—haemoglobin, nucleo-proteicls, &c. “ Thymus histone ” occurs in the thymus gland; globin occurs in combination as haemoglobin; other histones have been extracted from the red blood corpuscles of the goose and the testes of fishes and other animals. The protamincs are a wellcharacterized class of albumins found in the ripe spermatozoa of fishes.
Albumoses and PePlones.—The prirnary products of the dissociation of albumins are the albumoses, characterized by not being coagulable by heat, more soluble than the albumins, having a far less complex composition, and capable of being “ salted out ” by certain salts, and the peptones, similar to albumoses but not capable of being “ salted out ”; moreover, peptones are less complex than albumoses. By further decomposition peptones yield peptides, a certain number of which have been synthesized by Emil Fischer and his collaborators. Albumoses and peptones are white powders, readily soluble in water, with the exception of the hetero-albumoses—a subdivision of primary albumoses. They give the biuret and xanthoproteic reactions, and form salts with both acids and bases. Albumoses and peptones are obtained by peptic digestion, the latter being termed pepticpeptones; tryptic digestion also produces peptones. Acids and moist heat induce similar changes.
Proteids.-—These substances are combinations of one or more albumins with a radical of an essentially different nature, termed by Kossel a “ prosthetic group.” It is convenient to classify proteids by those groups. “. Nucleo-proteids,” constituents of the cell-nucleus, are combinations of albumins and nucleic acid; they always contain iron. They are loose, white, non-hygroscopic powders, soluble in water and salt solutions, and have an acid reaction; they give the colour reactions of albumins. Nucleic acid is at present of unknown constitution; decomposition products are: phosphoric acid, uracil or 2.6-dioxy~pyrimidin,‘ cytosin or 2-0xy-6-aminospyrimidin, thymin (nucleosin) or 2.6-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidin hypoxanthinl or 6-oxypurin, xanthin or 2.6-dioxypurin, adenine or 6 amino-purin, guanine or 2-amino-6-oxypurin, pentoses (l-xylose), laevulinic acid, ammonia, etc. The nucleic acids vary with the source of the proteids, there being considerable differences in chemical composition. In general they are white, loose powders, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in hot water; they are precipitated by mineral acids, but dissolve in an excess. They are dextrorotatory, and the specific rotation is numerically greater than that of albumin; hence the proteids are, in general, dextrorotatory.
An important nucleo-proteid is haemoglobulin or haemoglobin, the colouring matter of the red blood corpuscles of vertebrates; a related substance, haemocyanin, in which the iron of haemoglobin is replaced by copper, occurs in the blood of cephalopods and crayfish. Haemoglobin is composed of a basic albumin and an acid substance haematin; it combines readily with oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to form loose compounds (see NUTRITION). It coagulates at 64°. By a dilute acid haemoglobin is decomposed into globin, and “haematin,” a ferri-pyrrol derivative of the probable formula CuHuNiFeOS; under certain conditions the iron-free “ haematoporphyrin " is obtained. This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, CuHasO4N4, which by furtherreduction gi-ves haemopyrrol, CsflnN, possibly amethyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol. Other derivatives are haemin, haemochromogen~. and the haematinic acids. ~ . . . i
“ Glyco-proteids ”' differ from nucleo-proteids in containing a carbohydrate radical, which is liberatedonly by boiling with mineral acids-or alkalies. The mucins and mucoids belong to this group; they are acid and contain no phosphorus; they give the albumin colour reactions but are not coagulated by heat. Mucins occur in most of the slimy fluids of the body; they vary in composition with their source. Mucoids resemble mucins in their composition and reactions, but differ, in general, in their physical properties. They occur in tendons, bones and cartilage. The “ phospho-glyco-proteids ” resemble the mucins and mucoids in containing a carbohydrate residue, but difier in containing phosphorus. Ichthulin (see above) may be placed in this group; “ helico-proteid,” found in the serous gland of H elix pomatia, the vineyard snail, also belongs here.
Albuminoids is the anatomical name given to albuminous substances forming the connective tissues. Chemically they resemble the albumins, being split up by acids or ferments into albumoses, peptones and amino~acids, forming salts, and giving
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the same colour reactions. They are quite insoluble in water and in salt solutions, and difiicultly soluble in dilute acids and alkalies. Typical albuminoids are gelatin, keratin, elastin, fibroin, spongin and conchiolin.
“ Collagen ” (Gr. xéhha, glue, and root 7611- of yen/dew, to produce, 'yi'yvea0at, to become), the ground-substance of bones and tissues, is decomposed by boiling water or on warming with acids into substances named gelatin, glutin or glue. Gelatin forms a white amorphous powder; the commercial product, however, generally forms glassy plates. The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature. Immersed in cold water gelatin does not dissolve but swells up; it dissolves readily in hot water, forming, according to the quantity present, a thick jelly which solidifies to a hard mass on cooling (the “ glue ” of the woodworker), or a thin jelly (used in cookery). Gelatin occurs also in the cornea and the sclerotic coat of the eye; and in fish scales, the latter containing 80% of collagen, and 20% of ichthylepidin, a substance difiering from gelatin in giving a wellmarked Millon’s reaction. Keratin (Gr. xépas, a horn), the chief constituent of horny material, occurs in hair, nails, hoofs and feathers. It is quite insoluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies. Related to this substance are “neuro-keratin,” found in the medullary sheath of nerves, and “ gorgonin," the matrix of the axial skeleton of the coral Gorgom'a Canolinii. Elastin occurs either as thick strands or as membranes; it constitutes the “ elastic tissue ” of the anatomist. Its insolubility is much the same as keratin. “ Fibroin ” and silk-glue or sericin occur in natural silk fibres. Fibroin is insoluble in water, acids and alkalies; silk-glue resembles gelatin in its solubility, but it is less readily gelatinized. “ Spongin,” the matrix of bath-sponge, is insoluble in water and dilute acids, but soluble in concentrated mineral acids. “ Conchiolin,” the matrix of shells of the mollusca, is only slightly soluble in acids. “ Cornein ” forms the framework of corals. “ Amyloid ” occurs as a pathological product, and also in the healthy aorta and in old cartilage. It is an albumin, and not a carbohydrate as was formerly held; and gives most of the colour reactions of albumins. It forms shiny, homogeneous masses, quite insoluble in cold water and in salt solutions, but soluble in alkalies. The albumoids include, according to Cohnheim, substances which possess certain properties in common, but differ from the preceding groups. In general they resemble coagulated albumin, and also the gelatin-yielding tissues, but they themselves do not yield gelatin.
Colouring matters derived from albumins include the “ melanins ” (Gr. néhas, black), substances which difier very considerably in composition, the sulphur and iron content being by no means constant; they do not give the reactions of albumins. The black colouring matter of hair, the skin of negroes, and of the ink bag of Sepia have been examined. Melanins obtained from tumours form black, shiny masses; they are insoluble in water, neutral salt solutions, dilute acids and in the common organic solvents.
ALBUHINURIA _(Physiological or Functional), a term indicating the presence of albumin in the urine. This may depend on a. number of morbid conditions, of which kidney troubles, acute illnesses and venous congestion are some of the commoner. But after exclusion of all known pathological causes, there still remains a large class of cases among subjects who appear to be in perfect health. This form has been called functional or physiological albuminuria, intermittent albuminuria, &c. Its recognition is of extreme importance, as it must be distinguished from the albuminuria due to Bright’s disease and other troubles. The following are the main forms that have been described :— (I) Dietetic Albuminuria. This form affects some people after partaking of a meal consisting largely of albuminous foods, such as eggs. In others any extra indulgence in the pleasures of the table may give rise to it. (2) Cyclic Albuminuria. This name was first used by the physiologist Pavy, but other observers have called the same condition “postural albuminuria," It
\ occurs in people enjoying perfect health. and is characterized bv the presence of albumin in the urine at certain times of the day. It has been shown to depend entirely on the assumption of the erect position, and it disappears as a result of the recumbent position at night. (3) Albuminuria from exercise. This form affects some people after any unusual muscular exertion. (4) Prolonged mental strain or worry may give rise to a transient form of albuminuria. (5) Adolescent albuminuria is met with in some subjects, especially boys. The question of‘ the real significance of “ physiological ” albuminuria is one about which there is much difference of opinion. But its importance and recognition—especially in questions of life insurance—admits of no question.
ALBUQUERQUE, ALPHONSO D’ (in Old Port. AFFONSO D’ALBOQUERQUE) (1453—1515), surnamed THE GREAT, and THE PORTUGUESE MARS, was born in 1453 at Alexandria, near Lisbon. Through his father, Gonzalvo, who held an important position at court, he was connected by illegitimate descent with the royal family of Portugal. He was educated at the court of Alphonso V., and after the death of that monarch seems to have served for some time in Africa. On his return he was appointed estribeiro-mor (chief equerry) to John II. In 1503 he set out on his first expedition to the East, which was to be the'scen'e of his future triumphs. In company with his kinsman Francisco he sailed round the Cape of Good Hope to India, and succeeded in establishing the king of Cochin securely on his throne, obtaining in return for this service permission to build a Portuguese fort at Cochin, and thus laying the foundation of his country’s empire in the East. He returned home in July 1504, and was well received by King Emmanuel, who entrusted him with the command of a squadron of five vessels in the fleet of sixteen'which sailed for India in 1506 under Tristan da Cunha. _ After a series of successful attacks on the Arab cities on the east coast of Africa, Albuquerque separated from DaCunha, and sailed with his squadron against the island of Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf, which was then oneof the chief centres of commerce in the East. He arrived on the 25th of September 1507, and soon obtained possession of the island, though ‘he was unable long to maintain his position. With his squadron increased by three vessels, he reached the Malabar coast at the close of the year r508, and immediately made known the commission he had received from the king empowering him to supersede the governor Francisco de Almeida. The latter, however, refused to recognize Albuquerque’s credentials and cast him into prison, from which he was only released, after three months’ confinement, on the arrival of the grand-marshal of Portugal with a large fleet. Almeida having returned home, Albuquerque speedily showed the energy and determination of his character. An unsuccessful attack upon Calicut in January 1510, in which the commanderin-chief received a severe wound, was immediately followed by the investment and capture of Goa. Albuquerque, finding himself unable to hold the town on his first occupation. abandoned it in August, to return with the reinforcements in November, when he obtained undisputed possession. He next directed his forces against Malacca, which he subdued after a severe struggle. He remained in the tov'vn nearly a year in order to strengthen the position of the Portuguese power. In 1512 he sailed for the coast of Malabar. On the voyage a violent storm arose, Albuquerque’s vessel, the “ Flor de la Mar,’ ’ which carried the treasure he had amassed in his conquests, was wrecked, and he himself barely escaped with his life. In September-of the same year he arrived at Goa, where he quickly suppressed a serious revolt headed by Idalcan, and took such measures for the security and peace of the town that it became the most flourishing of the Portuguese settlements in India. Albuquerque had been for some time under orders from the home government to undertake an expedition to the Red Sea, in order to secure that channel of communication exclusively to Portugal. He accordingly larid siege to Aden in 1513, but was repulsed; and a voyage into the Red Sea, the first ever made by a European fleet, led to no substantial results. In order to destroy the power of Egypt, he is said to have entertained the idea of diverting the course of the Nile and so rendering the whole country
barren. His last warlike undertaking was a second attack upon Ormuz in 1515. The island yielded to him without resistance, and it remained in the possession of the Portuguese until 1622. Albuquerque’s great career had a painful and ignominious close. He had several enemies at the Portuguese court who lost no opportunity of stirring up the jealousy of the king against him, and his own injudicious and arbitrary conduct on several occasions served their end only too well. On his return from ,Ormuz. at the entrance of the harbour of Goa, he met a vessel from Europe bearing despatches announcing that he was superseded by his personal enemy Soarez. The blow was too much for him and he died at sea on the 16th of December 1515. Before his death he wrote a letter to the king in dignified and affecting terms, vindicating his conduct and claiming for his son the honours and rewards that were justly due to himself. His body was buried at Goa in the Church of our Lady, and it is perhaps the most convincing proof possible of the justice of his administration that, many years after, Mussulmans and Hindus used to go to his tomb to invoke protection against the injustice of his successors. The king of Portugal was convinced too late of his fidelity, and endeavoured to atone for the ingratitude with which he had treated him by heaping honours upon his natural son Aflonso. The latter published a selection from his father’s papers under the title Commentaries do Grands A jonso d’Alboquerque.
See the Cartas de Albuquerque, published by the Lisbon Academy (vol. i., 1884); also Morse Stephens’ Life 0 Albuquerque; an article in the Bolitim of the Lisbon Geographical ociety (January to June 1902) on " O antigo lmperialismo portuguez, &c.," has especial reference to Albuquerque.
ALBUQUERQUE,v a city and the county-seat of Bernalillo county, New Mexico, U. S. A., situated in the central part of the state, about 325 m. S. by W. of Denver, on the E. bank of the Rio Grande, at an altitude of 4950 ft. Pop.(1890) 3785; (1900) 6238 (956 foreign-born and 226 negroes); (1910 census) 11,020. In 1900 Albuquerque was the largest city in New Mexico. It is the connecting point of two main lines of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé railway system. A short distanc; E. of the city is the university of New Mexico, under state control, founded in 1889 and opened in 1892; in 1908 it had a college of letters and science, a school of engineering, a school of education, a preparatory school and a commercial school. Albuquerque is also the seat of the Harwood Industrial School (Methodist) for Mexican girls, of the Menaul Mission School (Presbyterian) for Mexican boys, and of a government Indian training school (1881) for boys and girls. The city has a public library. The excellent climate has given Albuquerque and the surrounding country a reputation as a health resort. The city is an important railway centre, has extensive railway repair shops and stock-yards, and exports large quantities of live-stock, hides and wool. The largest industrial establishment is the American Lumber Company’s plant, including a saw-mill, a sash, door and blind factory and a box factory. The timber used, chiefly white pine, is obtained from the Zuni mountains. The city has also flour and woollen mills, breweries and ice factories. The old Spanish town of Albuquerque (pop. in 1900 about 1200) lies about 1 m. W. of the present city; it was founded in 1706, and was named in honour of the duke of Albuquerque, viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1710. During the Civil War it was occupied, late in February 1862, by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816—1886), who soon afterwards advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. In his retreat back into Texas he made a stand on the 8th of April 1862 at Albuquerque, where during the whole day there was a fight at long range and with few casualties against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby (1819—1873). The modern city dates its origin from the completion of the first railway to Albuquerque in 1880.
ALBURNUM (sapwood), the outermost and youngest part of the wood of a tree, through which the sap rises. It is distinguished from the harder inner and older wood, the duramen or heart-wood.
ALBURY, a town in Goulburn county, New South Wales, Australia, 386 m. by rail W.S.W. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 5821. It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway. The Murray is navigable for small steamers from this town to its mouth, a distance of 1800 miles. Albury is the centre of a sheeprearing and agricultural district; grapes, cereals and tobacco are largely grown, and the wine produced here is held in high repute throughout Australia. The tree under which the first explorers encamped here in November 1824. is still standing in an enclosed space. Albury became a municipality in 1859.
ALCAEUS (ALKAIOS), Greek lyric poet, an older contemporary of Sappho, was a native of Mytilene in Lesbos and flourished about 600 BC. His life was greatly mixed up with the political disputes and internal feuds of his native city. He belonged to one of the noble families, and sided with his class against the “ tyrants ” who at that time set themselves up in Mytilene. He was in consequence obliged to leave his native country, and spent a considerable time in exile. He is said to have become reconciled to Pittacus, the ruler set up by the popular party, and to have returned to Lesbos. The date of his death is unknown. The subjects of his poems, which were composed in the Aeolic dialect, were of various kinds: some were hymns to the gods; others were of a martial or political character; others breathed an ardent love of liberty and hatred of tyrants; lastly, some were love-songs. Alcaeus was allotted the second place among the nine lyric poets in the Alexandrian canon. The considerable number of fragments extant, and the well-known imitations of Horace, who regarded Alcaeus as his great model, enable us to form a fair idea of the character of his poems. A new fragment has recently been discovered, together with some fragments of Sappho (Classical Review, May 1902).
See Ber 11, Poelae Lyrici Graeci (1882); also The Songs of Alcaeus, by j. Eas y-Smith (Washington, 1901); Plehn, Lesbiacorum Liber (1826) ; Flach, Geschichte der griechischen Lyrik (1883—1884); Farnell, Greek Lyric Poets (1891).
ALCAICS, in ancient poetry, a name given to several kinds of verse, from Alcaeus, their reputed inventor. The first kind consists of five feet, viz. a spondee or iambic, an iambic, a long syllable and two dactyles; the second of two dactyles and two trochees. Besides these, which are called dactylic Alcaics, there is another, simply styled Alcaic, consisting of an epitrite, two choriambi and a bacchius; thus——
The Alcaic ode is composed of several strophes, each consisting of four verses, the first two of which are always eleven-syllable alcaics of the first kind; the third verse is an iambic dimeter hypercatalectic consisting of nine syllables; and the fourth verse is a ten-syllable alcaic of the second kind. The following strophe is of this species, which Horace calls Alcaei minaces camenae— Non possidentem multa vocaveris Recte beatum; rectius occupat Nomen beati, qui deorum Muneribus sapienter uti. There is also a decasyllabic variety of the Alcaic metre.
The Alcaic measure was one of the most splendid inventions of Greek metrical art. In its best examples it gives an impression of wonderful vigour and spontaneity. Tennyson has attempted to reproduce it in English in his
0 mi ht -mouthed inventor of harmonies,
German is, however, the only modern literature in which alcaics have been written with much success. They were introduced by Klopstock, and used by Holderlin, by Voss in his translations of Horace, by A. Kopisch and other modern German
ALCALA (Moorish al Kala, the “ Fortress ” or “ Castle”), the name of thirteen Spanish towns, all founded or named by the Moors. Alcala de Henares (pop. (1900) 11,206) is separately
described on account of its historical importance. Alcala la Real (15,973), a picturesque town with a fine abbey, is situated in mountainous country in the extreme south-west of Jaén. Its distinctive name la Real, “ the Royal,” was conferred in memory of its capture by Alphonso XI. of Leon in 1340. In 18m the French under Count Sebastiani here defeated the Spaniards. Alcala de los Gazules (8877), on the river Barbate, in the province of Cadiz, has a thriving trade in cork and agricultural produce. Alcala de Guadaira (8198), on the river Guadaira, near Seville, is popularly called Alcala de los Panadores, or “ Alcala of the Bakers,’-’ because it supplies Seville with large quantities of bread. Alcala de Chisbert (6293) is situated on the coast of Castellon de la Plana; Alcala del Rio (3006), on the Guadalquivir, 6 m. N. of Seville; Alcala del Jucar (2968), on the Jucar, in Albacete; Alcalé. de la Selva (1490), on the southern slopes of the Sierra del Gudar, in Teruel; Alcalé. de la Vega (712), on the river Cabriel, in Cuenca; Alcala de Gurrea (632), on the river Seton, in Huesca; Alcala del Obispo (432), in the same province; Alcala de Ebro (388) and Alcalz'i de Moncayo (367), both in Saragossa.
ALCALA DE HENARES, a town of Spain, in the province of Madrid, 17 m. E.N.E. of Madrid, on the river Henares, and the Madrid-Saragossa railway. Pop. (1900) 11,206. Alcala de Henares contains a military academy and various public institutions, but its commercial importance is slight and its main interest is historical. The town has been identified with the Roman, Complutum, which was destroyed about the year 1000, and was rebuilt by the Moors in 1083. In later times it was renowned for its richly} endowed university, founded by Cardinal Jimenes de Cisneros in 1510, which at the height of its prosperity numbered 12,000 students, and was second only to that of Salamanca. Here the- famous edition of the Bible known as the Complutmsian Polyglal was prepared from 1514 to 1517. The college of San Ildefonso, completed in 1583, was the chief university building. Its modernized Gothic church, the Colegiata, contains the 16th century marble monument of Jimenes (d. 1 517) and a fine reredos. The greatest of Spanish writers, Cervantes, was born at Alcala de Henares, and baptized in the otherwise insignificant church of S. Maria on the 9th of October 1547. A tablet, set up in 1840, marks the house in which he is said to have been born. Other illustrious natives of the town were the emperor Ferdinand I. (150371564) and the Spanish dramatist and historian Antonio dc Solis (1610—1686). After the removal of the university to Madrid in 1836 the town rapidly declined, and the government turned most of the principal buildings erected by Cardinal Jimenes in the 16th century into a depot for the archives of various state departments. Here are kept very complete and curious documents of .the Inquisition, showing all its workings from the 15th to the 19th century. One of the principal libraries is the former palace of the archbishops of Toledo.
For a fuller description of Alcala see the Guia, del oia'ero en Alcald de Henares, by L. A. de la Torre (Alcalé, 1882). he following works are mainly of historical interest :-—M. de Ayala and F. Sastre, Alcalé de Henares (Madrid, 1890); j. C. Garcia, Ensayo de una TiPografia Complutense (Madrid, 1889); M. Pertilla y E, uivel, ‘Histarm de la ciudad de Com lute (Alcala, 1725—1728); arid the “ Annales Complutenses " and " hronicon Complutense " in Espafla Sagrada, by H. Florez and others (Madrid, 1754—1879).
ALCALDE (from the Arab. al-quadi, the “ Cadi ” or “ judge -”), the title in Spanish for officials of somewhat varied functions, in which, however, there is always a judicial element. Alcalde de corte was a judge of the palace court, having jurisdiction in and about the residence of the king. But the mayor of a. town or village who'discharged the functions of a justice of the peace was also an alcalde. It is in this sense that the title is now exclusively used. He is subject to yearly election and the post has often been an undesirable one in Spain. The title of alcalde must be carefully distinguished from alcaide, which is derived from the Arabic aJ-qudid, a general, and means the governor of a fortress.
ALCAMENES, a Greek sculptor of Lemnos and Athens. He was a younger contemporary of Pheidias and noted for the delicacy and finish of his works, among which a Hephaestus and an Aphrodite “ of the Gardens " were conspicuous. Pausanias says (v. 10. 8) that he was the author of one of the pediments of the temple of Zeus at Olympia (see GREEK ART), but this seems a chronological and stylistic impossibility. At Pergamum there was discovered in 1903 a copy of the head of the Hermes “ Propylaeus ” of Alcamenes (Alhenische M ittheilungen, 1904, p. 180). As, however, the deity is represented in an archaistic and conventional character, this copy cannot be relied on as giving us much information as to the usual style of Alcamenes, who was almost certainly a progressive and original artist. It is safer to judge him by the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon, in which he must almost certainly have taken a share under the direction of Pheidias.
ALCAMO, a town of Sicily, in the province of Trapani, 24 m. W.S.W. of Palermo direct (51% m. by rail). Pop. (1881) 37,497; (1901) 51,809. It was founded in A.D. 828 by the Saracenic chief Al-Kamuk, who erected the castle (which still stands, though considerably altered), but was christianized by the emperor Frederick II. in 1233, who removed the site lower down. It possesses some medieval buildings of interest. The surrounding district is very fertile and the trade in agricultural products is considerable.
ALCANTARA, a small seaport of Brazil, in the state of Maranhao, on the W. shore of the bay of Sao Marcos, 16 m. from the city of Maranhao by water. It has a fairly good harbour, and excellent cotton and rice are grown in the vicinity and shipped thence. ,
ALCANTARA, a town of western Spain, in the province of Caceres, situated on a rocky height on the left bank of the river Tagus, 7 m. from the Portuguese frontier. Pop. (1900) 3248. Alcantara (in Arab. “the bridge”) owes its name to the magnificent Roman bridge which spans the Tagus on the north-west. This was originally built about AD. 105, in honour of the Roman emperor Trajan and at the cost of eleven Lusitanian communities. It is entirely constructed of granite blocks, without cement, and consists of six arches of various sizes, with a total length of 616 feet and a height of about 190 ft. in the middle piers, which are surmounted by a fortified gateway. One of the arches was broken down in 1213 and rebuilt in 1553; another was blown up by the British troops in 1809, and, though temporarily reconstructed, was again destroyed in 1836, to prevent the passage of the Carlist forces. But in 1860 the whole was restored. A small Roman temple, dedicated to Trajan and other deified emperors, stood on the left bank, adjoining the bridge. It is doubtful, however, if Alcantara marks the site of any Roman town, though archaeologists have sometimes identified it either with Norba Caesarea or with Inleramm'um. It first became famous about 1215 as the stronghold of the knightly Order of Alcantara. Many of the grand masters of this order lie buried in the 13th-century Gothic church. The town possesses another interesting church built in 1506.
See Antiguedades y santos de la may noble villa. de Alcdnlara, by J. Arias de Quintanaduefias (Madrid, 1661); and Relrata politica dc Alaintara, by L. Santibafiez (Madrid, 1779).
ALCAVALA (Spanish, from Arab. al-quabalah, “ tax,” quabala, “ to receive "; cf. Fr. gabelle), a duty formerly charged in Spain and its colonies on all transfers of property, whether public or private. Originally imposed in 1341 by Alphonso XI. to secure freedom from the Moors, it was an ad valorem tax of 10, increased afterwards to 14%, on the selling price of all commodities, whether raw or manufactured, chargeable as often as they were sold or exchanged. It subjected every farmer, manufacturer, merchant and shopkeeper to the continual visits and examination of the tax-gatherers, whose number was necessarily very great. This monstrous impost was permitted to ruin the industry and commerce of the greater part of the kingdom up to the time of the invasion of Napoleon. Catalonia and Aragon purchased from Philip V. an exemption from the alcavala, and, though still burdened with other heavy taxes, were in consequence in a comparatively flourishing state,
ALCAZAR us SAN JUAN. or ArcAm, a town of Spain, in the vamea of Ciudad Real, in the plain of La Mancha, at
the junction of the Madrid-Manzanares and Madrid-Albacete railways. Pop. '(1900) 11,499. Owing to its position on two important railways, Alcazar has a flourishing transit-trade in the wines of Estremadura and Andalusia; the soda and alkali of La Mancha are used in the manufacture of soap; and gunpowder, chocolate and inlaid daggers are also made here. Alcézar is sometimes identified with the Roman Alce, captured by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 180 B.C. It derives its existing name from its medieval Moorish castle (al-kaxr), which was afterwards garrisoned by the knights of St John. The townsfolk contend that the great Cervantes was a native of Alcazar; and, although this claim must be disallowed, much of the action of his masterpiece, Don Quixote, takes place in the neighbourhood. El Toboso, for instance, a village 12 m. E.N.E. [pop. (1900) 1 895], was the home of the Lady Dulcinea del Tob050; Argamasilla de Alba (3505), 22 m. 5.15., is declared by tradition to be the birthplace of Don Quixote himself. Local antiquaries even identify the knight with Don Rodrigo de Pacheco, whose portrait adorns the parish church; and .the same authorities hold that part of the romance was written while Cervantes was a prisoner in their town. An edition of Don Quixote was published at Argamasilla in 1864.
ALCESTER, FREDERICK BEAUCHAMP PAGET SEYMOUR. BARON (1821—1895), British admiral, son of Colonel Sir Horace Beauchamp Seymour and cousin of Francis George Hugh Seymour, 5th marquess of Hertford, was born on the 12th of April 1821. Entering the navy in 1834, he served in the Mediterranean and the Pacific, was for three years flag-lieutenant to his uncle Sir George Seymour, and was promoted to be commander in 1847. He served in Burma as a volunteer in 1852, was made a captain in 1854, took the “Meteor” ironclad battery out to the Black Sea and home again in 1856, was captain of the “ Pelorus ” on the Australian station from 1857 to 1863, and commanded the naval brigade in New Zealand during the Maori War, 1860—61, for which he was made a CB. He became a rear-admiral in 1870; in 1871—1872 he commanded the flying squadron, was a lord of the admiralty in 1872—1874, and commanded the Channel fleet, 1874—1876. On the 3Ist of December 1876 he was made a vice-admiral, a K.C.B. pn the 2nd of June 1877. In 1880—1883 he was commander-in-chief oflthe fleet in the Mediterranean, and in 1880 had also the chief
command of the European squadron sent to the coast of Albania
as a demonstration to compel the Porte to cede Dulcigno to Montenegro. On the 24th of May 1881 he was made a G.C.B., and on the 6th of May 1882 was promoted to the rank of admiral. In July 1882 he commanded at the bombardment of Alexandria and in the subsequent operations on the coast of Egypt, for which service he was raised to the peerage as Baron Alcester of Alcester in the county of Warwick, received a parliamentary grant of £25,000, the freedom of the city of London and a sword of honour. On his return from the Mediterranean he was for a couple of years again at the admiralty, and in 1886 he was placed on the retired list. For the next nine years he lived chiefly in London, but latterly his health was much broken, and he died on the 30th of March 1895. He was unmarried and the peerage became extinct.
ALCESTER [pronounced Auster], a market-town in the Stratford-on-Avon parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England, 16 m. W.S.W. from Warwick by the Great Western railway, served also by the Birmingham‘Evesham branch of the Midland railway. Pop. (1901) 2303. It is pleasantly situated among low wooded bills at the junction of the small stream Alne with the Arrow, a northern tributary of the Avon. The church 'of St Nicholas, with the exception of the Decorated tower, is a reconstruction of 1734; among several monuments is 'a fine example of Chantrey’s work, to the 2nd marquess of Hertford (d. 1822). There are a picturesque town hall (1641), raised on stone columns, and a free grammar school. The manufacture of needles is less important than formerly, having been absorbed into the centre of the industry at Redditch in the neighbouring county of Worcestershire. There are implement works and cycle works, and brewing is prosecuted.