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streets are joined by alleys just wide enough to pass through. The houses, built of stone and whitewashed, are square, substantial, flat-topped buildings, presenting to the street bare walls, with a few slits protected by iron gratings in place of windows. Each house has a quadrangle in the centre, into which it looks, and which is entered by a low, narrow doorway. Shops in the native quarter are simply chambers in the walls of the houses, and open at the front. In these shops the few Moorish industries are carried on, such as embroidery in gold and silver thread, the making of kid slippers of every kind and colour, the manufacture of gold and silver ornaments. To European eyes the native city, with its motley throng of Moors, Arabs, Jews and negroes, is the most interesting sight in Algiers. Various squares are set apart for markets, and here are to be witnessed scenes of the greatest animation.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government ofiices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop—all these are fine Moorish houses; the “ Grand ” and the “ New ” Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliothéque Nationale d’Alger—a Turkish palace built in 1799—1800. The kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the building, the mosque turned into barracks, and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin. There still remain a minaret and some marble arches and columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the treasures of the dey. The Grand Mosque (Jamaa-el-Kebir) is traditionally said to be the oldest mosque in Algiers. The pulpit (mimbar) bears an inscription showing that the building existed in 1018. The minaret was built by Abu Tachfin, sultan of Tlemcen, in 1324. The interior of the mosque is square and is divided into aisles by columns joined by Moorish arches. The principal facade, in the rue de la Marine, consists of a row of white marble columns supporting an arcade. The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners. The minaret is 90 ft. high. The interior resembles that of the Grand Mosque. The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the southern end of the rue d’Isly near the site of the demolished Fort Bab Azoun. The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, British consul in 1580. One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried ofi its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M‘Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consul— general of Denmark, and wife of the British consul. When Lord Exmouth was about to bombard the city in 1816, the British consul was thrown into prison and loaded with chains. Mrs. M‘Donnell—who was but sixteen—escaped to the British fleet disguised as a midshipman, carrying a basket of vegetables in which her baby was hidden. (Mrs. M‘Donnell subsequently married the duc de Talleyrand-Perigord and died at Florence in 1880). Among later residents commemorated is Edward Lloyd, who was the first person to show the value of esparto grass for the manufacture of paper, and thus started an industry which is one of the most important in Algeria.
The cathedral of St Philippe, built on the site of a mosque, is in the place Malakoff, next to the governor-general’s palace. In its construction an attempt has been made to produce a building suitable for Christian worship whilst the architecture is Moorish in style. The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps, is ornamented with a portico supported by four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of Moorish plaster work. It rests on a series of arcades supported by white marble columns. Several of these columns belonged to the former mosque. In one of the chapels is a tomb containing the bones of San Geronimo. The finding of the remains of the saint in 1853
afforded striking confirmation of an incident recorded by a Spanish Benedictine named Haedo, who publisheda topography of Algeria in 1612. Haedo sets forth that a young Arab who had embraced Christianity and had been baptized with the name of Geronimo was captured by a Moorish corsair in 1569 and taken to Algiers. The Arabs endeavoured to induce Geronimo to renounce Christianity, but as he steadfastly refused to do so he was condemned to death. Bound hand and foot he was thrown alive into a mould in which a block of concrete was about to be made. The block containing his body was built into an angle of the Fort of the Twenty-four Hours, then under construction. In 1853 the Fort of the Twenty-four Hours was demolished, and in the angle specified by Haedo the skeleton of Geronimo was found. The bones were interred at St Philippe. Into the mould left by the saint’s body liquid plaster of Paris was run, and a perfect model obtained, showing the features of the youth, the cords which bound him, and even the texture of his clothing. This model is now in the museum at Mustapha (see below).
Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. There is also a lycée in which the instruction is similar to that given in France, and in which Christians, Jews and Mahommedans are educated together. The museum (a state institution), formerly housed in the same building as the library, was transferred in 1897 to a new building in the suburb of Mustapha Supérieur. In the museum are some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money. New buildings, to contain specimens of Moslem art, were added in 1903.
The port of Algiers is sheltered from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial—the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour. The northern harbour covers an area of 235 acres. The depth at the entrance is 72 to 108 ft., and in port from 36 to 66 ft. Two government dry docks are available for merchant vessels. The quays cover 18,000 sq. yds. There are three jetties, north, east and south. Within this barbour is the small harbour of the deys, now transformed into a wet dock. An opening in the south jetty afiords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay. This harbour is formed by the projection of a mole, 2500 ft. in length, from the eastern jetty of the old harbour. It provides extensive quayage with a minimum depth of water of 28 ft. Agha harbour has also an independent entrance on its southern side. Algiers is the chief coaling station in the Mediterranean, having become so largely at the expense of Gibraltar. In other respects the trade resembles that of other Algerian ports. (For trade statistics see ALGERIA.) The inner harbour was begun in r 518 by Khair—edDin (see History, below), who, to accommodate his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole. The lighthouse which occupies the site of Fort Penon was built in 1544. Work on the northern harbour was begun in 1836, on the southern in 1904. Algiers maintains communication with Marseilles by a quick service of steamers, which run the 497 miles across the Mediterranean in twenty-eight to thirty hours. The journey between Algiers and Paris, from which it is distant 1031 miles, is accomplished in about forty-five hours.
Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century. The French, after their occupation of the city (1830), built a rampart, parapet and ditch, with two terminal forts, Bab Azoun to the south and Bab—el-Oued to the north. The forts and part of the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century, when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bu Zarea (at an elevation of 1300 ft. above the sea) took their place.
Owing to the mildness of its climate Algiers has become a favourite resort for those seeking to escape the rigours of a European winter. The city is well supplied with water and its sanitary state is good. The mistral of the Riviera is entirely absent from Algiers, but in summer the city occasionally suffers from the sirocco or desert wind. The environs of Algiers are noted for their beauty and healthiness- Of the suburbs the most picturesque is MustaphaSupérieur, about 2 m. from the centre of the city on the slopes of the hills to the south. Here are the summer palace of the governor-general, many fine Moorish and French villas and luxurious hotels, all surrounded by beautiful gardens. A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club. Mustapha Inférieur is built on the lower slopes of the hills. Farther to the south is the large Jardin d’Essai, containing five avenues of palms, planes, bamboos and magnolias. Notre-Dame d’Afrique, a church built (18 58— 1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bu Zarea hills, 2 m. to the north of the city. Above the altar is a statue of the Virgin depicted as a black woman. The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraterm'ty of Neapolitan fishermen. Beyond Notre-Dame d’Afrique is the beautiful Valley of the Consuls, very little changed since the time of the deys. (The valley was in those days the favourite residence of the consuls.) At the Petit Séminaire, on the site of the old French consulate, Cardinal Lavigerie died (1892). ’
In 1906 the population of the commune of Algiers was 1 54,049; the population municipale, which excludes the garrison, prisoners, &c., was 145,280. Of this total 138,240 were living in the city proper or in Mustapha. Of the inhabitants 105,908 were Europeans. French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized F renchmen 23,3o5, Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews. The remainder of the population—all Mahommedans—are Moors, Arabs, Berbers, Negroes, with a few Turks. The vast majority of the Europeans are Roman Catholics. Most of the naturalized French citizens are of Spanish or Italian origin.
History—In Roman times a small town called Icosium existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near the rues Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. Bishops of Icosium—which was created a. Latin city by Vespasian . —are mentioned as late as the 5th century. The present city was founded in 944 by Bulukkin b. Zeiri, the-founder of the Zeirid-Sanhaja dynasty, which was overthrown by Roger II. of Sicily in 1148 (see F ATIMITES). The Zeirids had before that date lost Algiers, which in 1 1 59 was occupied by the Almohades, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Abd-elWahid, sultans of Tlemgen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid. The islet in front of the harbour, subsequently known as the Penon, had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter a considerable trade grew up between Algiers and Spain. Algiers, however, continued of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion from Spain of the Moors, many of whom sought an asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon. In 1516 the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the brothers Arouj and Khair-ed-Din (Barbarossa) to expel the Spaniards. Arouj came to Algiers, caused Selim to be assassinated, and seized the town. Khaired-Din, succeeding Arouj, drove the Spaniards from the Penon (153°) and was the founder of the pashalik, afterwards deylik, 0f Algeria. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October 1541 the emperor Charles V. sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number Of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their pasha, Hassan. Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch menpf-war, and the corsair fleet burned. The piracy of the Alilerizms was renewed and continued until 1830. On the 4th Of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day (see ALGERIA, History).
ALGOA BAY, a wide, shallow bay of South Africa, 436 m. E. from the Cape of Good Hope, bounded W. by Cape Recife, E. by Cape Padrone. St Croix Island in the bay is in 33° 47' S. 25° 46’ E. On this island Bartholomew Diaz made his second landing in South Africa some time after the 3rd of February 1488, and from the cross which he is thought to have erected on it the island gets its name. Algoa Bay was the first landing-place of the British emigrants to the eastern province of Cape Colony in 1820. At a. spot 6 111. NE. of Cape Recife these emigrants founded a town, Port Elizabeth (q.v.), its harbour being sheltered from all winds save the SE. By seafarers “ Algoa Bay ” is used as synonymous with Port Elizabeth.
ALGOL, the Arabic name (signifying “the Demon ") of B Persei, a star of the second magnitude, noticed by G. Montanari in 1669 to fluctuate in brightness. John Goodricke established in 1782 the periodicity of its change in about 2" 21", and suggested their cause in recurring eclipses by a large dark satellite. Their intermittent character prompted the supposition. The light of Algol remains constant during close upon 56 hours; then declines in 6% hours (approximately) to nearly one-fourth its normal amount, and is restored by sensibly the same gradations. The amplitude of the phase is 1'1 magnitude; and the absence of any stationary interval at minimum proves the eclipse to be partial, not annular. Its conditions were investigated from photometric data, by Professor E. C. Pickering in 1880;1 and itheir realization was finally demonstrated by Dr H. C. Vogel’s spectroscopic measures in 1889.2 Previously to each obscuration, the star was found to be moving rapidly away from the earth; its velocity thcn diminished to zero pari passu with the loss of light, and reversed its direction during the process of recovery. Algol, in fact, travels at the rate of 26- 3 miles a second round the centre of gravity of the system which it forms with an invisible companion, while the two together approach the sun with an unvarying speed of 2-3 miles per second. The elements of this disparate pair, calculated by Dr Vogel on the somewhat precarious assumption that its dark and bright members are of equal mean density, are as follows:—
Diameter of Algol .
,. Satellite . Distance from centre to centre . Mass of Algol . .
,, Satellite . i ,, .
Mean density . about i solar.
The plane of the joint orbit, in which no deviation from circularity has yet been detected, nearly coincides with the line of sight. The period of Algol, as measured by its eclipses, is subject to complex irregularities. It shortened fitfully by eight seconds between 1790 and 1879; soon afterwards, restoration set in, and its exact length in 1903 was 2“ 20" 48" 56", being only two seconds short of its original value. By an exhaustive discussion, Dr S. Chandler ascertained in 1888 the compensatory nature of these disturbances;3 and he afterwards found the most important among several which probably conspire to produce the observed effects, to be comprised in a period of 15,000 light-cycles, equivalent to 118 years.‘ An explanatory hypothesis, propoundcd by him in 1892,“ is still on its trial. The system of Algol, according to this view, is triple; it includes a large, obscure primary, round which the eclipsing pair revolves in an orbit somewhat smaller than that of Uranus, very slightly elliptical, and inclined 20° to the line of sight, the periodic time being 118 years. The alternate delay and acceleration of the eclipses are then merely apparent; they represent the changes in the length of the light-journey as the stars perform their wide circuit. If these suppositions have a basis of reality, the proper motion of Algol should be disturbed by a small, but measurable undulation, corresponding to the projection of its orbit upon the sky; and although certainty on the point cannot be attained for some years to come, Lewis Boss regarded the evidence available in 1895 as tending to confirm Dr Chandler’s theory.“
1,061,000 English miles.
834.300 .. n 3,230,000 n n 3 solar mass.
A rival interpretation of the phenomena it dealt with was put forward by F. Tisserand in 189 5.1 It involved the action of no third mass, but depended solely upon the progression of the line of apsides in a moderately elliptical orbit due to the spheroidal shape of the globes traversing it. Inequalities of the required sort in the returns of the eclipses would ensue; moreover, their duration should concomitantly vary with the varying distance from periastron at the times of their occurrence. It is a moot question whether changes of the latter kind actually occur. When they are proved to do so, Tisserand’s hypothesis will hold the field.
Algol gives a helium-spectrum which undergoes no alteration at minimum. Hence the light from the marginal and central portions of the disc is identical in quality, and the limb can be little, if at all, darkened by the “ smoke-veil ” absorption conspicuous in the sun. The rays of this star spend close upon a century in travelling hither. Dr Chase’s measures with the Yale heliometer indicated for it, in 1894, a parallax of about 0” -035 ; 1 and it must, accordingly, be of nearly four times the total brightness of Sirius, while its aerial lustre exceeds seventyfold that of the solar photosphere. Variables of the Algol class are rendered diflicult to discover by the incidental character of their fluctuations. At the end of 1905, however, about 37 had been certainly recognized, besides some outlying cases of indeterminate type, in which continuous occultations by two bright stars, revolving in virtual contact, are doubtftu supposed to be in progress. (A. M. C.)
ALGONQUIN, or ALGONKIN (a word formerly regarded as a French contraction of Algomequin, “ those on the other side ” of the river, viz. the St Lawrence, but now believed to be from the Micmac algoomaking—“ at the place of spearing fish ”), a collective term for a number of tribes of North American Indians dwelling in the valley of the Ottawa river and around the northern tributaries of the St Lawrence. The Algonquins allied themselves with the French against the Iroquois. Many were driven west by the latter and later became known as Ottawa. The French missionaries at work among the Algonquins early in the 17th century found their language to be the key to the many Indian dialects now included by philologists under the general term “ Algonquian stock.” The chief tribes included in this stock were the Algonquin, Malecite, Micmac, Nascapi, Pennacook, Fox, Kickapoo, Delaware, Cheyenne, Conoy, Cree, Mohican, Massachuset, Menominee, Miami, Misisaga, Mohegan, Nanticoke, Narraganset, Nipmuc, Ojibway, Ottawa, Pequot, Potawatami, Sac, Shawnee and Wampanoag. The Indians of Algonquian stock number between 80,000 and 90,000, of whom rather more than half are in the United States, the rest being in Canada. Of the Algonquins proper there remain about I 500 settled in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario.
For details see Handbook of American Indians, ed. F. W. Hodge, Washington, X907.
ALGUAZIL, a Spanish title often to be met in stories and plays, derived from the Arabic “ visir ” and the article “ al.” The alguazil among the early Spaniards was a judge, and sometimes the governor of a town or fortress. In later times he has gradually sunk down to the rank of an oflicer of the court, Who is trusted with the service of writs and certain police duties, but he is still of higher rank than the mere corchete or catch-poll. The title has also been given to inspectors of weights and measures in market-places, and similar ofiicials.
ALGUM, or ALMUG TREE. The Hebrew words Algummim or Almuggim are translated Algum or Almug trees in the authorized version of the Bible (see 1 Kings x. 11, 12; 2 Chron. 8, and ix. IO, 11); almug is an erroneous form (see Max Miiller, Science of Language, vol. i.). The wood of the tree was very precious, and was brought from Ophir (probably some part of India), along with gold and precious stones, by Hiram, and was used in the formation of pillars for the temple at Jerusalem, and for the king’s house; also for the inlaying of stairs, as well as for harps and psalteries. It is probably the red sanders or red
sandal-wood of India (Plerocarpur santalinus). This tree belongs to the natural order Leguminosae, sub-order Papilionaceae. The wood is hard, heavy, close-grained and of a fine red colour. It is difierent from the white fragrant sandal-wood, which is the produce of Santalqu album, a tree belonging to a distinct natural order Santalaceae. '
ALHAMA DE GRANADA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Granada, 24 m. S.W. of Granada. Pop. (1900) 7679. Alhama is finely situated on a ledge of rock which overlooks a deep gorge traversed by the river Marchan or Alhama; while the rugged peaks of the Sierra de Alhama rise behind it toaheight of 6800 ft. The town is largely modem; for over one thousand of its picturesque old Moorish houses, which formerly rose in terraces up the mountain side, were destroyed, together with five churches, the hospital, the theatre, the prison, and 800 of the inhabitants, in an earthquake which took place in 1884. Subscriptions were received from all parts of Spain, and the present town was built at a little distance from its predecessor. Few vestiges of antiquity survived, except- the baths from which Alhama (in Arabic “ the ‘Bath ”) derives its name. These are situated near the river, and appear to have been used continuously since Roman times (c. 19 B.c.-—A.D. 409). The temperature of the hot sulphurous springs is about 112° F .; and, as the waters are considered beneficial in cases of rheumatism and dyspepsia, many visitors come to Alhama in spring and autumn, attracted also by the fine scenery of the district. In the 15th century Alhama, and the neighbouring fortress of Loja (q.o.), were generally regarded as the keys of the kingdom of Granada, and their capture went far to insure the overthrow of the Moorish power. Alhama was taken by the Spanish marquis of Cadiz in 1482; and its fall is celebrated in an ancient ballad, Ay de mi, Alhama, which Byron translated into English.
ALHAMBRA, THE, an ancient palace and fortress of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain, occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. This terrace or plateau, which measures about 2430 ft. in length by 674 ft. at its greatest width, extends from W.N.W. to E.S.E., and covers an area of about 3 5 acres. It is enclosed by a strongly fortified wall, which is flanked by thirteen towers. The river Darro, which foams through a deep ravine on the north, divides the plateau from the Albaicin district of Granada; the Assabica valley, containing the Alhambra Park, on the west and south, and beyond this valley the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror, separate it from the Antequeruela district.
The name Alhambra, signifying in Arabic “the red,” is probably derived from the colour of the sun-dried tapia, or bricks made of fine gravel and clay, of which the outer walls are built. Some authorities, however, hold that it commemorates the red flare 0f the torches by whose light the work of construction was carried on nightly for many years; others associate it with the name of the founder, Mahomet Ibn Al Ahmar; and others derive it from the Arabic Dar a1 Amra, “ House of the Master.” (For an account of the period to which the Alhambra belongs, see GRANADA (city).) The palace was built chiefly between 1248 and I 3 54, in the reigns of Al Ahmar and his successors; but even the names of the principal artists employed are either unknown or doubtful. The splendid decorations of the interior are ascribed to Yusef 1., who died in 13 54. Immediately after the expulsion of the Moors in 1492, their conquerors began, by successive acts of vandalism, to spoil the marvellous beauty of the Alhambra. The open work was filled up with whitewash, the painting and gilding effaced, the furniture soiled, torn or removed. Charles V. (1 516—1 5 56) rebuilt portions in the modern style of the period, and destroyed the greater part of the winter palace to make room for a modern structure which has never been completed. Philip V. (1700—1746) Italianised the rooms, and completed the degradation by running up partitions which blocked up whole apartments, gems of taste and patient ingenuity. In subsequent centuries the carelessness of the Spanish authorities permitted this masterpiece of Moorish art to be still further defaced; and in 1812 some of the towers were blown up by the French under Count Sebastiani, while the whole buildings narrowly escaped the same fate. In
1821 an earthquake caused further damage. The work of restoration undertaken in 1828 by the architect José Contreras was endowed in 1830 by Ferdinand VII.; and after the death of Contreras in 1847, it was continued with fair success by his son Rafael (d. 1890), and his grandson Mariano.
The situation of the Alhambra is one of rare natural beauty; the plateau commands a wide view of the city and plain of Granada, towards the west andnorth, and of the heights of the Sierra Nevada, towards the east and south. Moorish poets describe it as“ a pearl set in emeralds,” in allusion to the brilliant colour of its buildings, and the luxuriant woods round them. The park (Alameda de la Alhambra), which in spring is overgrown with wild-flowers and grass, was planted by the Moors with roses, oranges and myrtles; its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought hither in 1812 by the duke of Wellington. The park is celebrated for the multitude of its nightingales, and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. These are supplied through a conduit 5 m. long, which is connected with the Darrov at the monastery of Jesus del Valle, above Granada. ‘
The Moorish portion of the Alhambra resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annexe for subordinates. The Alcazaba or citadel, its oldest part, is built on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau on the north-west. Only its massive outer walls, towers and ramparts are left. On its watch-tower, the Torre de la Vela, 85 ft. high, the flag of Ferdinand and Isabella was first raised, in token of the Spanish conquest of Granada, on the 2nd of January 1492. A turret containing a huge bell was added in the 18th century, and restored after being injured by lightning in 1881. Beyond the Alcazéba
Convento de ’ San Francisco
is the palace of the Moorish kings, or Alhambra properly so-called; and beyond this, again, is the Alhambra Alta (Upper Alhambra), originally tenanted by ofiicials and courtiers.
In spite of the long neglect, wilful vandalism and ill-judged restoration which the Alhambra has endured, it remains the most perfect example of Moorish art in its final European development, ——freed from the direct Byzantine influences which can be traced in the cathedral of Cordova, more elaborate and fantastic than the Giralda at Seville. The majority of the palace buildings are, in ground-plan, quadrangular, with all the rooms opening on to a central court; and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. In every case the exterior is left plain and austere, as if the architect intended thus to heighten by contrast the splendour of the interior. Within, the palace is unsurpassed for the exquisite detail of its marble pillars and arches, its fretted ceilings and the veil-like transparency of its filigree work in stucco. Sun and wind are freely admitted, and the whole effect is one of the most airy lightness and grace. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colours chiefly employed. The decoration consists, as a rule, of stiff , conventional foliage, Arabic inscriptions, and geometrical patterns wrought into arabesques of almost incredible intricacy and ingenuity. Painted tiles are largely used as panelling for the walls.
Access from the city to the Alhambra Park is aflorded by the Puerta de las Granadas (Gate of Pomegranates), a massive triumphal arch dating from the 1 5th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V., a fountain erected in 1 5 54, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This is the Puerta Judiciaria (Gate of Judgment), a massive horseshoe archway, surmounted by a square tower, and used by the Moors as an informal court of justice. A hand, with fingers outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye, is carved above this gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazaba from the Moorish palace. To the left of the passage rises the Torre del Vino (Wine Tower), built in 1 34 5, and used in the r6th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of Charles V., a cold-looking but majestic Renaissance building, out of harmony with its surroundings, which it tends somewhat to dwarf by its superior size. Its construction, begun in 1526, was abandoned about 1650.
The present entrance to the Palacio Arabe, or Casa Real (Moorish palace), is by a small door from which a corridor conducts to the Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles), also called the Patio de la Alberca (Court of the Blessing or Court of the Pond), from the Moorish birka, “ pond,” or berka, “ blessing.” This court is 140 ft. long by 74 ft. broad; and in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement, full of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides; There are galleries on the north and south sides; that on the south 27 ft. high, and supported by a marble colonnade. Underneath it, to the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three elegant windows with arches and miniature pillars. From this court the walls of the Torre de Comares are seen rising over the roof to the north, and reflected in the pond.
The Sala de los Ambajadores (Hall of the Ambassadors) is the largest in the Alhambra, and occupies all the Torre de Comares. It is a square room, the sides being 37 ft. in length, while the centre of the dome is 75 ft. high. This was the grand reception room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance. The tiles are nearly 4 ft. high all round, and the colours vary at intervals. Over them is a series of oval medallions with inscriptions, interwoven with flowers and leaves. There are nine windows, three on each facade, and the ceiling is admirably diversified with inlaid-work of white, blue and gold, in the shape of circles, crowns and stars—a kind of imitation of the vault of heaven. The walls are covered with varied stucco-work of most delicate pattern, surrounding many ancient escutcheons.
The celebrated Patio de los Leones (Court of the Lions) is an oblong court, 116 ft. in length by 66 ft. in breadth, surrounded by a low gallery supported on 1 24 white marble columns. A pavilion projects into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and light domed roof, elaborately ornamented. The square is paved with coloured tiles, and the colonnade with white marble; while the walls are covered 5 ft. up from the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below enamelled blue and gold. The columns supporting the roof and gallery are irregularly placed, with a view to artistic effect; and the general form of the piers, arches and pillars is most graceful. They are adorned by varieties of foliage, &c.; about each arch there is a large square of arabesques; and over the pillars is another square of exquisite filigree work. In the centre of the court is the celebrated Fountain of Lions, a magnificent alabaster basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not designed with sculptural accuracy, but as emblems of strength and courage.
The Sala de los Abencerrajes (Hall of the Abencerrages) derives its name from a legend according to which Boabdil, the last king of Granada, having invited the chiefs of that illustrious line to a banquet, massacred them here. This room is a perfect square, with a lofty dome and trellised windows at its base. The roof is exquisitely decorated in blue, brown, red and gold, and the columns supporting it spring out into the arch form in a remarkably beautiful manner. Opposite to this hall is the Sala de las dos Hermanas (Hall of the two Sisters), so-called from two very beautiful white marble slabs laid as part of the pavement. These slabs measure 15 ft. by 7% ft., and are without flaw or stain. There is a fountain in the middle of this hall, and the roof—a dome honeycombed with tiny cells, all difi'ercnt, and said to
number 5ooo—is a magnificent example of the so-ealled “ stalactite vaulting” of the Moors.
Among the other wonders of the Alhambra are the Sala de la Justicia (Hall of Justice), the Patio del Mexuar (Court of the Council Chamber), the Patio de Daraxa (Court of the Vestibule), and the Peinador de la Reina (Queen’s Robing Room), in which are to be seen the same delicate and beautiful architecture, the same costly and elegant decorations. The palace and the Upper Alhambra also contain baths, ranges of ,bedrooms and summerrooms, a whispering gallery and labyrinth, and vaulted sepulchres.
The original furniture of the palace is represented by the celebrated vase of the Alhambra, a splendid specimen of Moorish ceramic art, dating from 13 20, and belonging to the first period of Moorish porcelain. It is 4 ft. 3 in. high; the ground is white, and the enamelling is blue, white and gold.
Of the outlying buildings in connexion with the Alhambra. the foremost in interest is the Palacio de Generalife or Gineralife (the Moorish Jennat at Arif, “ Garden of Arif,” or “ Garden of the Architect”). This villa probably dates front the end of the 13th century, but has been several times restored. Its gardens, however, with their clipped hedges, grottos, fountains, and cypress avenues, are said to retain their original Moorish character. The Villa de los Martires (Martyrs’ Villa), on the summitof Monte Mauror,commemorates byitsname the Christian slaves who were employed to build the Alhambra, and confined here in subterranean cells. The Torres Bermejas (Vermilion Towers), also on Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200 men. Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base of Monte Mauror.
See Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra; from drawings taken an the spot by J. Goury and Owen Jones; walk a complete translation of the Arabic inscriptions and a historical notice of the Kings of Granada, by P. de Gayangos. These two magnificent folios, though first published in London between 1842 and 184i, give the best pictorial representation of the Alhambra. See also afael Contreras, La Alhambra, El Alcdzarw la gran Mezqtn'ta de Occidente (Madrid, 1885); The Alhambra, b ashin on lrvrng, was written in 1832, and rewritten in 1857, w en it ha already become widely celebrated for its picturesque and humorous descriptions. A wellillustrated edition was published in London in 1896.
ALHAZEN (ABU ALI AL-HASAN 1m: ALHASAN), Arabian mathematician of the 11th century, was born at Basra and died at Cairo in 1038. He is to be distinguished from another Alhazen who translated Ptolemy’s Almagest in the 10th century. Having boasted that he could construct a machine for regulating the inundations of the Nile, he was summoned to Egypt by the caliph Hakim; but, aware of the impracticability of his scheme, and fearing the caliph’s anger, he feigned madness until Hakim’s death in 102 r. Alhazen was, nevertheless, a diligent and successful student, being the first great discoverer in optics after the time of Ptolemy. According to Giovanni Battista della Porta, he first explained the apparent increase of heavenly bodies near the horizon, although Bacon gives the credit of this discovery to Ptolemy. He taught, previous to the Polish physicist Witelo, that vision does not result from the emission of rays from the eye, and wrote also on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, showing, e.g. the cause of morning and evening twilight. He' solved the problem of finding the point in a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one given point shall be reflected to another given point. His treatise on optics was translated into Latin by Witelo (1270), and afterwards published by F. Risner in 1572, with the title Opticae thesaurus Alhazeni libri V1 I ., cum ejusdem libro de crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus. This work enjoyed a great reputation during the middle ages. Works on geometrical subjects were found in the Bibliolhéque national: de Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sédillot; other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden. ‘
See Casiri, Bibl. Arab. His]? Escur.; . E. Montucla, Histoire des mathérnatiques ([6758), and . A. Sédil ot, Mate'riaux pour l'histos're dcs scumces math mattques.
ALI, in full, 'ALI BEN Am? TALIB (a. 600—661), the fourth of the caliphs or successors of Mahomet, was born at Mecca about