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till 1168 that the chief Wendish fortress, at Arkona in Riigen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was surrendered, the Wends agreeing to accept Danish suzerainty and the Christian religion at the same time. From Arkona Absalon proceeded by sea to Garz, in south Riigen, the political capital of the Wends, and an all but impregnable stronghold. But the unexpected fall of Arkona had terrified the garrison, which surrendered unconditionally at the first appearance of the Danish ships. Absalon, with only Sweyn, bishop of Aarhus, and twelve “ housecarls," thereupon disembarked, passed between a double row of Wendish warriors, 6000 strong, along the narrow path winding among the morasses, to the gates of the fortress, and, proceeding to the temple of the seven-headed god Riigievit, caused the idol to be hewn down, dragged forth and burnt. The whole population of Cara was then baptized, and Absalon laid the foundations of twelve churches in the isle of Riigen. The destruction of this chief sally-port of the Wendish pirates enabled Absalon considerably to reduce the Danish fleet. But he continued to keep a watchful eye over the Baltic, and in 1170 destroyed another pirate stronghold, farther eastward, at Dievenow on the isle of Wollin. Absalon’s last military exploit was the annihilation, ofi Strela (Stralsund), on Whit-Sunday 1184, of a Pomeranian fleet which had attacked Denmark’s vassal, Jaromir of Riigen. He was now but fifty-seven, but his strenuous life had aged him, and he was content to resign the command of fleets and armies to younger men, like Duke Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar II., and to confine himself to the administration of the empire which his genius had created. In this sphere Absalon proved himself equally great. The aim of his policy was to free Denmark from the German yoke. It was contrary to his advice and warnings that Valdemar I. rendered fealty to the emperor Frederick Barbarossa at Dole in 1162; and when, on the accession of Canute V. in 1182, an imperial ambassador arrived at Roskilde to receive the homage of the new king, Absalon resolutely withstood him. “ Return to the emperor,” cried he, “ and tell him that the king of Denmark will in no wise show him obedience or do him homage.” As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also rendered his country inestimable services, building churches and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and enlightenment. It was he who held the first Danish Synod at Lund in 1167. In 1178 he became archbishop of Lund, but very unwillingly, only the threat of excommunication from the holy see finally inducing him to accept the pallium. Absalon died on the zrst of March 1201, at the family monastery of $016, which he himself had richly embellished and endowed.

Absalon remains one of the most striking and picturesque figures of the Middle Ages, and was equally great as churchman, statesman and warrior. That he enjoyed warfare there can be no doubt; and his splendid physique and early training had well fitted him for martial exercises. He was the best rider in the army and the best swimmer in the fleet. Yet he was not like the ordinary fighting bishops of the Middle Ages, whose sole concession to their sacred calling was to avoid the “ shedding of blood ” by using a mace in battle instead of a sword. Absalon never neglected his ecclesiastical duties, and even his wars were of the nature of crusades. Moreover, all his martial energy notwithstanding, his personality must have been singularly winning; for it is said of him that he left behind not a single enemy, all his opponents having long since been converted by him into friends.

See Saxo, Gesla Danorum, ed. Holder (Strassburg. 1886). books x.xvi.; Steinstrup, Danmark‘s Ri es Historie. Oldtiden a den aldre Mfddelaldcr, pp. 570-735 (Copen agen, 1897—1905). ( . N. B.)

ABSCESS (from Lat. abscedere, to separate), in pathology, a)

collection of pus among the tissues of the body, the result of bacterial inflammation. Without the presence of septic organ~ isms abscess does not occur. At any rate, every acute abscess contains septic germs, and these may have reached the inflamed area by direct infection, or may have been carried thither by the blood-stream. Previous to the formation of abscess something has occurred to lower the vitality of the afiected tissue—


some gross injury, perchance, or it may be that the power of resistance against bacillary invasion was lowered by reason of constitutional weakness. As the result, then, of lowered vitality, a certain area becomes congested and effusion takes place into the tissues. This eflusion coagulates and a hard, brawny mass is formed which softens towards the centre. If nothing is done the softened area increases in size, the skin over it becomes thinned, loses its vitality (mortifies) and a small “ slough " is formed. When the slough gives way the pus escapes and, tension being relieved, pain ceases. A local necrosis or death of tissue takes place at that part of the inflammatory swelling farthest from the healthy circulation. When the attack of septic inflammation is very acute, death of the tissue occurs en masse, as in the core of a boil or carbuncle. Sometimes, however, no such mass of dead tissue is to be observed, and all that escapes when the skin is lanced or gives way is the creamy pus. In the latter case the tissue has broken down in a molecular form. After the escape of the core or slough along with a certain amount of pus, a space, the abscess-cavity, is left, the walls of which are lined with new vascular tissue which has itself escaped destruction. This lowly organized material is called granulation tissue, and exactly resembles the growth which covers the floor of an ulcer. These granulations eventually fill the contracting cavity and obliterate it by forming interstitial scar-tissue. This B called healing by second inten/ion.» Pus may accumulate in a. normal cavity, such as a joint or bursa, or in the cranial, thoracic or abdominal cavity. In all these situations, if the diagnosis is clear, the principle of treatment is evacuation and drainage. When evacuating an abscess it is often advisable to scrape away the lining of unhealthy granulations and to wash out the cavity with an antiseptic lotion. If the aftepdrainage of the cavity is thorough the formation of pus ceases and the watery discharge from the abscess wall subsides. As the cavity contracts the discharge becomes less, until at last the drainage tube can be removed and the external wound allowed to heal. The large collections of pus which form in connexion with disease of the spinal column in the cervical, dorsal and lumbar regions are now treated by free evacuation of the tuberculous pus, with careful antiseptic measures. The opening should be in as dependent a position as possible in order that the drainage may be thorough. If tension recurs after opening has been made, as by the blocking of the tube, or by its imperfect position, or by its being too short, there is likely to be a fresh formation of pus, and without delay the whole procedure must be gone through again. (E. O.")

ABSCISSA (from the Lat. abreirsus, cut off), in the Cartesian system of co-ordinates, the distance of a point from the axis of y measured parallel to the horizontal axis y

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(axis of x). Thus PS (or OR) is the abscissa of P. The word appears for the first time in a Latin work written by Stefano degli Angeli (1623—1697), a professor of mathematics in Rome. (See GEOMETRY, §Analylica1.)

ABSCISSION (from Lat. abscindere), a tearing away, or cutting ofl; a term used sometimes in prosody for the elision of a vowel before another, and in surgery especially for abscission of the cornea, or the removal of that portion of the eyeball situated in front of the attachments of the recti muscles; in botany, the separation of spores by elimination of the connexion.

ABSCOND (Lat. abscondere, to hide, put away), to depart in a secret manner; in law, to remove from the jurisdiction of the courts or so to conceal oneself as to avoid their jurisdiction. A person may “ abscond ” either for the purpose of avoidingarrest for a crime (see ARREST), or for a fraudulent purpose, such as the defrauding of his creditors (see BANKRUPTCY).

ABSENCE (Lat. absentia), the fact of being “away,” either in body or mind; “absence of mind ” being a condition in which the mind is withdrawn from what is passing. The special occasion roll-call atEton College is called “ Absence,” which the boys attend in their tall hats. A soldier must get permission or “ leave of abSencc ” before he can be away from his regiment. Seven years’ absence with no sign of life either by letter or message is held presumptive evidence of death in the law courts.


ABSENTEEISM, a term used primarily of landed proprietors who absent themselves from their estates, and live and spend their incomes elsewhere; in its more extended meaning it includes all those (in addition to landlords) who live out of a country or locality but derive their income from some source within it. Absenteeism is a question which has been much debated, and from both the economic and moral point of view there is little doubt that it has a prejudicial efiect. To it has been attributed in a great measure the unprosperous condition of the rural districts of France before the Revolution, when it was unusual for the great nobles to live on their estates unless compelled to do so by a sentence involving their “ exile ” from Paris. It has also been an especial evil in Ireland, and many attempts were made to combat it. As early as 1727 a tax of four shillings in the pound was imposed on all persons holding offices and employments in Ireland and residing in England. This tax was discontinued in 1753, but was re~imposed in 1769. In 1774 the tax was reduced to two shillings in the pound, but was dropped after some years. It was revived by the Independent Parliament in 1782 and for some ten years brought in a substantial amount to the revenue, yielding in 1790 as much as £63,089

AUTHORITIES.—-For a discussion of absenteeism from the economic point of view sec N. W. Senior, Lectures on the Rate a Wages, Political Economy; J. SaMill, Political Economy; J. R. Mc ulloch, Treatises and Essays on tlloney, 630., article “Absenteeism "; A. T. Hadley, Economics; on absenteeism in Ireland see A. Young, Tour in Ireland (1780); T. Prior, Dist of Absentee: (1729); E. Wakefield, Account 0 Ireland (1812); W. E. H. Leck , Ireland in the 18th Century 1892); A. E. Murray, History 1;; the Commercial and Financial Relations between England and relartd (1903); Parliamentary Papers, Ireland, 18 0, vii., ditto, I845, xix.-xxii.; in France, A. de Monchrétien, Traicte de l’aekonomie Politique ([615); A. dc Tocqueville, L'A mien Régime (1857); ll. Taine, Les Origines de la France contemporaine, l'ancien Regime (1876).

ABSINTHE, a liqueur or aromatized spirit, the characteristic flavouring matter of which is derived from various species of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Among the other substances generally employed in its manufacture are angelica root, sweet flag, dittany leaves, star-anise fruit, fennel and hyssop. A colourless “ alcoholate ” (see LIQUEURS) is first prepared, and to this the well-known green colour of the beverage is imparted by maceration with green leaves of wormwood, hyssop and mint. Inferior varieties are made by means of essences, the distillation process being omitted. There are two varieties of absinthe, the French and the Swiss, the latter of which is of a higher alcoholic strength than the former. The best absinthe contains 70 to 80% of alcohol. It is said to improve very materially by storage. There is a popular belief to the effect that absinthe is frequently adulterated with copper, indigo or other dye-stuffs (to impart the green colour), but, in fact, this is now very rarely the case. There is some reason to believe that excessive absinthe-drinking leads to effects which are specifically worse than those associated with over-indulgence in other forms of alcohol.

ABSOLUTE (Lat. absolvere, to loose, set free), a term having the general signification of independent, self-existent, unconditioned. Thus we speak of “absolute” as opposed to “limited” or “ constitutional ” monarchy, or, in common parlance, of an “ absolute failure,” i.e. unrelieved by any satisfactory circumstances. In philosophy the word has several technical uses. (1) In Logic, ithas been applied to non-connotative terms which do not imply attributes (sec CONNOTATION), but more commonly, in opposition to Relative, to terms which do not imply the exist< ence of some other (correlative) term; e.g. “father ” implies “ son,” “ tutor ” “ pupil,” and therefore each of these terms is relative. In fact, however, the distinction is formal, and, though convenient in the terminology of elementary logic, cannot be strictly maintained. The term “ man," for example, which, as compared with “ father,” “ son,” “ tutor,” seems to be absolute, is'obviously relative in other connexions; in various contexts it implies its various possible opposites, e.g. “ woman,” “ boy,” “ master," “ brute." In other words, every term which is


susceptible of definition is ipso jacto relative, for definition is precisely the segregation of the thing defined from all other things which it is not, Le. implies a relation. Every term which has a meaning is, therefore, relative, if only to its contradictory.

(2) The term is used in the phrase “ absolute knowledge " to imply knowledge per se. It has been held, however, that, since all knowledge implies a knowing subject and a known object, absolute knowledge is a contradiction in terms (see RELATIVITY). So also Herbert Spencer spoke of “absolute ethics,” as opposed to systems of- conduct based on particular local or temporary laws and conventions (see Ernrcs). 1

(3) By far the most important use of the word is in the phrase “ the Absolute ” (see Marxrnvsrcs). It is sufficient here to indicate the problems involved in their most elementary form. The process of knowledge in the sphere of intellect as in that of natural science is one of generalization, Le. the c0~ordination of particular facts under general statements, or in other words, the explanation of one fact by another, and that other by a third, and so on. In this way the particular facts or existences are left behind in the search for higher, more inclusive conceptions; as twigs are traced to one branch, and branches to one trunk, so, it is held, all the plurality of sense-given data is absorbed in a unity which is all-inclusive and self-existent, and has no “ beyond.” By‘ a metaphor this process has been described as the 65b; five: (as of tracing a river to its source). Other phrases from different points of view have been used to describe the idea, e.g. First Cause, Vital Principle (in connexion with the origin of life), God (as the author and sum of all being), Unity, Truth (is. the sum and culmination of all knowledge), Causa Causans, &c. The idea in different senses appears both in ideal< istic and realistic systems of thought.

The theories of the Absolute may be summarized briefly as follows. (i) The Absolute does not exist, and is not even in any real sense thinkable. This view is held by the empiricists, who hold that nothing is knowable save phenomena. The Absolute could not be conceived, for all knowledge is susceptible of definition and, therefore, relative. The Absolute includes the idea of necessity, which the mind cannot cognize. (2) The Absolute exists for thought only. In this theory the absolute is the unknown x which the human mind is logically compelled to postulate a Priori as the only coherent explanation and justification of its thought. (3) The Absolute exists but is unthinkable, because it is an aid to thought which comes into operation, as it were, as a final explanation beyond which thought cannot go. Its existence is shown by the fact that without it all demonstration would be a mere circular in probando or verbal exercise, because the existence of separate things implies some one thing which includes and explains them. (4) The Absolute both exists and is conceivable. It is argued that we do in fact conceive it in as much as we do conceive Unity, Being, Truth. The conception is so clear that its inexplicability (admitted) is of no account. Further, since the unity of our thought implies the absolute, and since the existence of things is known only to thought, it appears absurd that the absolute itself should be regarded as non-existent. The Absolute is substance in itself, the ultimate basis and matter of existence. All things are merely manifestations of it, exist in virtue of it, but are not identical with it. (5) Metaphysical idealists pursue this line of argument in a different way. For them nothing exists save thought; the only existence that can be predicated of any thing and, therefore, of the Absolute, is that it is thought. Thought creates God, things, the Absolute. (6) Finally, it has been held that we can conceive the Absolute, though our conception is only partial, just as our conception of all things is limited by the imperfect powers of human intellect. Thus the Absolute exists for us only in our thought of it (4 above). But thought itself comes from the Absolute which, being itself the pure thought of thoughts, separates from itself individual minds. It is, therefore, perfectly natural that human thought, being essentially homogeneous with the Absolute, should be able by the consideration of the universe to arrive at some imperfect conception of the source from which all is derived.

The whole controversy is obscured by inevitable difficulties in terminology. The fundamental problem is whether a thing which is by hypothesis infinite can in any sense be defined, and if it is not defined, whether it can be said to be cognized or thought. It would appear to be almost an axiom that anything which by hypothesis transcends the intellect (i.e. by including subject and object, knowing and known) is iPsa faclo beyond the limits of the knower. Only an Absolute can cognize an absolute.

ABSOLUTION (Lat. absolulio from absolvo, loosen, acquit), a term used in civil and ecclesiastical law, denoting the act of setting free or acquitting. In a criminal process it signifies the acquittal of an accused person on the 'ground that the evidence has either disproved or failed to prove the charge brought against him. In this sense it is now little used, except in Scottish law in the forms assoilzie and absolm'lor. The ecclesiastical use of the word is essentially different from the civil. It refers not to an accusation, but to sin actually committed (after baptism); and it denotes the setting of the sinner free from the guilt of the sin, or from its ecclesiastical penalty (excommunication), or from both. The authority of the church or minister to pronounce absolution is based on John xx. 23; Matt. xviii. 18; James v. 16, &c. In primitive times, when confession of sins was made before the congregation, the absolution was deferred till the penance was completed; and there is no record of the use of any special formula. Men were also encouraged, e.g. by Chrysostom, to confess their secret sins secretly to God. In course of time changes grew up. (1) From the 3rd century onwards, secret (auricular) confession before a bishop or priest was practised. For various reasons it became more and more common, until the fourth Lateran council (1215) ordered all Christians of the Roman obedience to make a confession once a year at least. In the Greek church also private confession has become obligatory. (a) In primitive times the penitent was reconciled by imposition of hands by the bishop with or without the clergy: gradually the office was left to be discharged by priests, and the outward action more and more disused. (3) It became the custom to give the absolution to penitents immediately after their confession and before the penance was performed. (4) Until the Middle Ages the form of absolution after private confession was of the nature of a prayer, such as “May the Lord absolve thee”; and this is still the practice of the Greek church. But about the 13th century the Roman formula was altered, and the council of Trent (1551) declared that the “ form ” and power of the sacrament of penance lay in the words Ego Ie absolvo, &c., and that the accompanying prayers are not essential to it. Of the three forms of absolution in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the Synods of 1871 and 1877) runs “1 absolve thee,” tracing the authority so to act through the church up to Christ: the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of absolution. In the Lutheran church also the practice of private confession survived the Reformation, together with both the exhibitive (I forgive, 81c.) and declaratory (I declare and pronounce) forms of absolution. In granting absolution, even after general confession, it is in some places still the custom for the minister, where the numbers permit of it, to lay his hands on the head of each penitent. (W. O. B.)

ABSOLUTISH, in aesthetics, a term applied to the theory that beauty is an objective attribute of things, not merely a subjective feeling of pleasure in him who perceives. It follows that there is an absolute standard of the beautiful by which all objects can be judged. The fact that, in practice, the judgments even of connoisseurs are perpetually at variance, and that the so-called criteria of one place or period are more or less opposed to those of all others, is explained away by the hypothesis that individuals are differently gifted in respect of the capacity to appreciate. (See AESTHETICS.)

In political philosophy absolutism, as opposed to constitutional government, is the despotic rule of a sovereign unrestrained by laws and based directly upon force. In the strict sense such


governments are rare, but it is customary to apply the term to a state at a relatively backward stage of constitutional development.

ABSORPTION OF LIGHT. The term “ absorption” (from Lat. absorbere) means literally “ sucking up ” or “ swallowing,” and thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively; it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media.

If a luminous body is surrounded by empty space, the light which it emits suffers no loss of energy as it travels outwards. The intensity of the light diminishes merely because the total energy, though unaltered, is distributed over a wider and wider surface as the rays diverge from the source. To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so immense. But when light is transmitted through a material medium, it always suffers some loss, the light energy being absorbed by the medium, that is, converted partially or wholly into other forms of energy such as heat, a portion of which transformed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy of a lower frequency. Even the most transparent bodies known absorb an appreciable portion of the light trans— mitted through them. Thus the atmosphere absorbs a part of the sun’s rays, and the greater the distance which the rays have to traverse the greater is the proportion which is absorbed, so that on this account the sun appears less bright towards sunset. On the other hand, light can penetrate some distance into all substances, even the most opaque, the absorption being, however, extremely rapid in the latter case.

The nature of the surface of a body has considerable influence on its power of absorbing light. Platinum black, for instance, in which the metal is in a state of fine division, absorbs nearly all the light incident on it, while polished platinum reflects the greater part. In the former case the light penetrating between the particles is unable to escape by refiexion, and is finally absorbed.

The question of absorption may be considered from either of two points of view. We may treat it as a superficial efl'ect, especially in the case of bodies which are opaque enough or thick enough to prevent all transmission of light, and we may investigate how much is reflected at the surface and how much is absorbed; or, on the other hand, we may confine our attention to the light which enters the body and inquire into the relation between the decay of intensity and the depth of penetration. We shall take these two cases separately.

Absorptive Powers—When none of the radiations which fall on a body penetrates through its substance, then the ratio of the amount of radiation of a given wave-length which is absorbed to the total amount received is called the “absorptive power " of the body for that wave-length. Thus if the body absorbed half the incident radiation its absorptive power would be $, and if it absorbed all the incident radiation its absorptive power would be 1. A body which absorbs all radiations of all wavelengths would be called a “perfectly black body." No such body actually exists, but such substances as lamp-black and platinum-black approximately fulfil the condition. The fraction of the incident radiation which is not absorbed by a body gives a measure of its reflecting Power, with which we are not here concerned. Most bodies exhibit a selective action on light, that is to say, they readily absorb light of particular wave-lengths, light of other wave-lengths not being largely absorbed. All bodies when heated emit the same kind of radiations which they absorb—an important principle known as the principle of the equality of radiating ‘and absorbing powers. Thus black substances such as charcoal are very luminous when heated. A tile of white porcelain with a black pattern on it will, if heated red-hot, show the pattern bright on a darker ground. On the other hand, those substances which either are good reflectors or good transmitters, are not so luminous at the same temperature; for instance, melted silver, which reflects well, is not so luminous as carbon at the same temperature, and common salt, which is very transparent for most kinds of radiation, when poured in a fused condition out of a bright red-hot crucible, looks almost like water, showing only a faint red glow for a moment or two. But all such bodies appear to lose their distinctive properties when heated in a vessel which nearly encloses them, for in that case those radiations which they do not emit are either transmitted through them from the walls of the vessel behind, or else reflected from their surface. This fact may be expressed by saying that the radiation within a heated enclosure is the same as that of a perfectly black body.

Coefiicienl of Absorption, and Law of Absorption.—The law which governs the rate of decay of light intensity in passing through any medium may be readily obtained. If 14; represents the intensity of the light which enters the surface, I; the intensity after passing through 1 centimetre, I, the intensity after passing through 2 centimetres, and so on; then we should expect that whatever fraction of In is absorbed in the first centimetre, the same fraction of I; will be absorbed in the second. That is, if an amount on is absorbed in the first centimetre, fl; is absorbed in the second, and so on. We have then

Ir = I001.) I: = 11(1-1') = Io(l-J')’ It = [1(1-1') = 10(1-1')’ and so on, so that if I is the intensity after passing through a thickness ! in centimetres I=Io(l-j)' (I)

We might call j, which is the proportion absorbed in one centimetre, the “coefficient of absorption ” of the medium. It would, however, not then apply to the case of a body for which the whole light is absorbed in less than one centimetre. It is better then to define the coefficient of absorption as a quantity 1: such that k/n of the light is absorbed in r/nth part of a centimetre, where n may be taken to be a very large number. The formula (1) then becomes

I = If“ (2) where e is the base of Napierian logarithms, and k is a constant which is practically the same as j for bodies which do not absorb very rapidly. .

There is another coeflicient of absorption (K) which occurs in Helmholtz’s theory of dispersion (see DISPERSION). It is closely related to the coefiicient k which we have just defined, the equation connecting the two being k=41rx/)\,)\ being the wavelength of the incident light.

The law of absorption expressed by the formula (2) has been verified by experiments for various solids, liquids and gases. The method consists in comparing the intensity after transmission through a layer of known thickness of the absorbent with the intensity of light from the same source which has not passed through the medium, k being thus obtained for various thicknesses and found to be constant. In the case of solutions, if the absorption of the solvent is negligible, the eflect of increasing the concentration of the absorbing solute is the same as that of increasing the thickness in the same ratio. In a similar way the absorption of light in the coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness is reduced by compression, because the density is increased in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced. This is not strictly the case, however, for such gases and vapours as exhibit well-defined bands of absorption in the spectrum, as these bands are altered in character by compression.

If white light is allowed to fall on some coloured solutions, the transmitted light is of one colour when the thickness of the solution is small, and of quite another colour if the thickness is great. This curious phenomenon is known as dichromalr'sm (from 6t-, two, and xpébpa, colour). Thus, when a strong light is viewed through a solution of chlorophyll, the light seen is a brilliant green if the thickness is small, but a deep blood-red for thicker layers. This efiect can be explained as follows. The solution is moderately transparent for a large number of rays


in the neighbourhood of the green part of the spectrum; it is, on the whole, much more opaque for red rays, but is readily penetrated by certain red rays belonging to a narrow region of the spectrum. The small amount of red transmitted is at first quite overpowered by the green, but having a smaller coefficient of absorption, it becomes finally predominant. The eflect is complicated, in the case of chlorophyll and many other bodies, by selective reflexion and fluorescence. For the molecular theory of absorption, see SPECTROSCOPY.

REFERENCES.——A. Schuster's Theory of Optics (1904); P. K. L. Drude's Theory of Optics (Eng. trans... 1902); F. H. Wiillner‘s Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Bd. iv. (1899). (j. R. C.)

ABSTEMII (a Latin word, from abs, away from, Iemetum, intoxicating liquor, from which is derived the English “ abstemious ” or temperate), a name formerly given to such persons as could not partake of the cup of the Eucharist on account of their natural averSion to wine. Calvinists allowed these to communicate in the species of bread only, touching the cup with their lip; a course which was deemed a profanation by the Lutherans. Among several Protestant sects, both in Great Britain and America, abstemii on a somewhat different principle have appeared in modern times. These are total abstainers, who maintain that the use of stimulants is essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used by Christ and his disciples at the supper was unfermented. They accordingly communicate in the unfermented “ juice of the grape.”

ABSTINENCE (from Lat. abstinere, to abstain), the fact or habit of refraining from anything, but usually from the indulgence of the appetite and especially from strong drink. “ Total abstinence" and “total abstainer ” are associated with taking the pledge to abstain from alcoholic liquor (see TEMPERANCE). In the discipline of the Christian Church abstinence is the term for a less severe form of Fasting (q.v.).

ABSTRACTION (Lat. abs and Irahere), the process or result of drawing away; that which is drawn away, separated or derived. Thus the noun is used for a summary, compendium or epitome of a larger work, the gist of which is given in a concentrated form. Similarly an absent-minded man is said to be “ abstracted," as paying no attention to the matter in hand. In philosophy the word has several closely related technical senses. (r) In formal logic it is applied to those terms which denote qualities, attributes, circumstances, as opposed to concrete terms, the names of things; thus “ friend ” is concrete, “ friendship ” abstract. The term which expresses the connotation of a word is therefore an abstract term, though it is probably not itself connotative; adjectives are concrete, not abstract, e.g. “ equal ” is concrete, “ equality ” abstract (cf. Aristotle’s aphaeresis and prosthesis). (2) The process of abstraction takes an important place both in psychological and metaphysical speculation. The psychologist finds among the earliest of his problems the question as to the process from the perception of things seen and heard to mental conceptions, which are ultimately distinct from immediate perception (see Psvcnorocv). When the mind, beginning with isolated individuals, groups them together in virtue of perceived resemblances and arrives at a unity in plurality, the process by which attention is diverted from individuals and concentrated on a single inclusive concept (11¢. classification) is one of abstraction. All orderly thought and all increase of knowledge depend partly on establishing a clear and accurate connexion between particular things and general ideas, rules and principles. The nature of the resultant concepts belongs to the great controversy between Nominalism, Realism and Conceptualism. Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural science. This, again, is a process of abstraction, the attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence. The final step in the process is the conception of the Absolute (q.v.), which is abstract in the most complete sense.

Abstraction difl'ers from Analysis, inasmuch as its object is to select a particular quality for consideration in itself as it is found in all the objects to which it belongs, whereas analysis considers all the qualities which belong to a single object.

ABSTRACT OF TITLE, in English law, an epitome of the various instruments and events under and in consequence of which the vendor of an estate derives his title thereto. Such an abstract is, upon the sale or mortgage of an estate, prepared by some competent person for the purchaser or mortgagee, and verified by his solicitor by a comparison with the original deeds. (See Convcvancmc.)

AB'l‘, FRANZ (1819—1885), German composer, was born on the 22nd of December 1819 at Eilenburg, Saxony, and died at Wiesbaden on the gist of March 1885. The best of his popular songs have become part of the recognized art-folk-music of Germany; his vocal works, solos, part-songs, &c., enjoyed an extraordinary vogue all over Europe in the middle of the 19th century, but in spite of their facile tunefulness have few qualities of lasting b'eauty. Abt was kapcllmeistcr at Bernburg in 1841, at Zurich in the same year and at Brunswick from 1852 to 1882, when he retired to Wiesbadcn.

ABU, a mountain of Central India, situated in 24° 36’ N. lat. and 72° 43’ E. long., within the Rajputana state of Sirohi. It is an isolated spur of the Aravalli range, being completely detached from that chain by a narrow valley 7 miles across, in which floWs the western Banas. It rises from the surrounding plains of Marwar like a precipitous granite island, its various peaks ranging from 4000 to 5653 feet. The elevations and platforms of the mountain are covered with elaborately sculptured shrines, temples and tombs. On the top of the hill is a small round platform containing a cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the

impression of the feet of Data-Bhrigu, an incarnation of Vishnu.

This is the chief place of pilgrimage for the Jains, Shrawaks and Banians. The two principal temples are situated at Deulwara, about the middle of the mountain, and five miles south-west of Guru Sikra, the highest summit. ' They are built of white marble, and are pro-eminent alike for their beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in India. The more modern of the two was built by two brothers, rich merchants, between the years 1197 and 1247, and for delicacy of carving and minute beauty of detail stands almost unrivalled, even in this land of patient and lavish labour. The other was built by another merchant prince, Vimala Shah, apparently about A.D. 103 2, and, although simpler and bolder in style, is as elaborate as good taste would allow in a purely architectural object. It is one of the oldest as well as one of the most complete examples of Jain architecture known. The principal object within the temple is a cell lighted only from the door, containing a cross-legged seated figure of the god Parswanath. The portico is composed of forty-eight pillars, the whole enclosed in an oblong courtyard about 140 feet by 90 feet, surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pillars, forming portiCOs to a range of fifty-five cells, which enclose it on all sides, exactly as they do in a Buddhist monastery (vihdra). In this temple, however, each cell, instead of being the residence of: a monk, is occupied by an image ‘of Parswanath, and over the door, or on the jambs of each, are sculptured scenes from the life of the deity. The whole interior is magnificently ornamented. Abu is now the summer residence of the governor-general’s agent for Rajputana, and a place of resort for Europeans in the hot weather. It is 16 miles from the Abu road station of the Rajputana railway. The annual mean temperature is about 70°, rising to 90° in April; but the heat is never oppressive. The annual rainfall is about 68 inches. The hills are laid out with driving~roads and bridle-paths, and there is a beautiful little lake. The chief buildings are a church, club, hospital and a Lawrence asylum school for the children of British soldiers. ABU-BEKR (573~634), the name (“Father of the virgin ”) of the first of the Mahommcdan caliphs (see Cnurn). He was originally called Abd-el-Ka‘ba (“ servant of the temple "), and received the name by which he is known historically in consequence of the marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to Mahomet. He was born at Mecca in the year AD. 573, a Koreishite of the tribe of Beni-Taim. Possessed of immense wealth, which he had himself acquired in commerée, and held


in high esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams and a depositary of the traditions of his race, his early accession to Islamism was a fact of great importance. On his conversion he assumed the name of Abd-Alla (servant of God). His own belief

in Mahomet and his doctrines was so thorough as to procure

for him the title El Siddik (the faithful), and his success in gaining converts was correspondingly great. In his personal relationship to the prophet he showed the deepest veneration and most unswerving devotion. When Mahomet fled from Mecca, Abu-Bekr was his sole companion, and shared both his hardships and his triumphs, remaining constantly with him until the day of his death. During his last illness the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr as his successor by desiring him to offer up prayer for the people. The choice was ratified by the chiefs of the army, and ultimately confirmed, though Ali, Mahomet’ssonin-law, disputed it, asserting his own title to the dignity. After a time Ali submitted, but the difierence of opinion as to his claims gave rise to the controversy which still divides the followers of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and Shiites. Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed his new position (632), under the title Califet-Resul-Allah (successor of the prophet 0] God), when he was called to suppress the revolt of the tribes Hejaz and Nejd, of which the former rejected Islamism and. the latter refused to pay tribute. He encountered formidable opposition from different quarters, but in every case he was successful, the severest struggle being that with, the impostor Mosailima, who was finally defeated by Khalid at the battle of Akraba. Abu-Bekr’s zeal for the spread of the new faith was as conspicuous as that of its founder had been. When the internal disorders had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he directed his generals to foreign conquest. The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition'into Syria. After the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing 'that the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten when those who had listened to them had all been removed by death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preservation in a written form. The record, when completed, was deposited with Hafsa, daughter of Omar, and one of the wives of Mahomet. It was held in great reverence by all Moslems, though it did not possess

canonical authority, and furnished most of the materials out of

which the Koran, as it now exists, was prepared. When'the authoritative version was completed all copies of Hafsa’s record were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and divisions. Abu-Bekr died on the 23rd of August 634. Shortly before his death, which one tradition ascribesto poison, another to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, after the manner Mahomet had observed in his own case. '

ABU HAMED, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan on the right bank of the Nile, 345 m. by rail N. of Khartum. It stands at the centre of the great S-shaped bend of the Nile, and from it the railway to Wadi Halfa strikes straight across the Nubian desert, a little west of the old caravan route to Korosko. A branch railway, 138 m. long, from Abu Hamed goes down the right bank of the Nile to Kareima in the Dongola mudiria. The town is named after a celebrated sheikh buried here, by whose tomb travellers crossing the desert used formerly to deposit all superfluous goods, the sanctity of the saint’s tomb ensuring their safety. "

ABU HANlFA AN-NU‘MAN IBN THABl'l‘, Mahommedan canon lawyer, was born at Kufa in A.1{. 80 (A.D. 699) of nonArab and probably Persian parentage. Few eVents of his life are known to us with any certainty. He was a silk~dealer and a man of considerable means, so that he was able to give his time to legal studies. He lectured at Kufa upon canon law (fiqh) and was a consulting lawyer (mufti), but refused steadily to take any public post. When al-Mansfir, however, was building Bagdad (145-140) Abu Hanifa was one of the four overseers whom he appointed over the craftsmen (G. Le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 17). In A.H. 150 (AD. 767) he died there under circumstances which are very differently reported. A persistent but apparently later tradition

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