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cryolite saturated with alumina is 2-3 5, and that of the fluoride ALF; 2NaF saturated with alumina 1-97. The latter therefore appears the better material, and was originally preferred by Hall; cryolite, however, dissolves more alumina, and has been finally adopted by both inventors.

Aluminium is a white metal with a characteristic tint which most nearly resembles that of tin; when impure, or after prolonged exposure to air, it has a slight violet shade. Its atomic weight is 27 (26-77, H=I, according to J. Thomsen). It is trivalent. The specific gravity of cast metal is 2- 583, and of rolled 2-088 at 4° C. It melts at 626° C. (freezingpoint 654-5", Hcycock and Neville). It is the third most malleable and sixth most ductile metal, yielding sheets 0-0000: 5 in. in thickness, and wires 0-004 in. in diameter. When quite pure it is somewhat harder than tin, and its hardness is considerablv increased by rolling. It is not magnetic. It stands near the positive end of the list of elements arranged in electromotive series, being exceeded only by the alkalis and metals of the alkaline earths; it therefore combines eagerly, under suitable conditions, with oxygen and chlorine. Its coefficient of linear expansion by heat is 0-0000222 (Richards) or 0-0000231 (RobertsAusten) per 1" C. Its mean specific heat between 0° and 100° ls 0-227, and its latent heat of fusion 100 calories (Richards). Only silver, copper and gold surpass it as conductors of heat, its value being 31-33 (Ag== roo, Roberts-Austen). Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99-6 % metal, is 60- 5 % that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal weights, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency. The average strength of 98 % metal is approximately shown by the following table:—


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Weight for weight, therefore, aluminium is only exceeded in tensile strength by the best cast steel, and its own alloy, aluminium bronze. An absolutely clean surface becomes tarnished in damp air, an almost invisible coating of oxide being produced, just as happens with zinc; but this film is very permanent and prevents further attack. Exposure to air and rain also causes slight corrosion, but to nothing like the same extent as occurs with iron, copper or brass. Commercial electrolytic aluminium of the best quality contains as the average of a large number of‘ tests; 0-48 % of silicon and 0-46 % of iron, the residue being essentially aluminium itself. The metal in mass is not affected by hot or cold water, the foil is very slowly oxidized, while the amalgam decomposes rapidly. Sulphuretted hydrogen having no action upon it, articles made of it are not blackened in foggy weather or'in rooms where crude coal gas is burnt. To inorganic acids, except hydrochloric, it is highly resistant, ranking well with tin in this respect; but alkalis dissolve it quickly. Organic acids such as vinegar, common salt, the natural ingredients of food, and the various extraneous substances used as food preservatives, alone or mixed together, dissolve traces of it if boiled for any length of time in a chemicallyclean vessel; but when aluminium utensils are submitted to the ordinary routine of the kitchen, being used to heat or cook milk, coffee, vegetables, meat and even fruit, and are also cleaned frequently in the usual fashion, no appreciable quantity of metal passes into the food. Moreover, did it do so, the action upon the human system would be infinitely less harmful than similar doses of copper or of lead.

The highly electro-positive character of aluminium is most important. At elevated temperatures the metal decomposes nearly all other metallic oxides, wherefore it is most serviceable as a metallurgical reagent. In the casting of iron, steel and brass, the addition of a trifling proportion (0-005 %) removes oxide and renders the molten metal more fluid, causing the


finished products to be more homogeneous, free from blow-holes and solid all through. On the other hand, its electro-positive nature necessitates some care in its utilization. If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate. This explains the failure of boats built of commercially pure aluminium which have been put together with iron or copper rivets, and the decay of other boats built of a light alloy, in which the alloying metal (copper) has been injudiciously chosen. It also explains why aluminium is so difficult to join with lowtemperature solders, for these mostly contain a large proportion of lead. This disadvantage, however, is often overestimated since in most cases other means of uniting two pieces are available. _

The metal produces an enormous number of useful alloys, some of which, containing only I or 2 % of other metals, combine the lightness of aluminium itself with far greater hardness and strength. Some with 90 to 99 % of other metals exhibit the general properties of those metals conspicuously improved. Among the heavy alloys, the aluminium bronzes (Cu, 90-97-5 %; Al, 10-2-5 %) occupy the most important position, showing mean tensile strengths increasing from 20 to 41 tons per sq. in. as the percentage of aluminium rises, and all strongly resisting corrosion in air or sea-water. The light copper alloys, in which the proportions just given are practically reversed, are of considerably less utility, for although they are fairly strong, they lack power to resist galvanic action. This subject is far from being exhausted, and it is not improbable that the alloy-producing capacity of aluminium may eventually prove its most valuable characteristic. In the meantime, ternary light alloys appear the most satisfactory, and tungsten and copper, or tungsten and nickel, seem to be the best substances to add. '

The uses of aluminium are too numerous to mention. Probably the widest field is still in the purification of iron and steel. T o the general public it appeals most strongly as a material for constructing cooking utensils. It is not brittle like porcelain and cast iron, not poisonous like lead-glazed earthenware and untinned copper, needs no enamel to chip off, does not rust and wear out like cheap tin-plate, and weighs but a fraction of other substances. It is largely replacing brass and copper in all departments of industry—especially where dead weight has to be moved about, and lightness is synonymous with economy—for instance, in bed-plates for torpedo-boat engines, internal fittings for ships instead of wood, complete boats for portage, motor-car parts and boiling-pans for confectionery and in chemical works. The British Admiralty employ it to save weight in the Navy, and the war-offices of the European powers equip their soldiers with it wherever possible. As a substitute for Solcnhofen stone it is used in a modified form of lithography, which can be performed on rotary printingmachines at a high speed. With the increasing price of copper, it is coming into vogue as an electrical conductor for uncovered mains; it is found that an aluminium wire 0-126 in. in diameter will carry as much current as a copper wire 0- 100 in. in diameter, while the former weighs about 79 lb and the latter 162 lb per mile. Assuming the materials to be of equal tensile strength per unit of area—hard-drawn copper is stronger, but has a lower conductivity—the adoption of aluminium thus leads to a reduction of 52 % in the weight, a gain of 60% in the strength, and an increase of 26 % in the diameter of the conductor. Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers. When the price of aluminium is less than double the price of copper aluminium is cheaper than copper per unit of electric current conveyed; but when insulation is necessary, the smaller size of the copper wire renders it more economical. Aluminium conductors have been employed on heavy work in many places, and for telegraphy and telephony


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they are in frequent demand and give perfect satisfaction. Difficulties were at first encountered in making the necessary joints, but these have been overcome by practice and experience. Two points connected with this metal are of sufficient moment to demand a few words by way of conclusion. Its extraordinary lightness forms its chief claim to general adoption, yet is apt to cause mistakes when its price is mentioned. It is the weight of a mass of metal which governs its financial value; its industrial value, in the vast majority of casss, depends on the volume of that mass. Provided it be rigid, the bed-plate of an engine is no better for weighing 30 cwt. than for weighing IO cwt. A saucepan is required to have a certain diameter and a certain depth in order that it may hold a certain bulk of liquid: its weight is merely an encumbrance. Copper being 3'} times as heavy as aluminium, whenever the latter costs less than 3} times as much as copper it is actually cheaper. It must be remembered, too, that electrolytic aluminium only became known during the last decade of the 19th century. Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won. Much has yet ' to be learnt about the practical qualities of the electrolytic product, and although every day’s experience servesto place the metal in a firmer industrial position, a final verdict can only be passed after the lapse of time. The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Héroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when We consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in .the generic name of “ iron "—which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients—had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools. (E. J. R.)

Comjwimds of Aluminium.

Aluminium oxide or alumina, A1203, occurs in nature as the mineral corundum (q.v.), notable for its hardness and abrasive power (see EMERY), and in well-crystallized forms it constitutes, when coloured by various metallic oxides, the gem-stones, sapphire, oriental topaz, oriental amethyst and oriental emerald. Alumina is obtained as a white amorphous powder by heating aluminium hydroxide. This powder, provided that it has not been too strongly ignited, is soluble in strong acids; by ignition it becomes denser and nearly as hard as corundum; it fuses in the oxyhydrogen flame or electric arc, and on cooling it assumes a crystalline form closely resembling the mineral species. Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat. These reactions are of special interest, for they culminate in the production of artificial ruby and sapphire (see GEMS, ARTIFICIAL).

Aluminium H ydrales.—-Several hydrated forms of aluminium oxide are known. Of these hydrargillite or gibbsite, Al(OH);, diaspore, AlO(OH), and bauxite, Al,O(OH)4, occur in the mineral kingdom. Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH),, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque. By drying at ordinary temperatures, the hydrate Al(OH);-H¢O is obtained; at 300° this yields AlO(OH), which on ignition gives alumina, A1208. Precipitated aluminium hydrate finds considerable application in dyeing. Soluble modifications were obtained by Walter Crum (Jaum. Chem. Soc., 1854, vi. 216), and Thomas Graham (Phil. Troas., 186:, p. 163); the first named decomposing aluminium acetate (from lead acetate and aluminium sulphate) with boiling water, the latter diulysing a solution of the basic chloride (obtained by dissolving the hydroxide in a solution of the normal chloride).


Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum’s hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.

In addition to behaving as a basic oxide, aluminium oxide (or hydrate) behaves as an acid oxide towards the strong bases with the formation of aluminates. Potassium aluminate, KzAlgO., is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo. Sodium aluminate is obtained in the manufacture of alumina; it is used as a mordant in dyeing, and has other commercial applications. Other aluminates (in particular, of iron and magnesium), are of frequent occurrence in the mineral kingdom, e.g. spinel, gahnite, &c.

Salts of Aluminium—Aluminium forms one series of salts, derived from the trioxide, A1201. These exhibit, in certain cases, marked crystallographical and other analogies with the corresponding salts of chromium and ferric iron.

Aluminium fluoride, Ang, obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and subliming the residue in a current of hydrogen, forms transparent, very obtuse rhombohedra, which are insoluble in water. It forms a series of double fluorides, the most important of which is cryolite (q.v.); this mineral has been applied to the commercial preparation of the metal (see above). Aluminium chloride, AlCh, was first prepared by Oersted, who heated a mixture of carbon and alumina in a current of chlorine, a method subsequently improved by Wohler, Bunsen, Deville and others. A purer product is obtained by heating aluminium turnings in a current of dry chlorine, when the chloride distils over. So obtained, it is a white crystalline solid, which slowly sublimes just below its melting point (194°). Its vapour density at temperatures above 750° corresponds to the formula AlCh; below this point the molecules are associated. It is very hygroscopic, absorbing water with the evolution of hydrochloric acid. It combines with ammonia to form AlCh-3NIL; and forms double compounds with phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus oxychloride, selenium and tellurium chlorides, as well as with many metallic chlorides; sodium aluminium chloride, AlCh-NaCl, is used in the production of the metal. As a sym thetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues. Aluminium bromide, ,AlBrg, is prepared in the same manner as the chloride. It forms colourless crystals, melting at 90°, and boiling at 265°-27o°. Aluminium iodide, AIL, results from the interaction of iodine and aluminium. It forms colourless crystals, melting at 18 5°, and boiling at 360°. Aluminium sulphide, A1,s,, results from the direct union of the metal with sulphur, or when carbon disulphide vapour is passed over strongly heated alumina. It forms a yellow fusible mass, which is decomposed by water into alumina and sulphuretted hydrogen. Aluminium sulphate Al(SOi);, occurs in the mineral kingdom as keramohalite, Al,(SOt),-18HQO, found near volcanoes‘and in alum-shale; aluminite or websterite is a basic salt, Alg(SO4)(OH)4‘7H70. Aluminium sulphate, known commercially as “ concentrated alum ” or “ sulphate of alumina,” is manufactured from kaolin or china clay, which, after roasting (in order to oxidize any iron present), is heated with sulphuric acid, the clear solution run off, and evaporated. “ Alum cake ” is an impure product. Aluminium sulphate crystallizes as Al,(SOt);-18H¢O in tablets belonging to the monoclinic system. It has a sweet astringent taste, very soluble in water, but scarcely soluble in alcohol. On heating, the crystals lose water, swell up, and give the anhydrous sulphate, which, on further heating, gives alumina. It forms double salts with the sulphates of the metals of the alkalis, known as the alums (see ALUM).

Aluminium nitride (MN) is obtained as small yellow crystals when aluminium ‘is strongly heated in nitrogen. The nitrate, Al(N0:):, is obtained as deliquescent crystals (with 8H,O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in nitric acid. Aluminium phosphates may be prepared by precipitating a soluble aluminium salt with sodium phosphate. Wavellite Ala(POl),(OH)15-9H¢O, is a naturally occurring basic phosphate, while the gem-stone turquoise (q.v.) is A1(PO4) (OH);-H20, coloured by traces of copper. Aluminium silicates are widely diffused in the mineral kingdom, being present in the commonest rock~forming minerals (felspars, &c.), and in the gem-stones, topaz, beryl, garnet, &c. It also constitutes with sodium silicate the mineral lapis-lazuli and the pigment ultramarine (q.v.). Forming the basis of all clays, aluminium silicates play

'a rominent part in the manufacture of potter and porcelain.

lBLlOGRAPHY.—~Thc metallurgy and uses 0 aluminium are treated in detail in P. Moissonnier, L'Alumim'um (Paris, 1903); in I. W. Richards, Aluminium (1896); and in A. Minet, Production of Aluminium, Eng. trans. by L. Waldo (1905); reference may also be made to treatises on general metallurgy, e.g. C. Schnabel, Handbook of Metallurgy, vol. ii. (1?07). For the chemistry see Roscoe and Schlorlemmer, Treatise on norgam'c Chemistry, vol. ii. (I 08); H. Moissan, Trailé dc chimie mim‘rale; Abeg , Handbuch er anorgam'schen Chemie; and O. Dammer, Ha uch der anorganischen Chemie. Aluminium alloys have been studied in detail by Guillet.

ALUNITE, or ALUMS'I‘ONE, a mineral first observed in the 15th century at Tolfa, near Rome, where it is mined for the manufacture of alum. Extensive deposits are also worked in Tuscany and Hungary, and at Bulladelah in New South Wales. By repeatedly roasting and lixiviating the mineral, alum is obtained in solution, and this is crystallized out by evaporation. Alunite occurs as seams in trachytic and allied volcanic rocks, having been formed by the action of sulphureous vapours on these rocks. The white, finely granular masses somewhat resemble limestone in appearance, and the more compact kinds from Hungary are so hard and tough that they are used for millstones. Distinct crystals of alunite are rarely met with in cavities in the massive material;

these are rhombohedra with interfacial angles of 90° 50’, so that they resemble cubes in appearance. Minute glistening crystals have also been found loose in cavities in altered rhyolite. The hardness is 4 and the specific gravity :6. The mineral is a hydrated basic aluminium and potassium sulphate, KAh(SOl)¢(OH)6. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in sulphuric acid. First called aluminilite by J. C. Delamétherie in 1797, this name was contracted by F. S. Beudant in 1824 to alunite. (L. J. S.) ALUR (Lur, Luri, Lurem), a Negro people of the Nile valley, living on the north-west coast of Albert Nyanza. They are akin to the Acholi ((1.1).), speaking practically the same language. ALURE (0. Fr., from aller, to walk), an architectural te'rm for an alley, passage, the water-way or flat gutterbehind a parapet, the galleries of a clerestory, sometimes even the aisle itself of a church. The term is sometimes written valure or valoring. ALVA, or ALBA, FERNANDO ALVABEZ DE TOLEDO, DUKE or, (1508—1583), Spanish soldier, descended from one of the most illustrious families in Spain, was born in r 508. His grandfather, Ferdinand of Toledo, educated him in military science and politics; and he was engaged with distinction at the battle of Pavia while still a youth. Selected for a military command by Charles V., he took part in the siege of Tunis (r 5 3 5), and successfully defended Perpignan against the dauphin of France. He was present at the battle of Mtihlberg (1547‘), and the victory gained there over John of Saxony was due mainly to his etertions. He took part in the subsequent siege of Wittenberg, and presided at the court-martial which tried the elector and condemned him to death. In I552 Alva was intrusted with the command of the army intended to invade France, and was engaged for several months in an unsuccessful siege of Metz. In consequence _ of the success of the French arms in Piedmont, he was made commander-in-chief of all the emperor’s forces in Italy, and at the same time invested with unlimited power. Success did not, however. attend his first attempts, and after several unfortunate attacks he was obliged to retire into winter quarters. After the

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abdication of Charles he was continued in the command by Philip II., who, however, restrained him from extreme measures. Alva had subdued the whole Campagna and was at the gates of Rome, when he was compelled by Philip’s orders to negotiate a peace. One of its terms was that the duke of Alva should in person ask forgiveness of the haughty pontiff whom he had conquered. Proud as the duke was by nature, and accustomed to treat with persons of the highest dignity, he confessed his voice failed him at the interview and his presence of mind forsook him. Not long after this (1 559) he was sent at the head of a splendid embassy to Paris to espouse, in the name of his master, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry, king of France. In I 567, Philip, who was a bigoted Catholic, sent Alva into the Netherlands at the head of an army of 10,000 men, with unlimited powers for the extirpation of heretics. When he arrived he soon showed how much he merited the confidence which his master reposed in him, and instantly erected a tribunal which soon became known to its victims as the “ Court of Blood,” to try all persons who had been engaged in the late commotions which the civil and religious tyranny of Philip had excited. He imprisoned the counts Egmont and Horn, the two popular leaders of the Protestants, brought them to an unjust trial and condemned them to death. In a short time he totally annihilated every privilege of the people, and with unrelenting cruelty put multitudes of them to death. The executioner was employed in removing all those friends of freedom whom the sword had spared. In most of the considerable towns Alva built citadels. In the city of Antwerp he erected a statue of himself, which was a monument no less of his vanity than of his tyranny: he was figured trampling on the

necks of two smaller statues, representing the two estates of the

Low Countries. His attempt to raise money by imposing the Spanish alcabala, a tax of 5 % on all sales, aroused the opposition of the Catholic Netherlands themselves. The exiles from the Low Countries, encouraged by the general resistance to his government, fitted out a fleet of privateers, and after strengthening themselves by successful depredations, ventured upon the bold exploit of seizing the town of Brielle. Thus Alva by his cruelty became the unwitting instrument of the future independence of the seven Dutch provinces. The fleet of the exiles, having met the Spanish fleet, totally defeated it, and reduced North Holland and Mons. Many cities hastened to throw off the yoke; while the states-general, assembling at Dordrecht, openly declared against Alva’s government, and marshalled under the banners of the'prince of Orange. Alva’s preparations to oppose the gathering storm were made with his usual vigour, and he succeeded in recovering Mons, Mechlin and Zutphen, under the conduct of his son Frederick. With the exception of Zealand and Holland, he regained all the provinces; and at last his son stormed Naarden, and massacring its inhabitants,proceeded to invest the cityofHaarlem,which, after standing an obstinate siege, was taken and vpillaged. Their next attack was upon Alkmaar; but the spirit of desperate resistance was raised to such a height in the breasts of the Hollanders that the Spanish veterans were repulsed with great loss and Frederick constrained reluctantly to retire. Alva’s feeble state of health and continued disasters induced him to solicit his recall from the government of the Low Countries; a measure which, in all probability, was not displeasing to Philip, who was now resolved to make trial of a milder administration. In December 1 573 the much-oppressed country was relieved from the presence of the duke of Alva, who, returning home accompanied by his son, made the infamous boast that during the course of six years, besides the multitudes destroyed in battle and massacred after victory, he had consigned 18,000 persons to the executioner.

On his return he was treated for some time with great distinction by Philip. A tardy and imperfect justice, hOWever, overtook him, when he was banished from court and confined in the castle of Uzeda for complicity in certain disgraceful conduct of his son. Here he had remained two years, when the success of Don Antonio in assuming the crown of Portugal determined Philip to turn his eyes towards Alva as the person in whose fidelity and abilities he could most confide. A secretary was instantly despatched to Alva to ascertain whether his health was sufficiently vigorous to enable him to undertake the command of an army. The aged chief returned an answer full of loyal zeal, and was immediately appointed to the supreme command in Portugal. It is a striking fact, however, that the liberation and elevation of Alva were not followed by forgiveness. In 1581 Alva entered Portugal, defeated Antonio, drove him from the kingdom, and soon reduced the whole under the subjection of Philip. Entering Lisbon he seized an immense treasure, and suffered his soldiers, with their accustomed violence and rapacity, to sack the suburbs and vicinity. It is reported that Alva, being requested to give an account of the money expended on that occasion, sternly replied, “ If the king asks me for an account, I will make him a statement of kingdoms preserved or conquered, of signal victories, of successful sieges and of sixty years’ ser— vice.” Philip deemed it proper to make no further inquiries. Alva, however, did not enjoy the honours and rewards of his last expedition, for he died in January 1583 at the age of 74.

AUTHORITIES.—See the Life, by Rustant (Madrid, 1751). His correspondence during his Flemish government has been published by M. _Gachard (Brussels, .18580). See also _Col¢cc_i_0n documentos medrlos Para la hzslorra Espafia, vols. 1v., VII., “11., x1v., )(rxgriié)and xxxv. (Madrid); and Motley's Rise of the Dutch RcPublic

1 5 .

ALVA, a police burgh of Clackmannanshire, Scotland, 3} m. N. of Alloa, terminus of a branch line of the North British railway. Pop. (1891) 5225; (1901) 4624. It is situated at the foot of three front peaks of the Ochils—West Hill (1682 ft.), Middle Hill (1436 ft.) and Won Hill (1723 ft.). There are spinning-mills, and manufactures of tweeds, tartans and other woollen goods. Silver, lead and other metals have been found in the hills, but not in paying quantities. The glen to the east of the town, in which are abandoned workings, is called the Silver Glen. Alva House is the seat of the Johnstones, a family which has been intimately connected with the district since the latter half of the 18th century.

ALVARADO, PEDRO DE (1495—1541), one of the Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest of America, was born at Badajoz about 1495. He held a command in the expedition sent from Cuba against Yucatan in the spring of 1518, and returned in a few months, bearing reports of the wealth and splendour of Montezuma’s empire. In February 1519 he accompanied Hernando Cortes in the expedition for the conquest of Mexico, being appointed to the command of one of the eleven vessels of the fleet. He acted as Cortes's principal officer, and on the first occupation of the city of Mexico was left there in charge. When the Spaniards had temporarily to retire before the Mexican uprising, Alvarado led the rear-guard (1st of July 1 520), and the Suite dc Alvarado—a long leap with the use of his spear, by which he saved his life—became famous. He was engaged (1523—24) in the conquest of Guatemala, of which he was subsequently appointed governor by Charles V. In 1534 he attempted to bring the province of Quito under his power, but had to content himself with the exaction of a pecuniary indemnity for the expenses of the expedition. During a visit to Spain, three years later, he had the governorship of Honduras conferred upon him in addition to that of Guatemala. He died in Guatemala in 1541.

ALVAREZ, FRANCISCO (c. 1465—1541 P), Portuguese missionary and explorer, was born at Coimbra. He was a chaplainpricst and alrnoner to Dom Manuel, king of Portugal, and was sent in 1515 as secretary to Duarte Galvao and Rodrigo da Lima on an embassy to the negus of Abyssinia (Lebna Dengel Dawit (David) 11.). The expedition having been delayed by the way, it was not until 1520 that he reached Abyssrnia, where he remained six years, returning to Lisbon in 1526—1527. In 1533 he was sent to Rome on an embassy to Pope Clement VII. The precise date of his death, like that of his birth, is unknown, but it must have been later than 1540, in which year he published at Lisbon under the king’s patronage an account of his travels in one volume folio, entitled Verdadera Informacam das terms do Presle Joum. This curious work was translated into Italian (G. B. Ramusio, Navagalfoni, vol. i., Venice, 1550); into


Spanish (H islan'a dc las Casa: de Eliopia, by Fray Thomas cle Padilla, Antwerp, 1557); into French (Historiale Description dc l’Ethiopie, Christ. Plantin, Antwerp, 1558); into German (Wahrhafliger Ben'chl van . . . Ethiopian, Eisleben, 1566); into English (Sam. Purchas, Pilgrimes, part i., London, 1625). The information it contains must, however, be received with caution, as the author is prone to exaggerate, and does not confine himself to what came within his own observation.

ALVAREZ, DON JOSE (1768—1827), Spanish sculptor, was born at Priego, in the province of Cordova, in 1768. His full name was José Alvarez de Pereira y Cubero. Bred to his father’s trade of a stone-mason, he devoted all his spare time to drawing and modelling. His education in art was due partly to the teaching of the French sculptor Verdiguier at Cordova, and partly to lessons at Madrid, where he attended the lectures of the academy of San Fernando. In 1799 he obtained from Charles IV. a pension of 12,000 reals to enable him to visit Paris and Rome. In the former city he executed in 1804 a statue of Ganymede, which placed him at once in the front rank of the sculptors of his time, and which is now in the sculpture gallery of the Prado. Shortly afterwards his pension was more than doubled, and he left Paris for Rome, where he remained till within a year of his death. He had married in Paris Elizabeth Bougel, by whom he had a son in 1805. This son, known as Don José Alvarez y Bougel, also distinguished himself as a sculptor and a painter, but he died at Burgos before he had reached the age of twenty-five, a little more than two years after his father’s death in Madrid in 1827. One of the most successful works of the elder Alvarez was a group representing Antilochus and Memnon, which was commissioned in marble (1818) by Ferdinand VII., and secured for the artist the appointment of court-sculptor. It is now in the museum of Madrid. He also modelled a few portrait busts (Ferdinand VII., Rossini, the duchess of Alba), which are remarkable for their vigour and fidelity.

ALVAREZ, DON MANUEL (1727—1797), Spanish sculptor, was born at Salamanca. He followed classical models so closely that he was styled by his countrymen El Griego, “ The Greek.’ ' His works, which are very numerous, are chiefly to be found at Madrid.

ALVARY, MAX (1858—1898), German singer, was born at Dusseldorf. Gifted with a fine tenor voice and handsome presence he speedily made a reputation in Germany in the leading roles in Wagnerian opera, and from 1885 onwards appeared also in America and England. He was at his best in 1892, when his performances as Tristan and Siegfried at Covent Garden aroused great enthusiasm. ‘

ALVEARY (from the Lat. alvcarium), a beehive; used, like apiarium in the same sense, figuratively for a collection of hardworking people, or a scholarly work (ag. dictionary) involving bee-like industry. By analogy the term is used for the hollow of the ear, where the wax collects.

ALVENSLEBEN, CONSTANTIN VON (1809—1892), Prussian general, was born on the 26th of August 1809 at Eichenbarleben in Prussian Saxony, and entered the Prussian guards from the cadet corps in 1827. He became first lieutenant in 1842, captain in 1849, and major on the Great General Staff in 1853, whence after seven years he went to the Ministry of War. He was soon afterwards promoted colonel, and commanded a regiment of Guard infantry up to 1864, when he became a major-general. In this rank he commanded a brigade of guards in the war of 1866. At the action of Soor (Burkersdorf) on the 28th of June he distinguished himself very greatly, and at Koniggratz, where he led the advanced guard of the Guard corps, his energy and initiative were still more conspicuous. Soon afterwards he succeeded to the command of his division, General Hiller v. Gartringen having fallen in the battle; ,he was promoted lieutenant-general, and retained this command after the conclu— sion of peace, receiving in addition the order pour le méritc for his services. In 1870, on the outbreak of war with France, von Alvensleben succeeded Prince Frederick Charles in command of the III army corps which formed part of the 11 German Army commanded by the prince. Under their new general, the Brandenburg regiments forming the III corps proved themselves collectively the best in the whole German army, with the possible exception of the Prussian guards, and, if Prince Frederick Charles is entitled to the chief credit in training the III corps, Alvensleben had contributed in almost equal degree to the efficiency of the Guard infantry, while his actual leadership of the III corps in the battles of 1870 and 1871 showed him afresh as a fighting general of the very first rank. The battle of Spichercn, on the 6th of August, was initiated and practically directed throughout by him, and in the confusion which followed this victory, for which the superior commanders were not prepared, Alvensleben showed his energy and determination by resuming the advance on his own responsibility. This led to the great battles of the 14th, 16th and 18th of August around Metz, and again the III corps was destined, under its resolute leader, to win the chief credit. Crossing the Moselle the instant that he received permission from his army commander to do so, Alvensleben struck the flank of Bazaine’s whole army (August 16th) in movement westward from Metz. The III corps attacked at once, and for many hours bore the whole brunt of the battle at Vionville. By the most resolute leading, and at the cost of very heavy losses, Alvensleben held the whole French army at bay while other corps of the I and II German Armies gradually closed up. In the battle of Gravelotte, on the 18th, the corps took little part. Its work was done, and it remained with the II Army before Metz until the surrender of Bazaine’s army. Prince Frederick Charles then moved south-west to co-operate with the grand-duke of Mecklenburg on the Loire. At the battle of Beaune-la-Rolande, the corps, with its comrades of Vionville, the X corps under General v. V oigts-Rhetz, won new laurels, and it participated in the advance on Le Mans and the battle at that place on the 12th of January 1871. At the close of the war Alvensleben received the oak-leaves of the order pour le mérile, the first class of the Iron Cross and a grant of 100,000 thalers. He became full general of infantry in 1873 and retired immediately afterwards. In 1889 the emperor William II. ordered that the 52nd infantry regiment (one of the distinguished regiments of Vionville) should thereafter bear Alvensleben’s name, and in 1892, on the anniversary of the battle of Le Mans, the old general received the order of the Black Eagle. He died on the 28th of March 1892 at Berlin.

His brother, GUSTAV vow ALVENSLEBEN (1803—1881), Prussian general of infantry, was born at Eichenbarleben on the 30th of September 1803, entered the Guard infantry in 1821, and took part as a general staff officer in the suppression of the Baden insurrection of 1849. He became a major-general in 1858, aide-de-carnp to the king in 1861, and lieutenant-general in 1863, and in the campaign of 1866 performed valuable military and political services. He was promoted general of infantry in 1868. In the war of 1870 he commanded the IV army corps, which took a conspicuous part in the action of Beaumont and afterwards served in the siege of Paris. He received the Iron Cross, the order pour le mérite, and a money grant, as a reward for his services, and retired in 1872. He died at Gernrode in the Harz on the 30th of June 1881.

Another brother, ALBRECHT, COUNT von ALVENSLEBEN (1 794— 18 58), was a distinguished Prussian statesman.

ALVEOLATE (from Lat. alveolar), honeycombed, a word used technically in biology, &c., to mean pitted like a honeycomb.

ALVERSTONE, RICHARD EVERARD WEBSTER, IS“! BARON (1842— ), lord chief justice of England, was born on the 22nd of December 1842, being the second son of Thomas Webster, Q.C. He was educated at King’s College and Charterhouse schools, and Trinity College, Cambridge; was called to the bar in 1868, and became Q.C. only ten years afterwards. His practice was chiefly in commercial, railway and patent cases until (June 1885) he was appointed attorney-general in the Conservative Government in the exceptional circumstances of never having been solicitor-general, and not at the time occupying a seat in parliament. He was elected for Launceston in the following month, and in November exchanged this seat


for the Isle of Wight, which he continued to represent until his elevation to the House of Lords. Except under the brief Gladstone administration of 1886, and the Gladstone-Rosebery cabinet of 1892-189 5, Sir Richard Webster was attorney-general from 1885 to 1900. In r890 he was leading counsel for The Times in the Parnell inquiry; in 1893 he represented Great Britain in the Bering Sea arbitration; in 1898 he discharged the same function in the matter of the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela; and in 1903 was one of the members of the Alaska Boundary Commission. He was well known as an athlete in his earlier years, having represented his university as a runner, and his interest in cricket and foot-racil g was kept up in later life. In the House of Commons, and outside it, he was throughout his political career prominently associated with church work; and his speeches were distinguished for gravity and earnestness. In 1900 he succeeded Sir Nathaniel Lindley as Master of the Rolls, being raised to the peerage as Baron Alverstone, and in October of the same year he was elevated to the office of lord chief justice upon the death of Lord Russell of Killowen. '

ALWAR, or ULWAR, a native state of India in the Rajputana agency. It is bounded on the E. by the state 0f.Bharatpur and the British district of Gurgaon, on the N. by Gurgaon district and the state of Patiala, on the W. by the states of Nabha and Jaipur, and on the S. by the state of Jaipur. Its configuration is irregular, the greatest length from north to south being about 80 m., and breadth from east to west about 60 m., with a total area of 3141 sq. m. The eastern portion of the state is open and highly cultivated; the western is diversified by hills and peaks, which form a continuation of the Aravalli range, from 12 to 20 ' m. in breadth. These hills run in rocky and precipitous parallel ridges, in some places'upwards of 2200 ft. in height. The Sabhi river flows through the north-western part of the state, the only other stream of importance being the Ruparel, which rises in the Alwar hills, and flowsthrough the state into the Bharatpur territory. The population in 1901 was 828,487, showing an increase of 8% during the decade. When compared with a heavy decrease elsewhere throughout Rajputana, this increase may be attributed to the successful administration of famine relief, under British officials. The revenue is {185,000. The maharaja Jai Singh, who succeeded in 1892 at the age often, was educated at the Mayo college, where he excelled both in sports and in knowledge of English. He came of age in 1903, when he was invested by the viceroy with full ruling powers. Alwar was the first native state to accept a currency struck at the Calcutta mint, of the same weight and assay as the imperial rupee, with the head of the British sovereign on the obverse. Imperial service troops are maintained, consisting of both cavalry and infantry, with transport. The state is traversed by the Delhi branch of the Rajputana railway. A settlement of the land revenue has been carried out by an English civilian.

The state was founded by Pratap Singh (1740—1791), a Rajput of ancient lineage, and increased by his adopted son Bakhtawar Singh. The latter joined the British against the Mahrattas, and in 1803, after the battle of Laswari (Nov. 1), signed a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance with the British government. In 1811, owing to his armed intervention in Jaipur, a fresh engagement was made, prohibiting him from political intercourse with other states without British consent. In 1857 the raja Binni Singh sent a force of Mussulmans and Rajputs to relieve the British garrison in Agra; the Mussulmans, however, deserted, and the rest were defeated by the mutineers.

The C1rv or ALWAR has a railway station on the Rajputana line, 98 m. from. Delhi; pop. (1901) 56,771, showing a steady increase. It stands in a valley overhung by a fortress 1000 ft. above. It is surrounded by a rampart and moat, with five gates, and contains fine palaces, temples and tombs. The water-supply is brought from a lake 9 m. distant. It has a high school, affiliated to the Allahabad university; and a school for the sons of nobles, founded to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The Lady Dufierin hospital is under the charge of an English lady doctor, with two female assistants.

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