صور الصفحة

' AHARAR; a tribe' of African “ Arabs " inhabiting the moun— tainous country -on the west side of 'the Red Sea from Suakin northwards towards Kosseir. Between them and the Nile are the Ababda and Bisharin tribes and to their south dwell the Hadendoa. The country of the Amarar is called the Etbai. 'Their headquarters are in the Ariab district. The tribe is divided into four great families: (1) Weled Gwilei, (2) Weled Aliab, (3) Weled Kurbab Wagadab, and (4) the Amarar proper of the Ariab district. They claim to be of Koreish blood and to be the descendants of an invading Arab army. Possibly some small hands of Koreish ‘Arabs may have made an inroad and converted some of the Amarar to Islam. Further than this there is little to substantiate their claim.

See An lo-Egyptian Sudan. edited by Count Gleichen (London, 1905) ; Sir . R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Eg Plies Sudan (London, 1891); A. H. Keane, Ethnology of Egyptian Sudan (London, 1884).

AMARA SINHA (c. A.D. 37 5), Sanskrit grammarian and poet, of whose personal history hardly anything is known. He is said to have been “ one of the nine gems that adorned the throne of Vikramaditya," and according to the evidence of Hsiian Tsang, this is the Chandragupta Vikramaditya that flourished about A.D. 375. -.1Amara seems to have been a Buddhist; and an early tradition asserts that his works, with one eitception, were destroyed during. the persecution carried on by the orthodox Brahmins’ in the 5th century. The exception is the celebrated Amara-Karim (Treasury of Amara), a vocabulary of Sanskrit roots, in three. books, and hence sometimes called T rikanda or the “ Tripartite.” ' It contains 10,000 words, and is arranged, like other worksoi its class, in metre, to aid the memory. The first chapter of the Kosha was printed at Rome in Tamil character in 1798'. An edition of the entire work, with English notes and an index by‘H. T. Colebrooke, appeared at Serampore in 1808. The Sanskrit text was printed. at Calcutta in 1831. A French translation by A. L. A. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps as published at Paris in 1839. ,

AMARI, MICHELE (1806—1889), Italian orientalist and patriot, was born at Palermo. From his earliest youth he imbibed liberal principles from his relatives, especially from his grandfather, and although at the age of fourteen he was appointed ‘clerk in the Bourbon civil service, he joined the Carbonari like many other young Sicilians » and actively sympathized with the revolution of 1820. The movement, which was separatist in its tendencies, was quickly suppressed, but the conspiracies continued, and Amari’s father, implicated in that of 1822, was arrested and condemned to death together with many others; but his sentence was commuted to imprisonment, and in 1834 he was liberated.» Michele Amari still held his clerkship, but he regarded the Neapolitan government with increasing hatred, and he led a life of activephysical exercise to train himself for the day of revolution. He devoted much of his time to the study of English and of history; his first literary essay was a translation of Sir Walter Scott’s Marmion (1832), and in 1839 he published a work on the Sicilian Vespers, entitled U n Periodo delle slon'e Siciliane del XIII. secolo, filled with political allusions reflecting unfavourably on the government. The book had an immediate success and went through many editions, but it brought the author under the suspicion of the authorities, and in 1842 he escaped from a boat just as he was about to be arrested. He settled in Paris, where he came in contact with a number of literary men, such as Michelet and Thicrry, as well as with the Italian exiles. Having no private means he had 1 to, earn a precarious livelihood by literature. He was much struck with certain French translations of Arabic works on Sicily,which awoke in him a desire to read the authors in the original. With the assistance of Prof. Reinaud and Baron de Slane he soon acquired great proficiency in Arabic, and his translations and editions of oriental texts, as well as his historical essays, made him a reputation. In 1844 he began his great work La Storia dei M usulmam' in Siciliaybut the revolution of 1848 plunged him into politics once more. His pamphlet, Quelques Observations sur le droit public de la Sicile, advocating the revival of the 181 2 constitution for the island, met with great success, and on arriving at Palermo,


whence the Bourbon government had been expelled, he was chosen member of the war committee and appointed professor of public law at the university. At the general elections Amari was returned for Palermo and became minister of finance in the Stabile cabinet. On its fall he was sent to Paris and London to try to obtain help for the struggling island; having failed in his mission he returned to Sicily in 1849, hoping to fight. But the Neapolitan troops had re-occupied the island, the Liberals were in disagreement among themselves, and Amari with several other notables with difiiculty escaped to Malta. Characteristic of his scholarly nature is the fact that be delayed his flight to take the impress of an important Arabic inscription. He returned to Paris, sad and dejected at the collapse of the movement, and devoted himself once more to his Arabic studies. He published a work on the chronology of the Koran, for which he received

a prize from the Academic des Inscriptions, edited the Solwan cl

M ota by Ibn Zafer (a curious collection of philosophical thoughts)

and Ibn Haukal’s Description of Palermo, and in 1854 the first

volume of his history of the Mahommedans in Sicily appeared.

He received a meagre stipend for cataloguing the Arabic MSS. in ' the Bibliothéque Nationale, and he contributed many articles

to the reviews. Although a firm friend of Mazzini, he discouraged

the latter’s premature conspiracies.v In 1859, after the expulsion

of the central Italian despots, Amari was appointed professor

of Arabic at Pisa and afterwards at Florence. But when

Garibaldi and his thousand had conquered Sicily, Amari returned

to his native island, and was given an appointment in the

government. Although intensely Sicilian in sentiment, he

became one of the. staunchest advocates of the union of Sicily

with Italy, and was subsequently made senator of the kingdom

at Cavour’s instance. He was minister of education in the

Farini and Minghetti cabinets, but on the fall of the latter in

1864, he resumed his professorship at Florence and spent the

rest of his life in study. His circle of acquaintances, both in Italy

and abroad, was very large, and his sound scholarship was

appreciated in all countries. He died in 1889, loaded with

honours. The last volume'of his Storia dci M usulmam' appeared in

1873, and in addition to the above-mentioned works he published

many others on oriental and historical subjects. His work on the

Sicilian Vespers was re-written as La Guerrav del Vespm (9th ed.,

Milan, 1886). He was the pioneer of Arabic studies in modern

Italy, and he still remains the standard authority on the Mussul

man domination in Sicily, though his judgment on religious

questions is sometimes warped by a violently anti-clerical bias.

See A. D’Ancona, Carteggio di Michele Aman' _coll' elogio di lui (Turin. 1896); and Oreste ommasini's essay in his Scrittr di storia e critica (Rome, 1891). (L. V. ")

AMARYLLIS (the name of a girl in classical pastoral poetry), in botany, a genus of the natural order Amaryllidaceae, containing the belladonna lily (Amaryllis Belladonna), a native of South Africa, which was introduced into cultivation at the beginning of the 18th century. This is a half-hardy bulbous plant, producing in the spring a number of strap-shaped, dull green leaves, 1-r§ ft. long, arranged in two rows, and in autumn a solid stem, bearing at the top a cluster of 6—12 funnel-shaped flowers, of a rose colour and very fragrant. Several forms are known in cultivation. Most of the so-called Amaryllis of gardens belong to the allied genus H ippeasirum (q.v.).

AHASIA (anc. Amaria), the chief town of a sanjak in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor and an important trade centre on the Samsun-Sivas road, beautiftu situated on the Yeshil Irmak (Iris). Pop. 30,000; Moslems about 20,000, of whom a large proportion are Kizilbash (Shia); Christians (mostly Armenians), 10,000. It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad 1., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months’ siege by Timur. It was also much favoured by the early Osmanli sultans, one of whom, Selim I., was born there. Bayezid 11. built a fine mosque. The place was modernized about a generation ago by Zia Pasha, the poet, when governor, and is now an unusually well built Turkish town with good bazaar and khans and a fine clock-tower. The Americans and the Jesuits have missionary schools for the Armenian population. Amasia has extensive orchards and fruit gardens still, as in Ibn Batuta’s time, irrigated by water wheels turned by the current of the river; and there are steam flourmills. _ Wheat, flour and silk are exported.

Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen. The cliff is cut away all round these immense sepulchres so that they stand free. The finest, known from its polished surfaces as the “ Mirror Tomb,” is about 2 m. from the modern city. Amasia rose into historical importance after the time of Alexander as the cradle of the power of Pontus; but the last king to reign there was the father of Mithradatcs Eupator “The Great.” The latter, however, made it the base of his operations against the Romans in 89, 72 and 67 B.C. Pompey made it a free city in 65, after Mithradates’ fall. It was the birthplace of Strabo. (D. G. H.)

AMASIS, or AMOSIS (the Greek forms of the Egyptian name Ahmase, Ahmori, “ the moon is born," often written Aahme: or Ahmcs in modern works), the name of two kings of ancient Egypt

AMASIS I., the founder of the XVIIIth dynasty, is famous for his successful wars against the Hyksos princes who still ruled in the north-east of the Delta (see EGYPT: History, sect. 1.)

AMASIS II. was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest, 570—526 B.C. Most of our information about him is derived from Herodotus (ii. 161 et seq.) and can only be imperfectly controlled by monumental evidence. According to the Greek historian he was of mean origin. A revolt of the native soldiers gave him his opportunity. Those troops, returning home from a disastrous expedition to Cyrene, suspected that they had been betrayed in order that Apries, the reigning king, might rule more absolutely by means of his mercenaries, and their friends in Egypt fully sympathized with them. Amasis, sent to meet them and quell the revolt, was proclaimed king by the rebels, and Apries, who had now to rely entirely on his mercenaries, was defeated and taken prisoner in the ensuing conflict at Momemphis; the usurper treated the captive prince with great lenity, but was eventually persuaded to give him up to the people, by whom he was strangled and buried in his ancestral tomb at Sais. An inscription confirms the fact of the struggle between the native and the foreign soldiery, and proves that Apries was killed and honourably buried in the 3rd year of Amasis. Although Amasis thus appears first as champion of the disparaged native, he had the good sense to cultivate the friendship of the Greek world, and brought Egypt into closer touch with it than ever before. Herodotus relates that under his prudent administration Egypt reached the highest pitch of prosperity; he adorned the temples of Lower Egypt especially with splendid monolithic shrines and other monuments (his activity here is proved. by remains still existing). To the Greeks Amasis assigned the commercial colony of Naucratis on the Canopic branch of the Nile, and when the temple of Delphi was burnt he contributed 1000 talents to the rebuilding. He also married a Greek princess named Ladice, the daughter of Battus, king of Cyrene, and he made alliances with Polycrates of Samos and Croesus of Lydia. His kingdom consisted probably of Egypt only, as far as the First Cataract, but to this he added Cyprus, and his influence was great in Cyrene. At the beginning of his long reign, before the death of Apries, he appears to have sustained an attack by Nebuchadrezzar (568 B.C.). Cyrus left Egypt unmolested; but the last years of Amasis were disturbed by the threatened invasion of Cambyses and by the rupture of the alliance with Polycrates of Samos. The blow fell upon his son Psammetichus III., whom the Persian deprived of his kingdom after a reign of only six months.

See Nnucnx'rrs; also W. M. Flinders Petrie, History, vol. iii.; Breasted, History and Historical Documents, vol. iv. p. 509; M s ro, Les Empires. (F. LL. 8?)

AMATEUR (Lat. amator, lover), a person who takes part in any art, craft, game or sport for the sake of the pleasure afi'orded


by the occupation itself and not for pecuniary gain. Being thus a person for whom the pursuit in question is a recreation and not a business, and who therefore presumably devotes to it a portion only of hisnleisure and not.his working hours, the average amateur possesses less skill than the average professional, whose livelihood and reputation depend on his proficiency, and who therefore concentrates all his energies on the task of attaining the greatest possible mastery in his chosen career. In the arts, such as music, painting and the drama, the best amateurs are outdistanced as executants not merely by the best professionals but by professionals far below the highest rank; and although the inferiority of the amateur is not perhaps so pronounced or so universal in the case of games and outdoor sports, the records of such pastimes as horse-racing, boxing, rowing, billiards, tennis and golf prove that here also the same contrast is gener

-ally to be found. Hence it has come about that the term

“amateur,” and more especially the adjectival derivative “ amateurish,” has acquired a secondary meaning, usually employed somewhat contemptuously, signifying inefficiency,

-unskilfulness, superficial knowledge or training.

The immense increase in popularity of athletic contests and games of all kinds in modern times, and especially the keen competition for “ records ” and championships, often of an international character, have made it a matter of importance to arrive at a clear and formal definition of the amateur as distinguished from the professional. The simple, straightforward definition of the amateur given above has been proved to be easily evaded. Many leading cricketers, for example, preserve their amateur status who, although they are not paid wages for each match they play like their professional colleagues, are provided with an annual income by their county or club under the guise of salary for performing the duties of “ secretary” or some other office, leaving them free to play the game six days a week. Similarly, “ gentlemen riders ” are often presented with a cash payment described as a bet, or under some other pretext. Nor is the dividing-line between “ out-of~pocket expenses " allowed to the amateur and the remuneration payable to the professional always strictly drawn. The various associations controlling the different branches of sport have therefore devised working regulations to be observed so far as their jurisdiction extends. Thus the Amateur Athletic Association of Great Britain defines an amateur as “ one who has never competed for a money prize or staked bet, or with or against a professional for any prize, or who has never taught, pursued or assisted in the practice of athletic exercises as a means of obtaining a livelihood.” The rules of the Amateur Rowing Association are stricter, denying amateur status to anyone who has ever steered or rowed in a race with a professional for any prize, or who is or has been by trade or employment for wages a mechanic,

artisan or labourer, or engaged in any menial duty, besides

insisting upon the usual restrictions in regard to taking money and competing with professionals. In association football the rules are much more lax, for although amateurs are clearly distinguished from professionals, an amateur may even become a regular member, though unsalaried, of a professional team without losing his amateur status. The Rugby game was, up to 1895, entirely controlled by the Rugby Football Union, which, by the strictness of its laws, effectually prevented the growth of professionalism, but there had been much dissatisfaction in the provinces with the Union’s decision against reimbursing dayworking players for “ broken time,” i.c. for that part of their wages which they lost by playing on working days, and this resulted in the formation (1895) of the Northern Union, which permits remunerationfor “broken time.” but allows no person who works for his living to play football unless regularly employed at his particular trade.

In America the amateur question is less complicated than in Great Britain; but the intensely business-like character of American ideas of sport has encouraged the modern spirit of professionalism. All important sports in America, except baseball, football, cricket, golf and rowing, are, however, under the control of the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States, the rules of which, so far as they relate to professionalism, are as follows. No person shall be eligible to compete in any athletic meeting, game or entertainment, given or sanctioned by this Union, who has (1) received or competed for compensation or reward in any form for the display, exercise or example of his skill or knowledge of any athletic exercise, or for rendering personal service of any kind to any athletic organization, or for becoming or continuing a member of any athletic organization; or (2) has entered any competition under a name other than his own, or from a club of which he was not at that time a member in good standing; or (3) has knowingly entered any competition open to any professional or professionals, or has knowingly competed with any professional for any prize or token; or (4) has issued or allowed to be issued in his behalf any challenge to compete against any professional or for money; or (5) has pawned, bartered or sold any prize won in athletic competition. It will be seen that by rule 3 the American Union enacts a standard for all athletes not much different from that of the British Amateur Rowing Association. The rules for the sports not within the Union’s jurisdiction are practically the same, except that in baseball, cricket and golf amateurs may compete with professionals, though not for cash prizes. In the case of open golf competitions professional prize-winners receive cash, while amateurs are given plate to the value of their prizes as in Great Britain. There are practically no professional football players in America.

On both sides of the Atlantic the question of the employment of professional coaches has occasioned much discussion. In America it has been accepted as legal. In England the same is almost universally true, but there are certain exceptions, such as the decision of the Henley Regatta Committee, that no crew entering may be coached by a professional within two months of the race-day. Whether such a regulation be wise or the reverse is a question that depends upon the spirit in which games are regarded. Nobody wants to disparage proficiency; but if a game is conducted on business methods, the “ game ” element tends to be minimized, and if its object is pecuniary it ceases to be “ sport ” in the old sense, and the old idea of the “ amateur ” who indulges in it for love of the mere enjoyment tends to disappear.

AMATHUS, an ancient city of Cyprus, on the S. coast, about 24 m. W. of Larnaka and 6 m. E. of Limassol, among sandy hills and sand—dunes, which perhaps explain its name in Greek (ipafior, sand). The earliest remains hitherto found on the site are tombs of the early Iron Age period of Graeco-Phoenician influences (1000—600 B.C.). (E. Oberhummer, Die Insel Cypcm, i., 1902, pp. 1344; but see CITIUM) with Kartilzadasti (Phoenician “ New-Town ”) in the Cypriote tribute-list of Esarhaddon of Assyria (668 B.C.). It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500—494 B.C. (Herod. v. 105), when Amathus was besieged unsuccessfully and avenged itself by the capture and execution of Onesilas. The phil-Hellene Evagoras of Salamis was similarly opposed by Amathus about 385-380 B.C. in conjunction with Citium and Soli (Diod. Sic. xiv. 98); and even after Alexander the city resisted annexation, and was bound over to give hostages to Seleucus (Diod. Sic. xix. 62). Its political importance now ended, but its temple of Adonis and Aphrodite (Venus Amathusia) remained famous in Roman time.

The wealth of Amathus was derived partly from its corn (Strabo 340, quoting Hipponax, fl. 540 11.0), partly from its copper mines (Ovid, M et. x. 220, 531), of which traces can be seen inland (G. Mariti, i. 187; L. Ross, Inselrcise, iv. 195', W. H. Engel, KyPros, i. 111 fi.). Ovid also mentions its sheep (Met. x. 227); the epithet Amathusia in Roman poetry often means little more than “Cypriote,” attesting however the fame of the city.

Amathus still flourished and produced a distinguished patriarch of Alexandria (Johannes Eleémon), as late as 606—616, and a ruined Byzantine church marks the site; but it was already

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almost deserted when Richard Cceur de Lion won Cyprus by a victory there over Isaac Comnenus in 1191. The rich necropolis, already partly plundered then, has yielded valuable works of art to New York (L. P. di Cesnola, Cyrus, 1878 passim) and to the British Museum (Excavations in Cyprus, 1894 (1899) passim); but the city has vanished, except fragments of wall and of a great stone cistern on the acropolis. A similar vessel was transported to the Louvre in 1867. Two small sanctuaries, with terra-cotta votive offerings of Graeco-Phoenician age, lie not far OK, but the great shrine of Adonis and Aphrodite has not been identified (M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, i. ch.1). (J. L. M.)

AMATI, the name of a family of Italian violin-makers, who flourished at Cremona from about 1550 to 1692. According to Fétis, Andrea and Nicole Amati, two brothers, were the first Italians who made violins. They were succeeded by Antonio and Geronimo, sons of Nicolo. Another N icolo, son of Geronimo, was born on the 3rd of September 1596 and died on the 12th of August 1684. He was the most eminent 0f the family. He improved the model adopted by the rest of the Amatis and produced instruments capable of yielding greater power of tone. His pattern was usually small, but he also made the so-called l‘Grand Amatis.” Of his pupils the most famous were Andrea Enamieri and Antonio Stradivari.

AMATITLAN, or SAN JUAN m: Aunt-ruin, the capital of a department bearing the same name in Guatemala, on Lake Amatitlén, 15 m. S.W. of Guatemala city by the transcontinental railway from Puerto Barrios to San Jose. Pop. (1905) about 10,000. The town consists almost entirely of one-storeyed adobe huts inhabited by mulattoes and Indians, whose chief In 1840 only a small Indian village marked its site, and its subsequent growth was due to the sugar plantations established by a Jesuit settlement. The wells of the town are strongly impregnated with salt and alum, and in the vicinity there are several hot springs. Lake Amatitlan, 9 m. long and 3 m. broad, lies on the northern side of the great Guatemalan Cordillera. Above it rises the fourcratered volcano of Pacaya (8390 ft.), which was in eruption in 1870. The outlet of the lake is a swift river 65 m. long, which cuts a way through the Cordillera, and enters the Pacific at Istapa, after forming at San Pedro a fine waterfall more than 200 ft. high.

AMAUROSIS (Gr. for “ blinding,”), a term for “ deprivation of sight,” limited chiefly to those forms of defect or loss of vision which are caused by diseases not directly involving the eye.

AMAZON. the great river of South America. Before the conquest of South America, the Rio de la: .4 mazonas had no general name; for, according to a common custom, each savage tribe gave a name only to the section of the river which it occupied—such as Paranaguazu, Guyerma, Solimoes and others. In the year 1 500, Vicente Yanez Pinzon, in command of a Spanish expedition, discovered and ascended the Amazon to a point about 50 m. from the sea. He called it the Rio Santa M aria de la M or Dulce, which soon became abbreviated to Mar Dulce, and for some years, after 1502, it was known as the Rio Grande. The principal companions of Pinzon, in giving evidence in 1515, mention it as El Ryo Marafion. There is much controversy about the origin of the word M arafian. Peter Martyr in a letter to Lope Hurtado de Mendoza in 1513 is the first to state that it is of native origin. Ten years after the death of Pinzon, his friend Oviedo calls it the Marafion. Many writers believe that this was its Indian name. We are disposed to agree with the Brazilian historian Constancio that Marafion is derived from the Spanish word marofia, a tangle, a snarl, which well represents the bewildering difiiculties which the earlier explorers met in navigating not only the entrance to the Amazon, but the whole island-bordered, river-cut and indented coast of the now Brazilian province of Maranhao.

The first descent of the mighty artery from the Andes to the sea was made by Orellana in 1541, and the name Amazonas arises from the battle which he had with a tribe of Tapuya savages where the women of the tribe fought alongside the men, as was the custom among all of the Tapuyas. Orellana, no doubt, derived the name Amazonas from the ancient Amazons (11.11.) of Asia and Africa described by Herodotus and Diodorus.

The first ascent of the river was made in 1638 by Pedro Texiera, a Portuguese, who reversed the route of Orellana and reached Quito by way of the Rio Napo. He returned in 1639 with the Jesuit fathers Acuna and Artieda, delegated by the viceroy of Peru to accompany him.

The river Amazon has a drainage area of 2,722,000 sq. m., if the Tocantins be included in its basin. It drains four-tenths of South America, and it gathers its waters from 5" N. to 20° S. latitude. Its most remote sources are found on the inter-Andean plateau, but a short distance from the Pacific Ocean; and, after a course of about 4000 m. through the interior of Peru and across Brazil, it enters the Atlantic Ocean on the equator. It is generally accepted by geographers that the Maranon, or Upper Amazon, rises in the little lake, Lauricocha, in 10° 30' S. latitude, and 100 m. N.N.E. of Lima. They appear to have followed the account given 'by Padre Fritz which has since been found incorrect. According to Antonio Raimondi, it is the Rio de N upe branch of the small stream which issues from the lake that has the longer course and the greater volume of water. The N upe rises in the Cordillera de Huayhuath and is the true source of the Maranon. There is a difference among geographers as to where the Maranon ends and the Amazon begins, or whether both names apply to the same river. The Pongo de Manseriche, at the base of the Andes and the head of useful navigation, seems to be the natural terminus of the Marar'ion; and an examination of the hydrographic conditions of the great valley makes the convenience and accuracy of this apparent. Raimondi terminates the Marafion at the mouth of the Ucayali, Reclus the same, both following the missionary fathers of the colonial period. C. M. de la Condamine uses “ Amazon ” and “ Marafion ” indiscriminately and considers them one and the same. Smyth and Lowe give the mouth of the Javary as the eastern limit, as does d’Orbigny. Wolf, apparently uncertain, carries the “ Marar'ton or Amazon ” to the Peruvian frontier of Brazil at Tabatinga. Other travellers and explorers contribute to the confusion. This probably arises from the rivalry of the Spaniards and Portuguese. The former accepted the name Marar'ion in Peru, and as the missionaries penetrated the valley they extended the name until they reached the mouth of the Ucayali; while, as the Portuguese ascended the Amazon, they carried this name to the extent of their explorations. Beginning with the lower river we propose to notice, first, the great afiiuents which go to swell the volume of the main stream.

' Tributaries.

The Tocannn's is not really a branch of the Amazon, although usually so considered. It is the central fluvial artery of Brazil, running from south to north for a distance of about 1 500 m. It rises in the mountainous district known as the Pyreneos; but its more ambitious western affluent, the Araguay, has its extreme southern headwaters on the slopes of the Serra Cayapo, and flows a distance of 1080 m. before its junction with the parent stream, which it appears almost to equal in volume. Besides its main tributary, the Rio das Mortes, it has twenty smaller branches, ofiering many miles of canoe navigation. In finding its way to the lowlands, it breaks frequently into falls and rapids, or winds violently through rocky gorges, until, at a point about 100 m. above its junction with the Tocantins, it saws its way across a rocky dyke for 12 m. in roaring cataracts. The tributaries of the Tocantins, called the Maranhao and Parana-tinga, collect an immense volume of water from the highlands which surround them, especially on the south and south-east. Between the latter and the confluence with the Araguay, the Tocantins is occasionally obstructed by rocky barriers which cross it almost at a right angle. Through these, the river carves its channel, broken into cataracts and rapids, or cachoeiras, as they are called throughout Brazil. Its lowest one, the Itaboca cataract, is about 130 m. above its estuarine port of Cameta, for which distance the river is navigable; but above that it is useless as a commercial avenue, except for laborious and very costly transportation.


The flat, broad valleys, composed of sand and clay, of both the Tocantins and its Araguay branch are overlooked by steep bluffs. They are the margins of the great sandstone plateaus, from 1000 to 2000 ft. elevation above sea-level, through which the rivers have eroded their deep beds. Around the estuary of the Tocantins the great plateau has disappeared, to give place to a part of the forest-covered, half submerged alluvial plain, which extends far to the north-east and west. The Para river, generally called one of the mouths of the Amazon, is only the lower reach of the Tocantins. If any portion of the waters of the Amazon runs round the southern side of the large island of Marajo into the river Para, it is only through tortuous, natural canals, which are in no sense outflow channels of the Amazon.

The XIchI, the next large river west of the Tocantins, is a true tributary of the Amazon. It was but little known until it was explored in 1884—1887 by Karl von den Steinen from Cuyaba. Travelling east, 240 m., be found the river Tamitatoaba, 180 ft. wide, flowing from a lake 25 m. in diameter. He descended this torrential stream to the river Romero, 1300 ft. wide,.entering from the west, which receives the river Colisfi. These three streams form the Xingu, or Parana-Xingu, which, from 73‘ m. lower down, bounds along a succession of rapids for 400 m. A little above the head of navigation, 105 m. from its mouth, the river makes a bend to the east to find its way across a rocky barrier. Here is the great cataract of Itamaraca, which rushes down an inclined plane for 3 m. and then gives a final leap, called the fall of Itamaraca. Near its mouth, the Xingu expands into an immense lake, and its waters then mingle with those of the Amazbn througha labyrinth of coins (natural canals), winding in countless directions through a wooded archipelago.

The TAPAJOS, running through a humid, hot and unhealthy valley, pours into the Amazon 500 m. above Para and is about 1200 m. long. It rises on the lofty Brazilian plateau near Diamantino in 14° 25' S. lat. Near this place a number of streams unite to form the river Arinos, which at latitude 10° 25' joins the Juruena to form the Alto Tapajos, so called as low downas the Rio Manoel, entering from the east. Thence to Santarem the stream is known as the Tapajos. The lower Arinos, the Alto Tapajos and the Tapajos to the last rapid, the Maranhao Grande, is a continuous series of formidable cataracts and rapids; but from the Maranhao Grande to its mouth, about 188 m., the river can be navigated by large vessels. For its last 100 m. it is from 4 to 9 m. wide and much of it very deep. The valley of the Tapajos is bordered on both sides by bluffs. They are from 300 to 400 ft. high along the lower river; but, a few miles above Santarem, they retire from the eastern side and only approach the Amazon flood-plain some miles below Santarem.

The MADEIRA has its junction with the Amazon 870 m. by river above Para, and almost rivals it in the volume of its waters. It rises more than 50 ft. during the rainy season, and the largest ocean steamers may ascend it to the Fall of San Antonio, 66; m. above its mouth; but in the dry months, from June to November, it is only navigable for the same distance for craft drawing from 5 to 6 ft. of water. According to the treaty of San Ildefonso, the Madeira begins at the confluence of the Guaporé with the Mamoré. Both of these streams have their headwaters almost in contact with those of the river Paraguay. The idea of a connecting canal is based on ignorance of local conditions. San Antonio is the first of a formidable series of cataracts and rapids, nineteen in number, which, for a river distance of 263 m., obstruct the upper course of the Madeira until the last rapid called Guajara Merim (or Small Pebble), is reached, a little below the union of the Guaporé with the Mamoré. The junction of the great river Beni with the Madeira is at the Madeira Fall, a vast and grand display of reefs, whirl~ pools and boiling torrents. Between Guajara-Merim and this fall, inclusive, the Madeira receives the drainage of the northeastern slopes of the Andes, from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Cuzco. the whole of the south-western slope of Brazilian Matto Grosse, and the northern one of the Cbiquitos sierras, an area about

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equal to that of France and Spain. The waters find their way to the falls of the Madeira by many great rivers, the principal of which, if we enumerate them from east to west, are the Guaporé or Itenez, the Baures and Blanco, the Itonama or San Miguel, the Mamoré, Beni, and Mayutata or Madre de Dios, all of which are reinforced by numerous secondary but powerful affluents. The Guaporé presents many difficulties to continuous navigation; the Baures and Itonama offer hundreds of miles of navigable waters through beautiful plains; the Mamoré has been sounded by the writer in the driest month of the year for a distance of 500 m. above Guajaré-Merim, who found never less than from 10 to 30 ft. of water, with a current of from 1 to 3 m. an hour. Its Rio Grande branch, explored under the writer’s instructions, was found navigable for craft drawing 3 ft. of water to within 30 m. of Santa Cruz de la Sierra—a level sandy plain intervening. The Grande is a river of enormous length, rising in a great valley of the Andes between the important cities of Sucre and Cochabamba, and having its upper waters in close touch with those of the Pilcomayo branch of the river Paraguay. It makes a long curve through the mountains, and, after a course of about 800 m., joins the Mamoré near 15° S. lat. The Chaparé,‘Securé and Chimoré, tributaries of the Mamoré, are navigable for launches up to the base of the mountains, to within 130 m. of Cochabamba. The Beni has a 12—ft. fall 18 m. above its mouth called “La Esperanza”; beyond this, it is navigable for 217 m. to the port of Reyes for launches in the dry season and larger craft in the wet one. The extreme source of the Beni is the little river La Paz, which rises in the inter-Andean region, a few miles southeast of Lake Titicaca, and flows as a rivulet through the Bolivian city of La Paz. From this point to Reyes the river is a torrent. The principal affluent of the Beni, and one which exceeds it in volume, enters it 120 m. above its mouth, and is known to the Indians along its banks as the Mayutata, but the Peruvians

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call it the Madre de Dios. Its ramifications drain the slopes of the Andes between 12° and 15° of latitude. It is navigable in the wet season to within 180 m. of Cuzco. Its upper waters are separated by only a short transitable canoe portage of 7 m. in a straight line from those of the Ucayali. The portage on the eastern side terminates at the Cashpajali river 22 m. above its junction with the Mann. For the first 13 m. it is navigable all the year for craft drawing 18 in. of water, but the remaining 9 m. present many obstacles to navigation. At the Mann junction the elevation above sea-level is 1070 ft., the river width 300 ft., depth 8 ft., current I} m. per hour. The general direction of the Manu is south-east for 158 m. as far as the Pilcopata river, where under the name of Madre de Dios it continues with a flow of 22,000 cubic metres per minute. Here its elevation is 718 ft. above the sea and its width 500 ft. During the above course of 158 m. the Manu receives 135 large and small afliuents. Although the inclination of its bed is not great, the obstacles to free navigation are abundant, and consist of enormous trees and masses of tree-trunks which have filled the river during the period of freshets.

From the time it receives the Manu, the Madre de Dios carries its immense volume of waters 485 m. to the Beni over the extremely easy slope of a vast and fertile plain. Its banks are low, its bottom pebbly. A greater part of its course is filled with large and small islands some 63 in number. Its average width is about 1500 ft. Below the mouth of the Tambopata, the flow is estimated at 191,2 50 cubic metres per minute. The average current is 2% m. per hour. There are two important rapids and one cataract on the lower 300 m. of the river.

The Mayutata receives three principal tributaries from the south—the Tambopata, Inambari and Pilcopata.

The Peruvian government has sought to open a trade route between the Rio Ucayali and the rich rubber districts of the

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