« السابقةمتابعة »
the throne, and promptly concluded (and of May 1889) with him on behalf of Italy a friendly treaty, to be known hereafter as the famous Uccialli treaty. In consequence of this the Italians occupied Asmara, made friends with Mangasha and received Ras Makonnen,1 Menelek’s nephew, as his plenipotentiary in Italy. Thus it seemed as though hostilities between the two countries had come to a definite end, and that peace was assured in the land. For the next three years the land was fairly quiet, the chief political events being the convention (6th February 1891) between Italy and Abyssinia,'protocols between Italy and Great Britain (24th March and 15th April 1891) and a proclamation by Menelek (10th April 1891), all on the subject of boundaries, As, however, the Italians became more and more friendly with Mangasha and Tigré the apprehensions of Menelek increased, till at last, in February 1893, he wrote denouncing the Uccialli treaty, which differed in the Italian and Amharic versions. According to the former, the negt'is was bound to make use of Italy as a channel for communicating with other powers, whereas the Amharic version left it optional. Meanwhile the dervishes were threatening Eritrea. A fine action by Colonel Arimondi gained Agordat for Italy (zist December 1893), and a brilliant march by Colonel Baratieri resulted in the acquisition of Kassala (17th July 1894).
On his return Baratieri found that Mangasha was intriguing with the dervishcs, and had actually cr0ssed the frontier with a large army. At Koatit and Senafé (13th to 15th January 1895) Mangasha was met and heavily defeated by Baratieri, who occupied Adrigat in March. But as the year were on the Italian commander pushed his forces unsupported too far to the south. Menelek was advancing with a large army in national support of Mangasha, and the subsequent reverses at Amba Alagi (7th December 1895) and Macalle (23rd January 1896) forced the Italians to fall back. .
Reinforcements of many thousands were meanwhile arriving at Massawa, and in February Baratieri took the field at the head of over 13,000 men. Menelek’s army, amounting to about 90,000, had during this time advanced, and was occupying a strong position at Abba Garima, near Adua (or Adowa). Here Baratieri attacked him on the 1st of March, but the difficulties of the country were great, and one of the four Italian brigades had pushed too far forward. This brigade was attacked by overwhelming numbers, and on the remaining brigades advancing in support, they were successively cut to pieces by the encircling masses of the enemy. The Italians lost over 4 500 white and 2000 native troops killed and wounded,
and over 2 500 prisoners, of which 1600 were white, whilst the
Abyssinians owned to a loss of over 3000. General Baldissera advanced with a large body of reinforcements to avenge this defeat, but the Abyssinians, desperately short of supplies, had already retired, and beyond the peaceful relief of Adrigat no further operations took place. It may here be remarked that the white prisoners taken by Menelek were exceedingly well treated by him, and that he behaved throughout the struggle with Italy with the greatest humanity and dignity. On the 26th of October following a provisional treaty of peace was concluded at Adis Ababa, annulling the treaty of Uccialli and recognizing the absolute independence of Abyssinia. This treaty was ratified, and followed by other treaties and agreements defining the Eritrean-Abyssinian and the AbyssinianItalian Somaliland frontiers (see ITALY, History, and SOMALI— len, Ilalian).
(25) The war, so disastrous to Italy, attracted the attention of all Europe to Abyssinia and its monarch, and numerous
same year (1897) a small French expedition under Messrs Clochette and de Bonchamps endeavoured to reach the Nile, but, after surmounting many difficulties, stuck in the marshes of the Upper Sobat, and was obliged to return. Another expedition of Abyssinians, under Dejaj Tasamma and accompanied by three Europeans-Faivre (French), Potter (Swiss) and Artomonov (Russian)—started early in 1898, and reached the Nile at the Sobat mouth in June, a few days only before Major Marchand and his gallant companions arrived on the scene. But no contact was made, and the expedition returned to Abyssinia.
In the same year Menelek proceeded northwards with a large army for the purpose of chastising Mangasha, who was again rebelling against his authority. After some trifling fighting Mangasha submitted, and Ras Makonnen despatched a force to subdue Beni Shangul, the chief of which gold country, Wad Tur el Guri, was showing signs'of disafiection. This effected, the Abyssinians almost came into contact with the Egyptian troops sent up the Blue Nile (after the occupation of Kharturn) to Famaka and towards Gallabat; but as both sides 'were anxious to avoid a collision over this latter town, no hostile results ensued. An excellent understanding was, inlfact, established between these two contiguous countries, in spite of occasional disturbances by bandits on the frontier. On this frontier question, a treaty was concluded on the 15th of May 1902 between England and Abyssinia for the delimitation of the Sudan-Abyssinian frontier. Menelek, in addition, agreed not to obstruct the waters of Lake Tsana, the Blue Nile or the Sobat, so as not to interfere with the Nile irrigation question, and he also agreed to give a concession, if such should be required, for the construction of a British railway'through his'dominions, to connect the Sudan with Uganda. A combined British-Abyssinian expedition (Mr A. E. Butter’s) ‘was despat'ch‘ed in 1901 to propose and survey a boundary between Abyssinia on the one side and British East Africa and Uganda on the other; and the report of the expedition was made public b'yv the British g'QVerrtl ment in November 1904. It was followed in 1908 by an agreement defining the frontiers concerned. I ’ l ‘ ,
' (26) In 1899 the rebellion of the so-called :“ mad " mullah (Hajji Mahommed Abdullah) began ' on the borders of British Somaliland.' An Abyssinian expedition was, " “ r at Great Britain’s request, sent against the mullah, “mm-f but without much effect. In the spring and Britain .-_ summer of 1901 a fresh expedition from Harrar was 4""! "'° undertaken against the mullah, who was laying waste “"12, _ the Ogaden country. Two British officers accompanied ' ‘_ this force, which was to co-operate 'with British vtroops advancing from Somaliland; but little was achieVed by the Abyssinians, and after undergoing considerable privations and losses, and harassing the country generally, including that of some friendly tribes, it returned to Harrar. During the 1902—3 campaign of General (Sir) W. H. Manning, Menelek provided a'force of 5000 to co-operate with the British and to occupy the Webi Shebeli and south-western parts of the Haud. This time the Abyssinians were more successful, and beat the rebels in a pitched fight; but the difficulties of the country again precluded effective co-operation. During General Egerton’s campaign (1903—4) yet another force of 5000 Abyssinians was despatched towards Somaliland. Accompanied by a few British officers, it worked its way southward, but did not contribute much towards the final solution. In any case, however, it is significant that the Abyssinians have repeatedly been willing to co-operate with the British away from their own country. ' .
Regarding the question of railways, the first concession for a railway from the coast at Jibuti (French Somaliland) to the
help;enabled the railway to be completed to Dire Dawa, 28 m. from Harrar, by the last day of 1902. Difficulties arose over the Continuation of the railway to Adis Ababa and beyond, and the proposed internationalization of the line. These difiiculties, which hindered .the work of construction for years, were composed (so far as the European Powers interested were concerned) in 1906. By the terms of an Anglo-French-Italian agreement, signed in London on the 13th of December of that year, it-was decided that the French company should build the railway as far as Adis Ababa, while railway construction west of that place should be under British auspices, with the stipulation that any railway connecting Italy’s possessions on the Red Sea with its Somaliland protectorate should be built under Italian auspices. A British, an Italian and an Abyssinian representative were to be appointed to the board of the French company, and a French director to the board ofany Britishbr, Italian company; formed. Absolute equality of treatment on the railway and at Jibuti was guaranteed to the commerce of all thePowers. f .
Meanwhile the country slowly developed in parts and opened out cautiously to European influences. Most of the Powers appointed representatives at Menclek’s capital—the British minister-plenipotentiary and consul-general, Licut.-Colonel Sir J. L. Harrington,having been appointed shortly after the British mission in 1897. In December 1903 an American mission visited Adis Ababa, and a commercial treaty between the United States and Abyssinia was signed. A German mission visited the country early in 1905 and also concluded a treaty of commerce with the negi'is. Later in the year a German minister was ap— pointed to the court of the emperor.
After 1897 British influence in Abyssinia, owing largely no doubt to the conquest of“ the Sudan, the destruction of the dervish power and the result of the Fashoda incident, was sensibly on the increase. Of the remaining powers France occupied the most important position in the country. Ras Makonnen, the most capable and civilized of Menelek's probable successors, died in March 1906, and Mangasha died later in the same year; the question of the succession therefore opened up the possibility that, in spite of recent civilizing influences, Abyssinia might still relapse in the future into its old state of conflict. The Anglo-French-Italian agreement of December 1906 contained provisions in view of this contingency. The preamble of the document declared that it was the common interest of the three Powers “to maintain intact the integrity of Ethiopia," and Article I: provided for their co-operation in maintaining “the political and territorial status quo in Ethiopia.” Should, however, the status quo be disturbed, the powers were to concert to safeguard their special interests. The terms of the agreement were settled in July 1906, and its text forthwith communicated to the negi'is. After considerable hesitation Menelck sent, early in December, a note to the powers, in which, after thanking them for their intentions, he stipulated'that the agreement should not in any way limit his own sovereign rights. In June 1908, by the nomination of his grandson, Lij Yasu (b. 1896), as his heir, the emperor endeavoured to end the rivalry between various princes claiming the succession to the throne. (See MENELEK.) A convention with Italy, concluded in the same year, settledthe frontier questions outstanding with that
country. , .* BlBLlOGRAPHY.—F0r general information see A. B. Wyldc‘s Modem Abyssinia (London, 1901), avolume giving‘ the result of many years‘ acquaintance with the country and people; Voyage en‘A byssiuie . . . . 18 9—4‘1, Par une commission scientifigue, by Th. Lefebvre and others (36 vo s. and atlas, 3 vols., Paris, 1845— 4); Eliséc Reclus, Nouvelle gr'ographie universalle, vol. x. chap. v. ( aris, 1885). For latest geo raphicai and kindred information consult the Geographical Journal (London), es ially “A Journe through Abyssinia," vol. xv. (1900), and " x loration in thc bai Basin," vol. xxvii. (1906), both by H. We] Blundell, and "From the Somali Coast through 5. Ethiopia to the Sudan," vol. xx. (1902), by C. Neumann: Antoine d'Abbadie, Géographie dc I'Ethiopie (Paris, 1890). The British parliamentary paper Africa, No. 13 (1904), is a report on the survey of the SE. frontier by Capt. P. Maud, R.E., and contains a valuable mag). For geolo , &c., see W. T. Blanford, Observations on the cology and‘ oology'of Abyssinia (London, 1870);
C. Futterer, "Beitréige zur Kenntniss des ura in Ost-Afrika," Zeit. Dcutscli. Geol. Gesell. xlix. p. 568 (189(7); . A. Raisin, “Rocks from
Southfrn Abyssinia,” Quart. Journ. col. Soc. vol. lix. pp. 292-306 1903 .
Among works by travellers describingl the country are— ames Bruce's ravels to discover the Source oft e Nile [1768—1773] Edinburgh, 1813, 3rd ed., 8 vols.); The Highlands of Aetliiopia ( vols., London, 18.1.4), by Sir W. Cornwallis Harris, dealing with the lganakil country, Harrar and Shoa; Mansfield Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia; being notes collected during three years' residence and travels (2nd ed., London, 1868); Antoine d’Abbadie, Douzc an: dans la Ila-ulcEthiofne (Paris,_1868); P. H. G. Powell-Cotton, A Sloorlin Trip through Abyssinia London, 1902); A. Donaldson Smith, T rough Unknown A rican ountries (London, 1897); M. S. Wellby, 'Twurt Sirdor and Ienelik (London, 1901). v For history see—A. M. H. J. Stokvrs' Manuel d'histoire, vol. i. p. 43‘9-46, and vol. ii. p . lxxiv-v (Leiden, 1888—89), which contains ists the sovereigns of Abyssinia, S'h‘oa and‘Harrar, from the earliest times, with brief notes. Texts of_ treaties betweenv Abyssinia and the European Powers up to 18 Will be found in vol.- ,i. of Sir E. Hertslet's The Map of Africa y Treaty (London, 18196). L. J. Morié’s Histoire de l'Ethiopie: Tome ‘tt, “L'A byssim'e _‘_' ( ’aris, 1904), is a comprehensive survey (the views on modern affairs being coloured ’by a strong anti-British bias). For more detailed historical studycorisult C. Bcccari's Notizia e Saggi di_ ogpere e documenti inediti riguardanti la Sloria di Etiopia durante t ecoli XVI., XVII. e XVIII. (Rome. 1903 , a valua )le guide to _the period indicated; E. Glaser, Die Abessin er in Arobien and Afrik’a (Munich, 1895); The Pvrtu uese Expedition to Abyssmia in 1541—1543 as narrated by Caxton 0.10 (with the account of Bermudcz), translated and edited b R. S. Whiteway (London, Haklu t Society, 1902), which contains a. bibliography; Fulflh elHahac a, a contemporary Arab chronicle of the wars of Mahommed Gran, translated into French by Antoine d'Abbadie and P. Paulitschke (Par1s,1898); A' Voy a to Abyssinia by Father Jerome Lobo, from the French [by Samue Johnson] (London, 17352; Record of the ExPedition to Ab ssinia, 3 vols., an official history 0 the war of 1868, by Major T. . Holland and Capt. H. Hezicr (London, 1870); Hormuzd Rassam, Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore [1865‘1868] (2 vols., London, 1869); Henry Blanc, A Narrative of Captivity mAbyssim'a (London, 1868), by one of Theodorc's prisoners; Sir Gerald H. Portal, M. Mission to Abyssinia (London, 1892), an account of the authors embassy to King John in 1887; Count A. E. W. Gleichen. With the Mission to Menelik, 1897 (London, 1898), containing the story of the Rennell Rodd mission; R. P. Skinner, Abyssinia'of To-Day (London, 1906), a record of the first American mission to the country; G. F. H. Berkeley, The CamPaign of/ldowa and the Rise of )lfenelik (London, 1902). Books dealing _wrth missionary enterprise are—Journal of a Three Years' REMEHCC in Abyssinia, by Bishop Samuel Gobat (London, 1834.); J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches and Missionary Labour: durm an 18 years’ residence in Eastern Africa (London, 1860 ;, Cardina G. Massaja, I miei Trentacinquo anni di Missi'one nell' lta EtioPia (10 vols., Milan, 1886-1893). Political questions are referred to by T. Lennox- Gilmour, Ab ssinia: the Ethiopian Railway and the Powers (London, 1906); .- le Roux, Méne'lik et nous (Paris, 1 01); Charles Michel, La question d’Et/ii'opic (Paris, 1905). (F. R.
ABYSSINIAN CHURCH. As the chronicle of Axum relates, Christianity was adopted in Abyssinia in the -4th century. About 4.0, 330 Frumentius was made first bishop of Ethiopia by_ Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria. Cedrenus and Nicephorus err in, dating Abyssinian Christianity from Justinian, c. 542'. From Friimentius to the present day, with one break, the Metropolitan (Abuna) has always been appointed from Egypt, and, oddly enough, he is always a foreigner. Little is known of church history down to the period of Jesuit rule, which broke the connexion with Egypt from about 1500 to 1633. But the Abyssinians rejected the council of Chalcedon, and still remain monophysites. Union-with the Coptic Church (q.v.) continued after'the Arab conquest in Egypt. Abfi Sz'ih'h records (rath century) that the patriarch used always to send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, till Al Hakim stopped the practice. Cyril, 67th patriarch, sent Severus as bishop, with orders to put down polygamy and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all churches. These examples show the close relations of the two churches in the Middle Ages. But early in the Ioth century the church was brought under the influence of a Portuguese mission. In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yakub, a religious discussion between an Abyssinian, Abba Giorgis, and a Frank had led to the despatch of an embassy from Abyssinia to the Vatican; but the initiative in the Roman Catholic missions to Abyssinia was taken, not by Ro'mc, but by Portugal, as an incident in the struggle with the Mussulmans for the command of the trade route to India by the Red Sea. In 1 507 Matthew, or Matheus, an Armenian, had been sent as Abyssinian envoy to Portugal to ask aid against the Mussulmans, and in 1520 an embassy under Dom Rodrigo de Lima landed in Abyssinia. An interesting account of this mission, which remained for several years, was written by Francisco Alvarez, the chaplain. Later, Ignatius Loyola wished to essay the task of conversion, but was forbidden. Instead, the pope sent out 1050 Nunez Barreto as patriarch of the East Indies, with André de Oviedo as bishop; and from Goa envoys went to Abyssinia, followed by Oviedo himself, to secure the king’s adherence to Rome. After repeated failures some measure of success was achieved, but not till 1604 did the king make formal submission to the pope. Then the people rebelled and the king was slain. Fresh Jesuit victories were followed sooner or later by fresh revolt, and Roman rule hardly triumphed when once for all it was overthrown. In 163 3 the Jesuits were expelled and allegiance to Alexandria resumed.
There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely resembling the Coptic. After these, two main types of architecture are found—one basilican, the other native. The cathedral at Axum is basilican, though the early basilicas are nearly all in ruins—cg. that at Adulis and that of Martula Mariam in Gojam, rebuilt in the 16th century on the ancient foundations. These examples show the influence of those architects who, in the 6th century, built the splendid basilicas at Sanaa and elsewhere in Arabia. Of native churches there are two forms—one square or oblong, found in Tigré; the other circular, found in Amhara and Shoa. In both, the sanctuary is square and stands clear in the centre. An outer court, circular or rectangular, surrounds the body of the church. The square type may be due to basilican influence, the circular is a mere adaptation of the native hut: in both, the arrangements are obviously based on Jewish tradition. Church and outer court are usually thatched, with wattled or mud-built walls adorned with rude frescoes. The altar is a board on four wooden pillars having upon it a small slab (tabfit) of alabaster, marble, or shittim wood, which forms its essential part. At Martula Mariam, the wooden altar overlaid with gold had two slabs of solid gold, one 500, the other 800 ounces in weight. The ark kept at Axum is described as 2 feet high, covered with gold and gems. The liturgy was celebrated on it in the king’s palace at Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and Feast of the Cross.
Generally the Abyssinians agree with the Copts in ritual and practice. The LXX. version was translated into Geez, the literary language, which is used for all services, though hardly understood. Saints and angels are highly revered, if not adored, but graven images are forbidden. Fasts are long and rigid. Confession and absolution, strictly enforced, give great power to the priesthood. The clergy must marry, but once only. Pilgrimage to Jerusalem is a religious duty and covers many sins.
AUTHORITIES.—-Tellez, Historia de Ethiopia (Coimbra, 1660); Alvarez, translated and edited for the Hakluyt Soc. by Lord Stanley of Alderley, under the title Narrative o the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia (London, 1881); Ludolphus, istory of Ethiopia (London, 1684, and other works); T. Wright, Christianity of Arabia (London, 1355); C. T. Beke, “Christianit among the Gallas,” Brit. Mag. (London, 1847): J. C. Hotten, A yssinia Described (London, 1868); “Abyssinian Church Architecture," Royal Inst. Brit. Arch. Transactions, 1869; lbid. Journal, March 1897; Archaeologia, vol. xxxii.; J. A. de Gra a Barreto, Documenta histariam ccclcsiae Habessinarum illustrantia Olivipone, 1879); E. F. Kromrei, Glaubenlehre und Gebrauchc der alteren Abcssinischcn Kirche (Leipzig, 18 5); F. M. E. Pereira, Vida do Abba Samuel (Lisbon, 1894); Idem, Il/ida do Abba Daniel (Lisbon, 1897); Idem, Historia dos Martyrcs de Nagran (Lisbon, I899); Idem, Chronica de Susenyos (Lisbon, text 1892, tr. and notes 1900); Idem, Martyrio de Abba Isaac (Coimbra, 1903) ; Idem, Vida de 5. Paula dc Thebas (Coimbra, 1904); Archdeacon Dowlin , The
Abyssinian Church, (London, 1909); and periodicals as under OPTIC CHURCH. (A. J. B.)
ACACIA, a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the family Leguminosae and the sub-family Mimoseae. The small flowers are arranged in rounded or elongated clusters. The leaves are compound pinnate in general (see fig.). In some instances, however, more especially in the Australian species, the leaflets are suppressed and the leaf-stalks become vertically flattened,
and serve the purpose of leaves. The vertical pesition protects the structure from the intense sunlight, as with their edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light so fully as ordinary horizontally placed leaves. There are about 4 50 species of acacia widely scattered over the warmer regions of the globe. They abound in Australia and Africa. Various species yield gum. True gum-arabic is the product of Acacia Senegal, abundant in both east and west tropical Africa. Acacia arabica is the gum-arabic tree of India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-arabic. An astringent medicine, called catechu (q.v.) or cutch, is procured from several species, but more especially from Acacia catcchu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get an extract. The bark of Acacia arabica, under the name of babul or babool, is used in Scinde for tanning. The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is also very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export. Such are Acacia pycnantha, golden wattle, A. decurrcns, tan wattle, and A. dealbata, silver wattle. The pods of Acacia nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, and of other African species
are also rich in tannin and used by tanners. The seeds of Acacia niopo are roasted and used as snuff in South America. Some species afford valuable timber; such are Acacia melanoxylan, black wood of Australia, which attains a great size; itswood is used for furniture, and takes a high polish; and Acacia homolophylla (also Australian), myall wood, which yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental purposes. Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber called sabicu. Acacia seyal is supposed to be the shittah tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. Acacia heterophylla, from Mauritius and Bourbon, and Acacia koa from the Sandwich Islands are also good timber trees. The plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa. These sometimes represent branches which have become'short, hard and pungent, or sometimes leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is the kangaroo-thorn of Australia, A. girafl'ac, the African camelthorn. In the Central American Acacia sphaerocephala (bullthorn acacia) and A. spadicigcra, the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afl'ord shelter for ants, which feed on a secretion of honey on the leaf-stalk and curious food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets; in return they protect the plant against leaf-cutting insects. In common language the term Acacia is often applied to species of the genus Robinia (q.v.) which belongs also to the Leguminous family, but is placed in a different sectiori‘ll" Robim'a Freud-acacia, or false acacia, is cultivated in the milder parts of Britain, and forms a large tree, with beautiful pea-like blossoms. The tree is sometimes called the locust tree.
ACADEMIES. The word “academy” is derived from “the olive grove of Academe, Plato’s retirement,” the birthplace of the Academic school of philosophy (see under ACADEMY, GREEK). The schools of Athens after the model of the Academy continued to flourish almost without a break for nine centuries till they were abolished by a decree of Justinian. It was not without significance in tracing the history of the word that Cicero gave the name to his villa near Puteoli. It was there that he entertainedhis cultured friends and held the symposia which he afterwards elaborated in Academic Questions and other philosophic and moral dialogues.
“Academy,” in its modern acceptation, may be defined as a society or corporate body having for its object the cultivation and promotion of literature, of science and of art, either severally or in combination, undertaken for the pure love of these pursuits, with no interested motive. Modern academies, moreover, have, almost without exception, some form of public recognition; they are either founded or endowed, or subsidized, or at least patronized, by the sovereign of the state. The term “academy” is very loosely used in modern times; and, in essentials, other bodies with the title of “ society ” or “ college," or even “schoo , ” often embody the same idea; we are only concerned here, however, with those which, bearing the title of academy, are of historical importance in their various spheres.
Early History—The first academy, as thus defined, though it might with equal justice claim to be the first of universities, was the museum of Alexandria founded at the beginning of the 3rd century 8.6. by the first of the Ptolemies. There all the sciences then known were pursued, and the most learned men of Greece and of the East gathered beneath its spacious porticos. Here, too, was the nucleus of the famous library of Alexandria. _ .
Passing over the state institute for the promotion of science founded at Constantinople by Caesar Bardas in the 9th century, and the various academies established by the Moors at Granada, at Corduba and as far east as Samarkand, we come to the academy over which Alcuin presided, a branch of the School of the Palace established by Charlemagne in 782. This academy was the prototype of the learned coteries of Paris which Moliére afterwards satirized. It took all knowledge for its province; it included the learned priest and the prince who could not write his own name, and it sought to solve all problems by witty definitions.
The David of Alcuin’s academy (such was the name that the emperor 'assurned), found no successors or imitators, and the tradition of an Oxford academy of Alfred the'Great has been proved to rest on a forgery. The academy of arts founded at Florence in r270 by Brunette Latini was short-lived and has left no memories, and modern literary academies may be said to trace their lineage in direct descent from the troubadours of the early 14th century. The first Floral Games were held at Toulouse in May 1324, at the, summons of a gild of troubadours, who invited “ honourable lords, friends and companions who possess the science whence spring joy, pleasure, good sense, merit and politeness ” toassemble in their garden of the “ gay science ” and recite their works. The prize, a golden violet, was awarded to Vidal de Castelnaudary for a poem to the glory of the Virgin. In spite of the English invasion and other adversities the Floral Games survived till, about the year 1500, their permanence was secured by the munificent bequest of Ciémence Isaure, a rich lady of Toulouse. In 1694 the Academic dc: Jeux Floraux was constituted an academy by letters patent of Louis XIV. ; its statutes were reformed and the number of members raised to 36. Suppressed during the Revolution it was revived in 1806, and still continues to award amaranths of gold and silver lilies, for which there is keen competition.
_. Provence led the way, but Italy of the Renaissance is the soil in which academies most grew and flourished. The Accodmia
Pontaniana, to give it its subsequent title, was founded at Florence in 1433 by Antonio Beccadelli of Palermo and fostered by Laurentius Valla. Far more famous was the Accodcmia Plalom'ca, founded c. 1442 by Cosimo de' Medici, which numbered among its members Marsilio F icino, Pico dclla Mirandola, Machiavelli and Angelo Poliziano. It was, as the name implies, chiefly occupied with Plato, but it added to its objects the study of Dante and the purification of the Italian language, and though it lived for barely half a century, yet its influence as a model for similar learned societies was great and lasting.
Modem Academics.—Academies have played an important part in the revival of learning and in the birth of scientific inquiry. They mark an age of aristocracies when letters were the distinction of the few and when science had not been differentiated into distinct branches, each with its own specialists. Their interest is mainly historical, and it cannot be maintained that at the present day they have much direct influence on the advancement of learning either by way of research or of publiFor example, the standard dictionaries of France, Germany and England are the work, not of academies, but of individual scholars, of Littré, Grimm and Murray. Matthew Arnold’s plea for an English academy of letters to save his countrymen from the note of vulgarity and provinciality has met with no response. Academies have been supplanted, socially by the moderrl club, and intellectually by societies devoted to special branches of science. Those that survive from the past serve, like the Heralds’ College, to set an official stamp on literary and scientific merit. The principal academies of Europe, past and present, may be dealt with in various classes, according to the subjects to which they are devoted.
I. Scrsnrrrrc ACADEMIES
Austria.—The Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaflen at Vienna, originally projected by Leibnitz, was founded by the emperor Ferdinand I. in 1846, and has two classes—mathematics and natural science, and history and philology.
Belgium and the Netherlands—A literary society was founded at Brussels in 1769 by Count Cobenzl, the prime minister of Maria Theresa, which after various changes of name and constitution became in 1816 the Académie imperiale e! royale de: sciences e! belles-lellrcs, under the patronage of William I. of the Netherlands. It has devoted itself principally to natural history and antiquities. The Royal Institute of the Low Countries was founded in 1808 by King Louis Bonaparte. It was replaced in 1851 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam, to which in 18 56 a literary section was added.
Denmark—The Kongelige danske videnskabemcs sclskab (Royal Academy of Sciences) at Copenhagen owes its origin to
Christian VI., who in 1742 invited six Danish numismatists to
arrange his cabinet of medals. Historians and antiquaries were called in to assist at the sittings, and the commission developed into a sort of learned club. The king took it under his protection, enlarged its scope by the addition of natural history, physics and mathematics, and in r743 constituted it a royal academy with an endowment fund.
France—The old Académie dcs sciences had the same origin as the more celebrated Académie franqauc. A number of men of science had for some thirty years met together, first at the house of P. Marsenne, then at that of Montmort, a member of the Council of State, afterwards at that of Mclchisédec Thévenot, the learned traveller. It included Descartes, Gassendi, Blaise and Etienne Pascal. Hobbes, the author of Leviathan, was presented to it during his visit to Paris in 1640. Colbert conceived the idea of giving an official status to this learned club. A number of chemists, physicians, anatomists and eminent mathematicians, among whom were Christian Huyghcns and Bernard Frenicle de Bessy (toes—1675), the author of a famous treatise on magic squares, were chosen to form the nucleus of the new society. Pensions were granted by Louis XIV. to each of the members, and a fund for instruments and experiment was placed at their disposal. They began their session on the 22nd of December 1666 in the Royal Library, meeting twice a week—the mathematicians on Wednesdays, the physicists on Saturdays. Duhamel was appointed permanent secretary, a post he owed more to his polished Latinity than to his scientific attainments, all the proceedings of the society being recorded in Latin, and C. A. Couplet was made treasurer. At first the academy was rather a laboratory and observatory than an academy proper. Experiments were undertaken in common and results discussed. Several foreign‘savants, in particular the Danish astronomer Roemer, joined the society, attracted by the liberality of the Grand Monarque; and the German physician and geometer Tschirnhausen and Sir Isaac Newton were made foreign associates. The death of Colbert, who was succeeded by Louvois, exercised a disastrous eflect on the fortunes of the academy. The labours of the academicians were diverted from the pursuit of pure science to such works as the construction of fountains and cascades at Versailles, and the mathematicians were employed to calculate the odds of the games of lansquenet and basset. In 1699 the academy was reconstituted by Louis Phelypcaux, comte de Pontchartrain, under whose department as secretary of state the academies came. By its new constitution it consisted of twenty-five ' members, ten honorary, men of high rank interested in science, and fifteen pensionaries, who were the working members. Of these three were geometricians, three astronomers, three mechanicians, three anatomists, and three chemists. Each of these three had two associates, and, besides, each pensionary' had the privilege of naming a pupil. There were eightforeign and four free associates. The oflicers were, a president and a vice-president, named by the kingifrom among the honorary members, and a secretary and treasurer chosen from the pensionaries; who held oflice for life. Fontenelle, a man of wit, and rather a popularizer of science than an original investigator, succeeded Duhamel as secretary. The constitution was purely aristocratical, differing. in that respect from that of the French Academy, in which the principle of equality among the members was never violated. Science was not yet strong enough to dispense with the patronage of the great. The two leading spirits of the academy at this period were Clairault and Réaumur. To trace the subsequent fortunes of this academy‘would be to write the history of the rise and progress of science in France. It has reckoned among its members Laplace, Buffon, Lagrange, D’Alembert, Lavoisier, and Jussieu, the father of modern botany. On the zrst of December 179; it met for the last time, and it was suppressed with its sister academies by the act of the Convention on the 8th of April 1793. Some of its members were guillotined, some were imprisoned, more were reduced to poVerty. The'aristocracy of talent was almost as much detested and persecuted by the Revolution as that of rank. , y' In 1795 the Convention decided on founding'an Institut National which was to replace all the academies, and its‘first class corresponded closely to the' old academy of sciences. 1816 the Academic dcs sciences was reconstituted as a branch of the Institute. The new academy has reckoned among its members, besides many other brilliant men, Carnot the engineer, the physicists Fresnel, Ampere, Arago, Biot, the chemists GayLussac and Thénard, the zoologists G. Cuvier and the two Geoffr'oy Saint-Hilaires.‘ In France there were also considerable academics in most of the large towns. Montpellier, for example, had a royal academy of sciences, founded in 1706 by Lonis XIV., on nearly the same footing as that of Paris, of which, indeed, ‘it was in some measure the counterpart. It was reconstituted in 1847, and organized under three sections—medicine, science and letters. Toulouse also has an academy, feunded in “1640,. under the name of Société de lanternistes; and there Were analogous institutions at Nimes,-Arles, Ly0ns, Dijon, Bordeaux'and elsewhere. I ‘ " I Germany—The Collegium Curiosmn was a scientific society, founded by J. C. Sturm, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the university of Altorf,,'in Franconia, in 1672, on the plan of the Accademia del Cimento. ~ It originally consisted of twenty members, and continued to flourish. long after the death of its founder. The early labours of" the society were
devoted to the repetition (under varied conditions) of the most notable experiments of the day, or to the discussion of the results. Two volumes (1676—168 5) of proceedings were published by Sturm._ The former, C ollegium Experimentale rive Curiosum,
.begins with an account of the diving-bell, “a new invention";
next follow chapters on the camera obscura, the Torricellian experiment, the'air-pump, microscope, telescope, &c.
The Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, if judged by the work it has produced, holds the first place in Germany. Its origin was the Societa: Regia Scientiarum, constituted in 1700 by Frederick I. on the comprehensive plan of Leibnitz, who was its first president. Hampered and restricted under Frederick William I., it was reorganized under Frederick II. on the French
:model furnished by Maupertuis, and received its present con, stitution in 1812.
It is divided into two classes and four sections ~physical and mathematical, philosophical and historical. Each section has a permanent secretary with a salary of 1200 marks, and each of the 50 regular members is paid 600 marks a year. Among the contributors to its transactions (first volume published in 1710), to name only the dead, we find Immanuel Bekker, Bockling, Bernoulli, F. Bopp, P. Buttmann, Encke (of comet fame), L. Euler, the brothers Grimm, the two Humboldts, Lachmann, Lagrange, Leibnitz, T. Mommsen, J. Muller, G. Niebuhr, C. 'Ritter (the geographer), Savigny and Zumpt. Frederick II. presented in 1768 A Dissertation on Ennui. To the Berlin Academy we owe the Corflus Inscriptionum Graecarum, the C orPus I nscriptionum Latinarum, and the M onumenta Germaniae H istorica. - -'
The Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mannheim was found by the elector Palatine in r755. Since 1780 it has devoted itself specially to meteorology, and has published valuable observations under the title of Ephemerides Societatis Meteorologicae TheodoraPalatinae. '
The Bavarian Akademie der Wissenschaftcn zu M tine/zen was founded in 17 59. It is distinguished from other academies by the part it has played in national education. Maximilian Joseph, the enlightened elector (afterwards king) of Bavaria, induced the government to hand over to it the organization and super; intendence ofepublic-instruction, and this work was carried out by Privy-councillor Jacobi, the president of the academy. In recent years'the academy has specially occupied itself with natural history. '
' The K finigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, at Erfurt, which dates from 1754 and devotes itself to applied science, and the Hessian academy of sciences at Giessen, which publishes medical transactions, also deserve mention. ' ' ' _ ‘
Great Britain and Ireland.— In 1616 a scheme for founding a royal academy was started by Edmund Bolton,‘ an eminent scholar and antiquary, who in hislpetition to King James I., which was supported by George Villiers, marquis of Buckingham, proposed that the title of the academy should be “King James, his Academe or College of honour.” A list of the proposed original members is still extant, and includes the names of George Chapman, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson, John Selden, Sir'Kenelm Digby and Sir Henry Wotton. The constitution is of interest as reflecting the mind of the learned king. The academy was to consist of three classes,—~tutelaries, who were to be Knights of the Garter, auxiliaries, all noblemen or ministers of state, and the essentials, “called from 'out'of the most famous lay gentlemen of England, and either living inthe light of things, or with0ut any title of profession or art of life for lucre.” Among other‘duties to be assigned to this academy was, the licensing of all books'other than theological. The death of King James put an end to the undertaking. In 1635 a second attempt ‘to: found an academy was made under the patronage of Charles I'., with the title of “Minerva’s Museum,” for the'instruction of young noblemen in the liberal arts and sciences, but the project wa's soon dr0pped. (For the “British Academy” see III. below.) About 1645 the more ardent followers of Bacon used to meet, some in London, some at Oxford, for the discussion of subjects connected with experimental science. This was the original the Royal-SoCiety »(q.v.), which received its charter in 1662. ‘