صور الصفحة
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Lecturer on Physical and Re 'onal Geo aphy in ambridge Universit . Former y .
of the Geological Survey OFlndia. githor of Monograph of British Cambrian Alps' Geology”
Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology.

Director of Excavations fur the Palestine Exploration Fund.

Formerly Kee )er of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; Alcock S“- R.
Professor of hincse. King’s College, London. Author of The Language and ’
Literature of China; &c.


Aagesen; Absalon;
Adolphus Frederick;
Alexander Nevsky;
Alexius Mikhailovich;
Alexius Petrovich;

Alin; Andrassy. Count;
Andrew ll. of Hungary.

Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's A1519_
College, London. Editor of Fergusson's History of Architecture. Author of
Architecture: East and West; &C.

Agriculture (in part).

Admiralty Administration

Senior Naval Lord of Admiralty, 1889—1891. President, Royal Naval College, (Brill-Shy
Greenwich, I89I—1894. -

Professor of Botany in the University College of North Wales. Author of Morpho- A1839-

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ecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, an ormery e ow, onvi e an aius 0 age, Abraham- Ahab

Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904—1908. Amalekiés, '
Council of Royal Asiatic Societ , [904—1905. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. I ’
Author of Critical Notes on 01 Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. t Ammonlms-

Professor of Constitutional and Private International Law in Yale University. American Law.

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Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of l-lrrors. Connecticut. President of the Inter

national Law Association. President of the American Historical Association.

Former] Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Director of British School of Archaeo-
logy at omc.

Adria; Aemilia Via;
Agrigentum; Alba Fucens:
Alba Longa; Aletrium;

Anagnia; Ancona.
Trinity College, Dublin. A la lon-

T. Arnor. JOYCE, M.A. Ababda.
Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec. Anthropo- Al. . _ 'E, I
logical Society_ not}. (me ogy.
See the biographical article: HODGKIN, T.

See the biographical article: HUXLEY, THOMAS H. {Amphlbm (m pan

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892—I898. ,Author of The Indian Afghanismn' CCUgmph)
Borderland; The Countries of the King‘s Award; India; Tibet; &c. l Afghan Turkesmn‘

See the biographical article: CHEYNE, T. K.

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Professor of Comparative Reli 'on in Manchester University. President of the Pali :Phi2?mma;
Text Society. Fellow of the ritish Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Jan ’
Asiatic Society, I885—1902. Author of Buddhism; 81¢. Ammu-

Professor of Chemistry, R0 al Naval College. Chief Superintendent Gas Examiner Acetylene.
to the Corporation of the ity of London.

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N. A. B. G. ' REV WILLIAM Anousrus BREVOORT COOLIDcE, M.A , F.R.G.S., D.PH. (Bern). [ A"; Aarau; Aargau; Adda;
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford Professor of English History, St David's} Adige. Albula Pass. Alp.
College, Lampeter, 1880—1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of ' . . _ ’ _ ’
the Todi; Guide to Grindclu'ald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alp: in Nature and in [NW Marlllmesi MP5,
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880—1889, &c. Alidorf.
Abbot; Aix-la-Chapelle:
W. A. P. WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS,fl\I.A. C d Se Sch 1 is J h C u Congresses;
Formerly Exhibitioner o Merton ollege an nior oaro t o n's O ege, .
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe, &c. Allixander II 01: Rusism’ _
All, of lannlna, Alliance,
Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Buda-Pest. onena'
See the biographical article: ROBERTS-AUSTEN, SIR W. C. 0“ m Pa)-
Governin Director, Suez Canal C0. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, Albert Edward Nyanza;
E pt. finder-Secretary of State for Public Works. Adviser to the Ministry of Albert Nyanzg (in Party
Pghlic Works in Egypt, 1904—1908.
W. Fr. WILLIAM FREAM, LL.D. F.G.S., F.L.S. F.S.S. (d. 1907). - -
Author of Handbook iaf Agriculture. , Agricunure (m pa)
Senior Examiner in the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Algebra.
Cambridge. Senior Wrangler, 1884.
W. G.‘ WALCOT GIBSON, D.Sc., F.G.S. Africa, (,1! a _
H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-Bearin Rocks of the s. Transvaal; "f 0%
Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and C0 mining; 8lc. _ Algerla- 060108)"
Iud e of the King's Bench Div. President of International Law Association, 1905. Admiralty, High Court 0!;
Aut or of Book of Church Law. Edited 2nd ed. of Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law, Admiralty Jurisdiction_
and 3rd ed. of vol. iv. of Phillimore's International Law.
W. Ht. WALTER HIBBERT, A.M.I.C.E., F.I.C., F.C.S. Accumulaton
Lecturer on Physics and Electro-Technology, Polytechnic, Regent Street, London.
Professor of Geology in Harvard Universny. Formerly Professor of Plysical America: Physical Geography
Geography. Author of Physical Geography; 8m.
See the biographical article: PETRIE, W. M. F. L '
See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL. {Andrea del sum
Archdeacon of Birmingham. Formerly Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884-1891, (Absolution,
and Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891—1900. L
Disney Professor of Archaeology, Cambridge University, and Brereton Reader in
Classics. Fellow of Caius College, Cambrdze. Fellow u. the British Academy Achaeans-
President of Royal Anthropological institute; 1908. Author of The Early Age
of Greece, &c.
See the biographical article: SPALDING, w. Addison (m “'0'
W. T. S. REAR-ADMIRAL W. T. SAMPSON, LL.D. Admiralty Administration
' See the biographical article: SAMPSON, W. T. (United States)
See the biographical article: WALLACE, WILLIAM (1844—1897). { Anaxagoras (in part).
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881—1904. Gifford Lecturer, Ambarvalia.
Edinburgh University, I908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Alexander "1-, “1-, VIL, VIIIJ,
Ancyra, Synod of.
Abbreviation. Aeronautics. Albumin. Alimony. Ambo.
Acid. Aerotherapeutics. Alcohol. Alismacoae. Ammonia.
Aconite. . Agapemonitcs. Alcohols. Almanac. Amsterdam.
Addison's 13158356 Age. Aldehydes. Aloe. Ana.
Adoption. Alabama. Alexandrian School. Alum. Andaman Islands.
Advocate. Alaska. Alhambra. Amazons. Andes.
Advowson. Alb.

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In Phoenician, a, like the symbols for e and for 0, did

not represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were not represented by any symbol. When the alphabet was adopted by the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds of their language. The breathings which were not required in Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel sounds, other vowels, like i and u, being represented by an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels y and w. The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to the Hebrew Aleph, was taken over by the Greeks in the form Alpha (5)4211). The earliest authority for this, as for the names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama (7papnanx1) Bewpia.) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d.

The form of the letter has varied considerably. In the earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions (the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 B.C., the oldest Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th or 7th century B.C.) A rests upon its side thus—4F Y In the Greek alphabeth later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set—A 4 A A a, &c. From the Greeks of the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them has passed to the other nations of western Europe. In the earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a golden fibula found at Praeneste in 1886 (see ALPHABET), the letters are still identical in form with those of the western Greeks. Latin develops early various forms, which are comparatively rare in Greek, as A, or unknown, as A. Except possibly F aliscan, the other dialects of Italy did not borrow their alphabet directly from the western Greeks as the Romans did, but received it at second hand through the Etruscans. In Oscan, where the writing of early inscriptions is no less careful than in Latin, the A takes the form Q, to which the nearest parallels are found in north Greece (Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly, and there only sporadically).

This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in the A Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants.


In Greek the symbol was used for both the long and the short sound, as in English father (a) and German Ratio (4!); English, except in dialects, has no sound corresponding precisely to the Greek short a, which, so far as can be ascertained, was a mid-back-wide sound, according to the terminology of H. Sweet (Primer of Phonetics, p. 107). Throughout the history of Greek the short sound remained practically unchanged. On the other hand, the long sound of a in the Attic and Ionic dialects passed into an open Z-sound, which in the Ionic alphabet was represented by the same symbol as the original é-sound (see ALPHABET : Greek). The vowel sounds vary from language to language, and the a symbol has, in consequence, to represent in many cases sounds which are not identical with the Greek a whether long or short, and also to represent several diflerent vowel sounds in the same language. Thus the New English Dictionary distinguishes about twelve separate vowel sounds, which are represented by a in English. In general it may be said that the chief changes which affect the o-sound in different languages arise from (r) rounding, (2) fronting, i.e. changing from a sound produced far back in the mouth to a sound produced farther forward. The rounding is often produced by combination with rounded consonants (as in English was, wall, &c.), the rounding of the preceding consonant being continued into the formation of the vowel sound. Rounding has also been produced by a following l-sound, as in the English fall, small, bald, 81c. (see Sweet’s History of English Sounds, 2nd ed., §§ 906, 784). The eflect of fronting is seen in the Ionic and Attic dialects of Greek, where the original name of the Medes, Mddoi, with d in the first syllable (which survives in Cyprian Greek as Mfitiot), is changed into Médoi (Mfiliot), with an open é-sound instead of the earlier a. In the later history of Greek this sound is steadily narrowed till it becomes identical with i (as in English seed). The first part of the process has been almost repeated by literary English, a (ah) passing into 6 (ch), though in present-day pronunciation the sound has developed further into a diphthongal ei except before 1, as in hare (Sweet, op. cit. § 783).

In English 0 represents unaccented forms of several words, e.g. dn (one), of, have, he, and or various prefixes the history of which is given in detail in the N no English Dictionary (Oxford, 1888), vol. i. p. 4. (P. Gr.)

As a symbol the letter is used in various connexions and for various technical purposes, e.g. for a note in music, for the first of the seven dominical letters (this use is derived from its being the first of the litterae nundinales at Rome), and generally as a sign of priority.

In Logic, the letter A is used as a symbol for the universal affirmative proposition in the general form “all x is y.” The letters I, E and O are used respectively for the particular affirmative “ some a: is y,” the universal negative “ no at is y,” and the particular negative “some as is not y.” The use of these letters is generally derived from~ the vowels of the two Latin verbs Afllrmo (or Alo), “I assert,” and nEgO, “ I deny.” The use of the symbols dates from the 13th century, though some authorities trace their origin to the Greek logicians. A is also used largely in abbreviations (q.v.).

In Shipping, A1 is a symbol used to denote quality of construction and material. In the various shipping registers ships are classed and given a rating after an official examination, and assigned a classification mark, which appears in addition to other particulars in those registers after the name of the ship. See SHIPBUILDING. It is popularly used to indicate the highest degree of excellence.

AA, the name of a large number of small European rivers. The word is derived from the Old German aha, cognate to the Latin aqua, water (cf. Ger. -ach; Scand. 11, aa, pronounced 6). The following are the more important streams of this name:— Two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated between them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and Hallwiler into the Aar. In Germany there are the Westphalian Aa, rising in the Teutoburgcr Wald, and joining the Werre at Herford, the Miinster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others.

AAGESEN, ANDREW (1826—1879), Danish jurist, was educated for the law at Kristianshavn and Copenhagen, and interrupted his studies in 1848 to take part in the first Schleswigv war, in which he served as the leader of a reserve battalion. In 1855 he became professor of jurisprudence at the university of Copenhagen. In 1870 he was appointed a member of the commission for drawing up a maritime and commercial code, and the navigation law of 1882 is mainly his work. In 1879 he was elected a member of the Landsthing; but it is as a teacher at the university that he won his reputation. Among his numerous juridical works may be mentioned: Bidrag til Lauren om Overdragelse af Ejendomsret, Bemaerkinger 0m Rettigheder over Ting (Copenhagen, 1866, 1871— 1872); Fortcgnelse aver Relssamlinger, Retslitteratur i Danmark, Norge, Sverige (Copenhagen, 1876). Aagescn was Hall's successor as lecturer on Roman law at the university, and in this department his researches were epoch-making. All his pupils were profoundly impressed by his exhaustive examination of the sources, his energetic demonstration of his subject and his stringent search after truth. His noble, imposing, and yet most amiable personality won for him, moreover, universal afi'ection and respect.

See C. F. Bricka, Dansk. Bio . Lex. vol. i. (Copenhagen, 1887); Samlade Skriflcr, edited by '. C. Bornemann (Copenhagen, 1863). (R. N. B.)

AAL, also known as A’L, Acn, or Area, the Hindustani names for the M orinda tincioria and M orinda citrifolia, plants extensively cultivated in India on account of the reddish dye-stuff which their roots contain. The name is also applied to the dye, but the common trade name is Suranji. Its properties are due to the presence of a glucoside known as Morindin, which is compounded from glucose and probably a trioxy-methyl—anthra— quinone.

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop, and chief town of the amt (county) of its name, on the south bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the Cattegat. Pop. (1901). 31,457. The situation is typical of the north of Jutland. To the west the Linifjord broadens into an irregular


lake, with low, marshy shores and many islands. North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the mirage is seen in summer. South-east lies the similar Lille Vildmose. A railway connects Aalborg with Hjorring, F rederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and the lines from Germany to the south. The harbour is good and safe, though diflicult of access. Aalborg is a growing industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and fish. An old castle and some picturesque houses of the 17th century remain. The Budolphi church dates mostly from the middleof the 18th ccntury, while the Frue church was partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of the 1'4th century or earlier. There are also an ancient hospital and a museum of art and antiquities. On the north side of the fjord is Norre Sundby, connected with Aalborg by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridgc, one of the finest engineering works in the kingdom. Aalborg received town-privileges in 1342, and the bishopric dates from 1 554. '

AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wiirttemberg, pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, about 50 m. E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway communication with Ulm and. Cannstatt. Pop. 10,000. Woollen and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhood. There are several schools and churches, and a statue of the poet Christian Schubart. Aalen was a free imperial city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wiirttemberg.

AALESUND, a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal amt (county), 145 m. N. by E. from Bergen. Pop. (1900) 11,672. It occupies two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspo and Norvti, which enclose the picturesque harbour. Founded in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Stindmore district, and one of the chief stations of the herring fishery. Aalesund is adjacent to the Jorund and Geirangcr fjords, frequented by tourists. From Oje at the head of Jorund a driving-route strikes south to the Nord— fjord, and from Merok on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on the railway to Lillehammer and Christiania. Aalesund is a port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle and Hamburg, and Trondhjem. A little to the south of the town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of Normandy. On the 2 3rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the scene of one of the most terrible 0f the many conflagrations to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been subject. Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the night at the notice of a few minutes. Hardly any lives were lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the German government, while the British government also offered it. '

AALl, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815—1871), Turkish statesman, was born at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official. Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid Pasha. In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, but after a short time retired into private life. During the Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of Vienna. Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an ofiice he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey at the congress of Paris in 1856. In 1867 he was appointed regent of Turkey during the sultan’s visit to the Paris Exhibition. Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz. A scholar and a linguist, he was a match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom he successfully defended the interests of his country. He died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871.

AAR, or Ana, the most considerable river which both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. Its total length (including all bends) from its source to its junction with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it descends 5135 ft., while its

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drainage area is 6804 sq. m. It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass. It runs E. to the Grimsel Hospice, and then N .W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (1 51 ft.), past Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a plain. A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable. Near the west end of that lake it receives its first important affluent, the Liitschine (left), and then runs across the swampy plain of the Bodeli, between Interlaken (left) and Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form the Lake of T hun. Near the west end of that lake it receives on the left the Kander,which has just before been joined by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is built. It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left) turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of which it issues through the N idau Canal and then runs E. to Biiren. Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance, past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right), Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the right. A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth (right). It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.) AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau. In 1900 it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly Protestants. It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range of the jura. It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31 m. N.W. of Ziirich. It is a well-built modern town, with no remarkable features about it. In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery ‘of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841—the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol). The cantonal library contains many works relating to Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian monasteries. There are many industries in the town, especially silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and_factories for the manufacture of cutlery and scientific instruments. The popular novelist and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771—1848), spent most of his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his memory. Aarau is an important military centre. The slopes of the Jura are covered with vineyards. Aarau, an ancient fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic. Eight miles by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.) AARD-VARK (meaning “ earth-pig "), the Dutch name for the mammals of genus Oryclerolms, confined to Africa (see EDENTATA). Several species have been named. Among them is the typical form, 0. capcnsis, or Cape ant-bear from South Africa, and the northern aard-vark (O. aethiopirus) of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt. In form these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually. The greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at “the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils open. The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with along extensile tongue. The measurements of a female, taken in the flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17} in.; but a large indi— vidual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all. In colour the Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty and allowingthe skin to show; the northern aard-vark has a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the shorter tail and longer head and ears. These animals are of nocturnal and burrowin hat-its, and


generally to be found near ant-hills. The strong claws make a hole in the side of the ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile tongue. Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked. AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharper ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the neck and back. It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites. AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar (q.v.), whence its name. Its total area is 541-9 sq. m., of which 517-9 sq. m. are classed as “productive ” (forests covering 172 sq. m. and vineyards 8-2 sq. m.). It is one of the least mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which rise low hills. The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its tributaries. It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden (q.v.) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are very extensive saline springs. Just below Brugg the Reuss and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined castle cf Habsburg, the old convent of Konigsfelden (with fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch]. The total population in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 Jews. The capital of the canton is Aarau (q.v.), while other important towns are Baden (q.v.), Zofingen (4591 inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 inhabitants). Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton, straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries. As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg power, we find here many historical old castles (e.g. Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (ag. Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in 1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes of the civil war called the “ Sonderbund War,” in 1847 in Switzerland. The cantonal constitution dates mainly from 1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council of five members is made by a direct vote of the people. The legislature consists of members elected in the proportion of one to every 1100 inhabitants. The “ obligatory referendum ” exists in the

case of all laws, while 5000 citizens have the right of “ initiative ”

in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution. The canton sends 10 members to the federal N alionalrat, being one for every 20,000, while the two Stdnderdte are (since 1904) elected by a direct vote of the people. The canton is divided into

eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes.

In 1 15 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss onfederates. Bern kept the south-west portion (Lofingen, Aarburg. Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brug ). but some districts, named the Freze Amter or “ free bailiwicks " (ll'lellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, were ruled as “ subject lands" by all or certain of the Confederates. In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the canton of Baden. In 180%, the two halves (plus the Frick glen, ceded in 1802 b Austria to t e Helvetic Republic) were united under the name of {(anth Aazgau, which was then admitted a full member of the reconstituted .onfederation.

See also Argovia (published by the Cantonal Historical Society), Aarau, from I860; F. X. Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau, 2 vo s., St Call and Bern, 1844; H. Lehmann, Die orgauische Strohindustrie, Aarau, 1896; W. Merz, Die mittelalt. Burganlagen and Wehrbauten d. Kant. Argau (fine illustrated work on castles), Aarau, 2 vols., 1904—1906; W. Merz and F. E. Welti, Die Rechtsquellen d. Kant. Argau, 3 vols, Aarau, 1898—1905; I. Miiller, Der Aargau, 2 vols, Ziirich, 1870; E. L. Rochholz, Aargauer Weisthfimer, Aarau, 1877; E. Zschokke, Geschichte des Aargaus, Aarau, 1903. (W. A. B. C.

AARHUS, a seaport and bishop’s see of Denmark, on the east coast of Jutland, of which it is the principal port; the second largest town in the kingdom, and capital of the amt (county) of Aarhus. Pop. (1901) 51,814. The district is low-lying, fertile and well wooded. The town is the junction of railways from all

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