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had also lost control over the other cities of Argolis, which they never succeeded in recovering. Partly in consequence of its defeat, partly out of jealousy against Sparta, Argos took no part in the war against Xerxes. Indeed on this, as on later‘occasions, its relations with Persia seem to have been friendly. About 470 the conflict with Sparta was renewed in concert with the Arcadians, but all that the Argives could achieve was to destroy their revolted dependencies of Mycenae and Tiryns (468 or 464). In 461 they contracted an alliance with Athens, thus renewing a connexion established by Peisistratus (q.v.). In spite of this league Argos made no headway against Sparta, and in 451 consented to a truce. A more important result of Athenian intervention was the substitution of the democratic government for the oligarchy which had succeeded the early monarchy; at any rate forty years later we find that Argos possessed complete democratic institutions.

During the early Peloponnesian War Argos remained neutral; after the break-up of the Spartan confederacy consequent upon the peace of Nicias the alliance of this state, with its unimpaired resources and flourishing commerce, was courted on all sides. By throwing in her lot with the Peloponnesian democracies and Athens, Argos seriously endangered Sparta’s supremacy, but the defeat of Mantineia (418) and a successful rising of the Argive oligarchs spoilt this chance. The speedily restored democracy put little heart into the conflict, and beyond sending mercenary detachments, lent Athens no further help in the war (see PELOPONNESIAN WAR).

At the outset of the 4th century, Argos, with a population and resources equalling those of Athens, took a prominent part in the Corinthian League against Sparta. In 394 the Argives helped to.garrison Corinth, and the latter state seems for a while to have been annexed by them. But the peace of Antalcidas (q.v.) dissolved this connexion, and barred Argive pretensions to control all Argolis. After the battle of Leuctra Argos experienced a political crisis; the oligarchs attempted a revolution, but were put down by their opponents with such vindictiveness that 1200 of them are said to have been executed (370). The democracy consistently supported the victorious Thebans against Sparta, figuring with a large contingent on the decisive field of Mantineia (362). When pressed in turn by their old foes the Argives were among the first to call in Philip of Macedon, who reinstated them in Cynuria after becoming master of Greece. In the Lamian War Argos was induced to side with the patriots against Macedonia; after its capture by Cassander from Polyperchon (317) it fell in 303 into the hands of Demetrius Poliorcetes. In 272 the Argives joined Sparta in resisting the ambition of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, whose death ensued in an unsuccessful night attack upon the city. They passed instead into the power of Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, who maintained his control by means of tyrants. After several unavailing attempts Aratus (q.v.) contrived to win Argos for the Achaean League (229), in which it remained save during a brief occupation by the Spartans Cleomenes III. (q.v.) and Nabis (224 and 196).

The Roman conquest of Achaea enhanced the prosperity of Argos by removing the trade competition of Corinth. Under the Empire, Argos was the headquarters of the Achaean synod, and continued to be a resort of Roman merchants. Though plundered by the Goths in 11.1). 267 and 395 it retained some of its commerce and culture in Byzantine days. The town was captured by the Franks in 1210; after 1246 it was held in fief by the rulers of Athens. In later centuries it became the scene of frequent conflicts between the Venetians and the Turks, and on two occasions (1307 and 1500) its population was massacred by the latter. Repeopled with Albanian settlers, Argos was chosen as seat of the Greek national assembly in the wars of independence. Its citadel was courageously defended by the patriots (1822); in 1825 the city was burnt to the ground by Ibrahim Pasha. The present town of 10,000 inhabitants is a purely agricultural settlement. The Argive plain, though not yet sufficiently reclaimed, vields good crops of corn, rice and tobacco.


In the early days of Greece the Argives'enioyed high repute for their musical talent. Their school of bronze sculpture, whose first famous exponent was Ageladas (Hagelaidas), the reputed master of Pheidias, reached its climax towards the end of the 5th century in the atelier of I’olyclitus (q.v.) and his pupils. To this period also belongs the new Heraeum (see below), one of the most splendid temples of Greece. .

Remains of the early city are still visible on' the Larissa acropolis, which towers 900 ft. high to the north-west of the town. A few courses of the ancient ramparts appear under the double enceinte of the surviving medieval fortress. An aque~ duct of Greek times is represented by some fragments on the south-western edge. In the slope above the town was hewn a theatre equalling that of Athens in size. The Aspis or smaller citadel to the north-east has revealed traces of an earlyMycenaean settlement; the Deiras or ridge connecting the two heights contains a prehistoric cemetery. 4 , .

AUTHORrTlES.—Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon; Plutarch, Pyrrhus. 30.34; Strabo pp. 373-374; Pausanias i1. 15- ; W. M. Leake, Travels in the Marco (London, 1835), ii. ehs. 1 -22,-vlg. Curtius, Peloponnesor (Gotha, 1851), ii. 350-364- H. F. ozer, Geography of Greece London, I873), pp. 292-29 ; Kophiniotis, ‘Ieropln m6 'Ap'yovs ( thens, 1892—1893); W. lgraff in Bulletin dc Conespondance Helle'nique (1904, pp. 364-399; 1906, pp. 1-45; 1907, pp. 139-184). (M.O. B. C.)

The Argive Hartman—Since .1892 investigation has added considerably to our knowledge concerning the Argive Heraeum or Heraion, the temple of Hera, which stood, according to Pausanias, “ on one of the lower slopes of Euboea.” The term Euboea did not designate the eminence upon which the Heraeum is placed, or the mountain-top behind the Heraeum only, but, as Pausanias distinctly indicates, the group of foothills of the hilly district adjoining the mountain. When once we admit that this designated not only the mountain, which is 1730 ft. high, but also the ‘hilly district adjoining it, the general scale of distance for this site grows larger. The territory of the Heraeum was divided into three parts, namely Euboea, Acraea and Prosymna. Pausanias tells us that the Heraeum is 15 stadia from Mycenae. Strabo, on the other hand, says that the Heraeum was 40 stadia from Argos and 10 from Mycenae. Both authors underestimate the distance from Mycenae, which is about 25 stadia, or a little more than 3 m., while the distance from Argos is 45 stadia, or a little more than 5 m.- The distance from the Heraeum to the ancient Midea is slightly greater than to Mycenae, while that from the Heraeum to Tiryns is about 6 m. The Argive Heraeum was the most important centre of Hera and Juno worship in the ancient world; it always remained the chief sanctuary of the Argive district, and was in all probability the earliest site of civilized life in the country inhabited by the Argive people. In fact, whereas the site of Hissarlik, the ancient Troy, is not in Greece proper, but in Asia Minor, and can thus not furnish the most direct evidence for the earliest Hellenic civilization as such; and whereas Tiryns, Mycenae, and the city of Argos, each represent only one definite period in the successive stages of civilization, the Argive Heraeum, holding the central site of early civilization in Greece proper, not only retained its importance during the three periods marked by the supremacy of Tiryns, Mycenae and the city of Argos, but in all probability antedated them as a centre of civilized Argive life. These conditions alone account for the extreme archaeological importance of this ancient sanctuary. _ .

According to tradition the Heraeum was founded by Phoroneus at least thirteen generations before Agamemnon and the Achaeans ruled. It is highly probable that before it became important merely as a temple, it was the fortified centre uniting the Argive people dWelling in the plain, the citadel which was superseded in this function by Tiryns. There is ample evidence to show that it was the chief sanctuary during the Tirynthian period. When Mycenae was built under the Perseids it'was still the chief sanctuary for that centre, which superseded Tiryns in its dominance over the district, and which this temple clearly antedated in construction. According to the Dirty: Cretan“, it was at this Heraeum that Agamemnon assembled the leaden

before setting out for Troy. In the period of Dorian supremacy, in spite of the new cults which were introduced by these people, the Heraeum maintained its supreme importance: it was here that the tablets recording the succession of priestesses were kept which served as a chronological standard for the Argive people, and even far beyond their borders; and it was here that Pheidon deposited the bBeMarrot when he introduced coinage into Greece.

We learn from Strabo that the Heraeum was the joint sanctuary for Myccnae and Argos. But in the 5th century the

city of Arng vanquished the Mycenaeans, and from that time onwards the city of Argos becomes the political centre of the district, while the Heraeum remains the religious centre. And when in the year 423 B.c., through the negligence of the priestess Chryseis, the old temple was burnt down, the Argives erected a. splendid new temple, built by Eupolemos, in which was placed the

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are contemporary and rival of Pheidias, which was one of the most perfect works of sculpture in antiquity. Pausanias describes the temple and its contents (ii. 17), and in his time he still saw the ruins of the older burnt temple above the temple of Eupolemos. , ,. rAll these facts have been verified and illustrated by the excavations of the American Archaeological Institute and School of Athens, which. were carried on from r892 to r895. In 1854 A. R. Rhangabé made tentative excavations oh this site, digging a-trench along the north, and east sides of the second temple. Of these excavations no trace was to be seen when those of 1.892 were begun. The excavations have shown that the sanctuary, instead of consisting of but one temple with the ruins of the older one above it, contained at least eleven separate buildings, occupying an area of about 975 ft. by 325.

On the uppermost terrace, defined, by the great Cyclopean supporting wall, exactly as described by Pausanias, the excavations revealed a layer oi ashes and charred wood, below which I were found numerous objects of earliest date, together with

some remains of the walls resting on a polygonal platform—all i


forming part of the earliest temple. ii. 16

Immediately adjoining


VII. West Buildin .
II. North-West fiuilding.
X. Roman Building.

' building of the second temple.

the Cyclopean wall and below it were found traces of small houses of the rudest, earliest masonry which are pre-Mycenaean. if not pre-Cyclopean.

We then descend to the second terrace, in the centre of which the substructure oi the great second temple was revealed, together with so much of the walls, as well as the several architectural members forming the superstructure, that it has been possible for E. L. Tilton to design a complete restoration of the temple. 0n the northern side of this terrace, between the second temple and the Cyclopean supporting wall, a long stoa or colonnadc runs from east to west abutting at the west end in struriures which evidently contained a well-house and waterworks; while at the eastern end of this stoa a number of chambers were erected against the hill, in front of which were placed statues and inscriptions, the bases for which are still extant. At the easternmost end of this second terrace a large hall with three rows of columns in the interior, with a porch and entrance at the west


PLAN or rm: Henson (surveyed and drawn by Edward L. Tilton).

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end facing the temple, is built upon elaborate supporting walls of good masonry. , Below the second terrace at the south-west end a large and complicated building, with an open courtyard surrounded on three sides by a colonnade and with chambers opening out towards the north, may have served as a gymnasium or a sanatorium. It is of good early Greek architecture, earlier than the second temple. A curious, ruder building to the north of this and to the west of the second terrace is probably of much earlier date, perhaps of the Mycenaean period, and may have served as propylaea. Immediately below the second temple at the foot of the eleva» tion on which this temple stands, towards the south, and thus being the city of Argos, a splendid stoa or colonnade, to which large flights of steps lead, was erected about the time of the It is a part of the great plan to

give worthy access to the temple from the city of Argos. To the

2 east of this large flights of steps lead up to the temple proper.

At the western extremity of the whole site, immediately beside the river-bed, we again have a huge stoa running round two sides of a square, which was no doubt connected with the functions of this sanctuary as a health resort, especially for women, the goddess


Hera presiding over and protecting married life and childbirth. Finally, immediately to the north of this western stoa there is an extensive house of Roman times also connected with baths.

While the buildings give archaeological evidence for every period of Greek life and history from the pre-Mycenaean period down to Roman times, the topography itself shows that the Heraeum must have been constructed before Mycenae and without any regard to it. The foothills which it occupies form the western boundary to the Argive plain as it stretches down towards the sea in the Gulf of Nauplia. While it was thus probably chosen as the earliest site for a citadel facing the sea, its second period points towards Tiryns and Midea. It could not have been built as the sanctuary of Mycenae, which was placed farther up towards the north-west in the hills, and could not be seen from the Heraeum, its inhabitants again not being able to see their sanctuary. The west building, the traces of bridges and roads, show that at one time it did hold some relation to Mycenae; but this was long after its foundation or the building of the huge Cyclopean supporting wall which is coeval with the walls of Tiryns, these again being earlier than those of Mycenae. There are, moreover, traces of still more primitive walls, built of rude small stones placed one upon the other without mortar, which are in character earlier than those of Tiryns, and have their parallel in the lowest layers of Hissarlik.

Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a forliari before the life as depicted by Homer flourished—nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected. We are aided in forming some estimate of the chronological sequence preceding the Mycenaean age, as suggested by the finds of the Iieraeum, in the new distribution which Dorpfeid has been led to make of the chronological stratification of llissarlik. For the layer, which he now assigns to the Mycenaean period, is the sixth stratum from below. Now, as some of the remains at the Heraeum correspond to the two lowest layers of Hissarlik, the evidence of the Argive temple leads us far beyond the date assigned to the Mycenaean age, and at least into the second millennium n.c. (see also Access CIVILIZATlON). As to its chronological relation to the Cretan sites—Cnossus, Phaestus, &c., and the “Minoan” civilization as determined by Dr A.Evans, see the discussion under Caars.

This sanctuary still holds a position of central importance as illustrating the art of the highest period in Greek history, namely, the art of the 5th century ac. under the great sculptor Polyclitus. Though the excavations in the second temple have clearly revealed the outlines of the base upon which the great gold and ivory statue of Hera stood, it is needless to say that no trace of the statue itself has been found. From Pausanias we learn that “ the image of Hera is seated and is of colossal size: it is made of gold and ivory, and is the work of Polyclitus." Based on the computations made by the architect of the American excavations, E. L. Tilton, on the ground of the height of the nave, the total height of the image, including the base and the top of the throne, would be about 26 ft., the seated figure of the goddess herself about 18 ft. It is probable that the face, neck, arms and feet were of ivory, while the rest of the figure was draped in gold. Like the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias, Hera was seated on an elaborately decorated throne, holding in her left hand the sceptre, surmounted in her case by the cuckoo (as that of Zeus had an eagle), and in her right, instead of an elaborate figure of Victory (such as the Athena Parthenos and the Olympian Zeus held), simply a pomegranate. The crown was adorned with figures of Graces and the Seasons. A Roman imperial coin of Antoninus Pius shows us on a reduced scale the general composition of the figure; while contemporary Argive coins of the 5th century give a fairly adequate rendering of the head. A further attempt has been made to identify the head in a beautiful marble bust in the British Museum hitherto known as Bacchus (Waldstein, Journal of Hellenic Studies. vol. xxi.. 1001. pp. 30 seq.)


We also learn from Pausanias that the temple was decorated with “ sculptures over the columns, representing some the birth of Zeus and the battle of the gods and giants, others the Trojan War and the taking of Ilium.” It was formerly supposed that the phrase “ over the columns ” pointed to the existence of sculptured metopes, but no pedimental groups. Finds made in the excavations, however, have shown that the temple also had pedimental groups. Besides numerous fragments of nude and draped figures belonging to pedimental statues, a well-preserved and very beautiful head of a female divinity, probably Hera, as well as a draped female torso of excellent workmanship, both belonging to the pediments, have been discovered. Of the metopes also a great number of fragments have been found, together with two almost complete metopes, the one containing the torso of a nude warrior in perfect preservation, as well as ten wellpreserved heads. These statues bear the same relation to the sculptor Polyclitus which the Parthenon marbles hold to Pheidias; and the excavations have thus yielded most important material for the illustration of the Argive art of Polyclitus in the 5th century 8.0.

See Waldstein, The Argive Heracum (vol. i.. Boston and New York, r902; vol. ii., the Vases by . C. Hoppin, the Bronzes b ' H. F. de Cosa, 190 ); Excavations o the American School of At 11: a! the Heraion o Argos (1892); and numerous reports and articles in the American Archaeological Journal since I892. (C. W. ')

ARGOSTOLI (anc. Cephallenia), the capital of Cephalonia (one of the Ionian islands), and the seat of a bishop of the Greek church. Pop. about 10,000. It possesses an excellent harbour, a quay a mile in length, and a fine bridge. Shipbuilding and silk-spinning are carried on. Near at hand are the ruins of Cranii, which afford fine examples of Greek military architecture; and at the west side of the harbour there is a curious stream, flowing from the sea, and employed to drive mills before losing itself in caverns inland.

See Sir C. Fellows's Journal of an Excursion in Asia Minor in 1838, and Wiebel's Die Inch chhalonia and die Mcenmihlen tron Argosloli (Hamburg, 1873).

ARGOSY (a corruption, by transposition of letters, of the name of the seaport Ragusa), the term originally for a carrack or merchant ship from Ragusa and other Adriatic ports, now used poetically of any vessel carrying rich merchandise. In English writings of the 16th century the seaport named is variously spelt Ragusa, Aragouse or Aragosa, and ships coming thence were named Ragusyes, Arguzes and Argosies; the last form surviving and passing into literature. The incorrect derivation from Jason’s ship, the “ Argo," is of modern origin.

ARGUIN. an island (identified by some writers with Hanno’s Ceme), ofi the west coast of Africa, a little south of Cape Blanco, in 20° 25' N., 16° 37' W. It is some 4 m. long by 2} broad, produces gum-arabic, and is the seat of a lucrative turtle-fishery. OR the island, which was discovered by the Portuguese in the 15th century, are extensive and very dangerous reefs. Arguin was occupied in turn by Portuguese, Dutch, English and French; and to France it now belongs. The aridity of the soil and the bad anchorage prevent a permanent settlement. The fishery is mostly carried on by inhabitants of the Canary Isles. In July 1816 the French frigate “ Medusa,” which carried ofiicers on their way to Senegal to take possession of that country for France, was wrecked ofl Arguin, 3 50 lives being lost.

ARGUMENT. a word meaning “proof,” “ evidence, corrc~ sponding in English to the Latin word argumntum, from which it is derived; the originating Latin verb argue", to make clear, from which comes the English “ argue,” is from a root meaning bright, appearing in Greek hp'yt'ps, white. From its primary sense are derived such applications of the word as a chain of reasoning, a fact or reason given to support a proposition. 'a discussion of the evidence or reasons for or against some theory or proposition and the like. More particularly “ argument" means a synopsis of the contents of a book, the outline of a novel, play, &c. In logic it is used for the middle term in a syllogism, and for many species of fallacies, such as the argumenhnn ad hominem. ad barulum. &c. (see FALLACY). In mathematics the term has received special meanings; in mathematical tables the“ argument " is the quantity uponwhich the-other quantities in the table are made to depend; in the- theory of complex variables, e.g. such as a—l-ib where i=V~1, the “ argument ” (or “amplitude ”) is the angle 0 given by. tan 0 ab/a. In astronomy, the term is used in connexion with the Ptolemaic theory to denote the angular distance on the epicyele of a planet from the true apogee of the epicycle; and the “ eduatiori to the argument " is the angle subtended at the earth by the distance of a planet from the centre of the epicycle. \

‘ ARGUS. in- ancient Greek mythology, the son of-Inachus, Agenor or Arestor, or, according to others, an earth~born hero (autochthon). He was called Panoptes (all-seeing), from having eyes all over his body. After performing several feats of valour, he was appointed by: Hera to watch the cow into which 10 had been transformed. While doing this he was slain by Hermes, who stoned him to death, or put him to sleep by playing on the flute'and then cut off his head. His eyes were transferred by Hera to the tail of the peacock. Argus with his countless eyes originally denoted the starry heavens (Apollodorus ii. 1; Aeschylus, P. V. 569; Ovid, Melam. i. 264).

Another Axons, the old dog of Odysseus, who recognized his master on his return to Ithaca, figures in one of the best-known incidents in Homer’s Odyssey (xvii. 291-326).

ARGYLL, EARLS AND DUKES OF. The rise of this family of'Scottish peers, originally the Campbells of Loohow, and first ennobled as Barons Campbell, is referred to in the article ARGYLLSHIRE.

ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, 5th earl of Argyll (1530—1573), was

the elder son of Archibald, 4th earl of Argyll (d. 1558), and a grandson of ‘Colin, the 3rd earl (d. 1530). His great-grandfather was the 2nd earl, Archibald, who was killed at Flodden in 1513, and this noblernan’s father was Colin, Lord Campbell (d. 14.93), the founder of the greatness of the Campbell family, who was created earl of Argyll in 1457. With Lord James Stuart, afterwards the regent Murray, the 5th earl of Argyll became an adherent of John Knox about 1556, and like his father was one of the most influential members of the party of religious reform, signing what was probably the first “ godly band ” in December 1557. As one of the “ lords of the congregation ” he was one of James Stuart’s principal lieutenants during the warfare between the reformers and the regent, Mary of Lorraine; and later with Murray he advised and supported Mary queen of Scots, who regarded him with great favour. It Was about this time that William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burghley. referred to Argyll as “ a goodly gentleman universally honoured of all Scotland.” Owing to his friendship with. Mary, Argyll was separated from the party of Knox, but he forsook the queen when she determined to marry Lord Darnley; he was, however, again on Mary’s side after Queen Elizabeth’s refusal to aid Murray in 156 5. Argyll was probably,v an accomplice in the murder of Rizzio; he was certainlyva consenting party to that of Darnley, and then separating himself from Murray he commanded Mary's soldiers afterrher escape from Lochleven, and by his want of courage and resolution was partly responsible for her defeat at Langside in May 1568. Soon afterwards he made his peace with Murray, but it is possible that he Was accessory to the regent’s murder in 1570.- !!After this event Argyll became lord high chancellor of Scotland, and he died on the v12th of September 1573.. .His first wife was an illegitimate daughter of James V., and he was thus-half-brother-in-lawto Mary and to Murray. His relations with her were not harmonious; he was'accused :of adultery, and in 1568 he performed a public penance tit/Stirling. -,. Heleft no children, and on his death his half-brother Colin (d. 1584) bec‘ameoth earl of Argyll. This nobleman, whose life was partly spent in feuds with the regent Morton, died in October 1584. He was succeeded as 7th earl by his young son-Archibald (1576—1638), who became a Roman Catholic, fought for Philip III. of Spain in Flanders, whither he had gone to avoid his creditors, and, having entrusted the care of his estates to his son, died in London.

ARCHLBALD CAMPBELL, rst marquess and 81h earl of Argle (16q7—1661), eldest- son of Archibald, 7th earl, by his first wife,


Lady Anne Douglas, daughter of William, Ist earl of Morton, was born in 1607l and educated at St Andrews University, where he matriculated on the 15th of January 1622. He had early in life, as Lord Lorne, been entrusted with the possession of the Argyll estanes when his father renounced Protestantism and took service with Philip of Spain; and he exercised over his clan an authority almost absolute, disposing of a force of 20,600 retainers, and being, according to Baillie, “ by far the most powerful subject in the kingdom.” On the outbreak of the religious dispute between the king and Scotland in 1637 his support was eagerly dsired by Charla I. He‘had been made a privy councillor in 1628, and in 1638 the king summoned him, together with Traquair and Roxburgh, to London; but he refused to be won over, openly and courageously warned Charles against his despotic ecclesiastical policy, and showed great hostility towards Laud. In consequence a secret commission was given to the earl of Antrirn to invade Argyllshire and stir up the Macdonalds against the Campbells, a wild and foolish project which completely miscarried. Argyll, who inherited the title by the death of his father in 1638, had originally no preference for Presbyterianism, but now definitely took the side of the Covenanters in defence of the national religion and liberties. He continued to attend the

1 meetings of the Assembly after its dissolution by the marquess of

Hamilton, when Episcopacy was abolished. In 1639 he sent a statement to Laud, and subsequently to the king, defending the Assembly’s action; and raising a body of troops he seized Hamilton’s castle of Brodick in Arran. After the pacification of Berwick he carried a motion, in opposition to Montrose, by which the estates secured to themselves the election of the lords of the articles, who had formerly been nominated by the king, a fundamental change in the Scottish constitution, whereby the management of public afi'airs was entrusted to a representative body and withdrawn from the control of the crown. An attempt by the king to deprive him of his ofiice as justiciary of Argyll and Tarbet failed, and on the prorogation of the parliament by Charles, in May 1640, Argyll moved that it should continue its sittings and that the government and safety of the kingdom should be secured by a committee of the estates, of which, though not a member, he was himself the guiding spirit. In June he was entrusted with a “ commission of fire and sword ” against the royalists in Atholl and Angus, which, after succeeding in entrapping the earl of Atholl, he carried out with completeness and some cruelty. It was on this occasion that took place the burning of “ the bonnie house of Airlie.” By this time the personal rivalry and difference in opinion between Montrose and Argyll had led to an open breach. The former arranged that on the occasion of Charles’s approaching visit to Scotland, Argyll should be accused of high treason in the parliament. The plot, how— ever, was disclosed, and Montrose with others was imprisoned. Accordingly when the king arrived he found himself deprived of every remnant of influence and authority. It only remained for Charla to make a series of concessions. He transferred the control over judicial and political appointments to the parliament, created Argyll a marquess (1641) with a pension of {1000 a year, and returned home,'having in Clarendon’s words “ made a perfect deed of gift of that kingdom.” Meanwhile the king’s policy of peace and concession had, as usual, been rudely and treacherously interrupted by a resort to force, an unsuccessful attempt, known as the “incident,” being made to kidnap Argyll, Hamilton and Lanark. Argyll was mainly instrumental at this crisis in keeping the national party faithful to what was to him evidently the common cause, and in accomplishing the alliance-with the Long Parliament in 1643. In January 1644 he accompanied the Scottish army into England as a member of the committee of both kingdoms and in command of a troop of horse, but was soon in March compelled to return to suppress royalist movements in the north and to defend his own territories. He compelled Huntly to retreat in April, and in July advanced to meet the Irish troops now landed in Argyllshire, which were acting in conjunction with Montrose, who had put himself at the

l The date of 1598, previously accepted, is shown by Willcock to be incorrect. .

head of the royalist forces in Scotland. A campaign? followed in the north in which neither general succeeded in obtaining any advantage over the other, or even in engaging battle. Argyll then returned to Edinburgh, tlu'ew up his commission, and retired to Inveraray Castle. Thither Montrose unexpectedly followed him in December, compelled him to flee to Roseneath, and devastated his territories. On the and of February 1645, when following Montrose northwards, Argyll was surprised by him at Inverlochy and witnessed from his barge on the lake, to which he had retired owing to a dislocated arm, a fearful slaughter of his troops, which included 1 500 of the Campbells. He arrived at Edinburgh on the 12th of February and was again present at Montrose’s further great victory on the 15th of August- at Kilsyth, whence he escaped to Newcastle. Argyll was at last delivered from his formidable antagonist by Montrose’s final defeat at Philiphaugh on the 1 2th of September. In 1646 he was sent to negotiate with the king at Newcastle after h'm surrender to the Scottish army, when he endeavoured to moderate the demands of the parliament and at the same time to persuade the king to accept them. On the 7th of July 1646 he was appointed a member of the Assembly of Divines.

Up to this point the statesmanship of Argyll had been highly successful. The national liberties and religion‘of Scotland had been defended and guaranteed, and the power of the king in Scotland reduced to a mere shadow. In addition, these privileges had been still further secured by the alliance with the English opposition, and by the subsequent triumph of the parliament and Presbyterianism in the neighbouring kingdom. The sovereign himself, after vainly contending in arms, was a prisoner in their midst. But Argyll’s influence could not survive the rupture of the alliance between the two nations on which his whole policy was constructed. He opposed in vain the secret treaty now concluded between the king and the Scots against the parliament, and while Hamilton marched into England and was defeated by Cromwell at Preston, Argyll, after a narrow escape from a surprise at Stirling, joined the Whiggamores, a body of Covenanters at Edinburgh; and, supported by Loudon, Leven and Leslie, he established a new government, which welcomed Cromwell on his arrival there on the 4th of October. This alliance, however, was at once destroyed by the execution of Charles 1., which excited universal horror in Scotland. In the series of tangled incidents which followed, Argyll lost control of the national policy. He describes himself at this period as “a distracted man . . . in a distracted time ” whose “remedies . . . had the quite contrary operation.” He supported the invitation from the Covenanters to Charles H. to land in Scotland, gazed upon the captured Montrose, bound on a cart on his way to execution at Edinburgh, and subsequently, when Charles II. came to Scotland, having signed the Covenant and repudiated Montrose, Argyll remained at the head of the administration. After the defeat of Dunbar. Charles retained his support by the promise of a dukedom and the Garter, and an attempt was made by Argyll to marry the king to his daughter. On the ist of January 1651 he placed the crown on Charles’s head at Scone. But his power had now passed to the Hamilton party. He strongly opposed, but was unable to prevent, the expedition into England. and in the subsequent reduction of Soothnd, after having held out in Inveraray Castle for nearly a year, was at last surprised in August 1652 and submitted to the Commonwealth. His ruin was then complete. His policy had failed, his power had vanished. In his estate he was hopelessly in debt, and‘on terms of such violent hostility with his eldest son as to be obliged to demand a garrison in his house for his protection. During his visit to Monk at Dalkeith in 1654 to complain of this. he was subjected to much personal insult from his creditors, and on visiting London in September 1655 to obtain money due to him from the Scottish parliament, he was arrested for debt. though soon liberated. In Richard Cromwell’s parliament of 1659 Argyll sat as member for Aberdeenshire. At the Restoration he presented himself at Whitehall. but want once arrested by order of Charlcsand placed in the Tower (1660), being sent to Edinburgh to stand his trial for high treason. He was acquitted of com


plioity .in the death of Charles I., and his escape born the whole charge seemed imminent, but the arrivalof a packet of letters written by Argyll to Monk showed conclusively his collaboration with Cromwell’s government, particularly in the suppression of Glencairn's royalist rising in 1652. He was immediately sentenced to death, his execution by beheading taking place on the 27th of May 1661, before even the death warrant had been signed-by the king. His head was placed on the same spike upon the west end of the Tolbooth on which that of Montrose had previouslybeen exposed, and his body was buried at the Holy Loch, where the head was also deposited in 1664. A monument was erected to his memory in St Giles’s church in Edinburgh in 1895.

While imprisoned in the Tower he- wrote Instructions to a Son (1661', reprinted in 1689 and '1 743). Some of his speeches, including the one delivered 6n the scaflold; were published and are printed in the H orleian M isullany. He married Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of William, 2nd‘earl of Morton, and had two sons and four daughters.

See also the Life and Time: of Archibald Marquis ngrgyIJ (1903). by John Willcock, who prints for the first time the six incriminatin letters to Monk; Eng. Hist. Review, xviii. 569 and 624; Scotti: History Society, vol. xvii. (1894); Charles ‘II. and Scotland in 1650, ed. by S. R. Gardiner, and vol. xviii. (1895); History of Scotland, by A. Lang, vol. iii. (1904). . .

Aacmsno CAMPBELL, 9th earl of Argyll (1629—1685), eldest son of 'the 8th earl, studied abroad, and at the age of thirteenwas appointed captain in the Scottish regiment serving in France under his uncle ’the'earl of Irvine. He returned home at the close of 1640, and was made captain of Charles II.’s life guards on the king‘s arrival in Scotland in 1650. He declared himself a royalist in opposition to his father, with the view, as some said, of securing the family estates in any event. He fought at Dunbar on the 3rd of September 1650, and after the battle of Worcester joined Glencaim in the Highlands. Bitter disputes arose, and on the 2nd of ‘January 16 54 Lorne, quitting his troops, fled to avoid arrest. In 165 5 he submitted to Monlt. He appears, however, to have maintained communications with Charles, and on his refusal to take the oath renouncing allegiance to the Stuarts in 1657 he was imprisoned, remaining in confinement probably till a short time before the Restoration. He was then well received at court by Charles II. After the execution of his father, he endeavoured to obtain the restitution of his forfeited estates and title. but having incautiously attacked certain members of the government in letters which were made public, he was indicted at Edinburgh on the capital charge of “ leasing-making ” and was sentenced to death on the 26th of August. He remained a prisoner in Edinburgh Castle till the 4th of June 1663, When the sentence Was cancelled and he was re-created ear] and restored to his estates. He disapproved of the severities practised upon the Covenanters in the- west, and in 1671 pleaded for milder methods. His staunch Protestantism rendered him exceedingly obnoxious to James, duke of York. who in 1680 arrived as high commissioner in Scotland and at bnce expressed his jealousy of * Argyll's immense tefl'is torialinfiuence. Argyll moved the re-enactment of “all the acts against popery " omitted on James’s account, and opposed the exemption of the royal family from the test, though allowing it in the case of James. In signing-the test himself, in its final form both ambiguous and self-contradictory, he made the reservation “ so far as consistent with itself and the Protestant faith," and declined to engage himself not‘to promote any alteration of advantage in church or state. On his refusal to record his oath in writing and to sign it, he was dismissed from the Scottish privy council, and on the nth of November 1681 was accused of treason, a charge which Halifax declared openly in England “they would not hang a dog upon." 'A trial followed, a scandalous exhibition of illegality and injustice, at the close of which Argyll was sentenced to death and to the forfeiture of his estates. Shortly afterwards. through the instrumentality of his step-daughter, Sophia Lindsay, he succeeded in making his escape. and after some adventures retired to Holland. His subsequent movements are uncertain. but he appears to have


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