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3' battalions of 4 companies each. The strength of batteries, troops and companies was increased, the maximum enlisted strength reached during 1898 being over 63,000. A volunteer army was also organized. Of this army, 3 regiments of engineer troops, 3 of cavalry and 10 of infantry were United States volunteers, all the officers being commissioned by the president. The other organizations came from the states, the officers being appointed by the respective governors. As fast as they were organized and filled up, they were mustered into the service of the United States. The total number furnished for the war with Spain was 10,017 officers and 213,218 enlisted men. All generaland staff ofiicers were appointed by the president. Three hundred and eighty-sewn officers of the regular army received volunteer commissions. After the conclusion of hostilities with Spain, the mustering out of the volunteers was begun, and by June 1899 all the volunteers, except those in the Philippines, were out of the service. The latter, as well as those serving elsewhere, having enlisted only for the war, were brought home and mustered out as soon as practicable.

The act of the 2nd of March 1899 added 2 batteries to each regiment of artillery. On the 2nd of February 1901 Congress passed an important bill providing for the reorganization and augmentation (max. 100,000) of the regular army, and other measures followed in the next years. (See UNITED STATES.)


loo. Dutch and Belgian Armies—The milita power of the “ United Provinces" dates its rise from the mi dle of the 16th century, when, after a long and sanguinary struggle, they succeeded in emancipating themselves from the yoke of Spain; and in the following century it received considerable development in consequence of the wars they had to maintain against Louis XIV. In {.102 they had in their pay upwards of 100,000 men, including many

.nglish and Scottish regiments, besides 30,000 in the service of the But the slaughter of Malplaquet deprived the republic of the flower of the arm . Its part in the \\'ar of the Austrian Succession was far from being as creditable as its earlier deeds. a Prussian army overran Holland in 1787 almost without opposition, and at the beginning of the wars of the French Revolution the army had fallen to 36,000 men. In 1795 Holland was conquered by the French under Pichegru, and in the course of the changes which ensued the army was entirely reor anized, and under French direction bore its share in the great wars 0 the empire.

With the fall of Napoleon and the reconstitution of the Netherlands, the Dutch-Belgian army, formed of the troops of the now united countries, came into existence. The army fought at Waterloo, but was not destined to a lon career. for the revolution of 1830 brought about the separation 0 Belgium. A Dutch garrison under Baron Chassé, a distinguished veteran of the Napoleonic wars, defended Antwe against the French under Marshal Gerard, and the Netherlands ave been engaged in many arduous colonial wars in the East Indies. The Belgian army similarly has contributed officers and non-commissioned officers to the service of the Congo Free State.

101. Swiss Army—The inhabitants of Switzerland were always a hardy and independent race, but their hi h military reputation dates from the middle of the 15th century, w n the comparatively ill-armed and untrained mountaineers si nnlly defeated Charles the Bold of Bur undy and the flower of t e chivalry of Europe in the battles of ranson, Morat and Nancy. The Swabian war, towards the end of that century, and the Milanese war, at the beginnin of the following one, added to the fame of the Swiss infantry, an made it the model on which that arm was formed all over Europe. The wealthier countries vied with each other in hiring them as mercenaries, and the poor but warlike Swiss found the profession of arms a lucrative one.

A brief account of the Swiss mercenaries will be found earlier in this article. Their lall was due in the end to their own indiscipline in the first place, and the rise of the Spanish standing army and its musketeers in the second. Yet it d0c-s not seem that the military reputation of the Swiss was discredited. even by reverses such as Marignan. On the contrary, they continued all through the 1 th and 18th centuries to furnish whole regiments for the service of 01 or countries, notably of France, and individuals, like jomini in a later age, followed the career of the soldier of fortune everywhere. The most notable incident in the later military history of the Swiss, the heroic lailhflllllt'Ni of Louis X\'l.'s Swiss guard, is proverbial, and has been commemorated with just pride b their countrymen. The French Revolutionary armies nwrmn Switzerland. as they did all the small neighbouring states, and during Napoleon's career she had to submit to his rule, and furnish her contingent to his armies. On the fall of Napoleon she regained her independence, and returned to her old trade of furnishing soldiers to the sovereigns and powers of Europe. Charles X. of France had at one time as many as 17,000

Dutch East India Company.


Swiss in his pay; Na les and Rome had each four regiments. The recruiting for these oreign services was openly acknowledged and encouraged by the government. The young Swiss engaged usually for a period of four or six years; they were formed In separate regiments, ofiicered by countrymen of their own, and received a higher rate of pay than the national regiments; and at the close of their enga emcnt returned with their earnings to settle down on their paterna holdings. A series of reVOlutions, however, expelled them from France and Italy, and recently the advance of liberal ideas, and the creation ofgreat national armies based on the princi le of personal service, has estroyed their occupation. Switzerlanrris now remarkable in a military sense as being the only country that maintains no standin army (see Militia).

102. The Swedish rm can look back with pride to the da s of GustaVus Adolphusando Charles XII. The contributions ma eby it to the military science of the 17th century have been noticed above. The triumphs of the small and highly disciplined arm of Charles were often such as to recall the similar victories of the reeks under Alexander.v The then nebulous armies of Russia and Poland nesembled indeed the forces of Darius in the 4th century B.C., but Peter the Great succeeded at last in producing a true army, and the resistance of the Swedes collapsed under the weight of the vastly su erior numbers then brought against them.

he Danish Army has a long and meritorious record of good service dating from the Thirt Years' War.

103. The existing nny of Portugal dates from the Peninsular War, when a considerable force of Portuguese, at one time exceedin 60,000 men, was 0 anized under Marshal Beresford. Trained an partly ofiicered by nglish officers, it proved itself not unworthy of its allies, and bore its full share in the series of campaigns and battles by which the French Were ultimately expelled from Spain. At the peace the army numbered about 50,000 infant and 5000 cavalry, formed on the English model, and all in the highest state of efficiency. This force was reduced in 1821, under the new constitutional government, to about one-half.

104. The Rumanian, Bulgarian and Servian armies are the youngest in Euro . The conduct of the Rumanians before Plevna in 1877 earned or them the respect of soldiers of all countries. Servia and Bulgaria came to war in 1885, and the Bulgarian soldiers, under the most adverse conditions, achieved splendid victories under the leadership of their own officers. In the crisis followin the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1908-9), it seemed likely that the Servian forces might play an unexpectedly active part in war oven with a strong power.

BlBLlOGRAPllY.—Bel0w are the titles of some of the more imortant works on the subject of armies. See also under biographical eadings and articles dealing with the several arms, &c. A large

pro rtion of-the works mentioned below are concerned mainly wit the development of strategy and tactics.

- V. der Goltz, Das- Valk in Waflen (188 , new ed., 1898, English translation, P. A. Ashworth, Nation in mm, London, 1887, new ed., 1907, French, Nation arrnée, Paris, 1889); iihns, Ifccrrswrfarsung und Vélkerleben (Berlin, 1885); Berndt, Die Zahl im Krie 0 (Vienna, 1895); F. N, Maude, Evolution of Modern Strategy (190:5, Voluntary versus Compulsory Service (1897), and War and the World's Life (1907); Pierron, illélhode: de guerre, vol. i.; jahns, Geschithte dcr Krugrwissensclxyten (an exhaustive bibliograph '. With critical notes); Troschke, il. Lilleralur sell den Bcfreiun s rie an (Berlin. 1870); T. A. Dodge, Great Captain: (Alexander, 1mm: 0!, Cam”, Gustavus, Napoleon); Bronsart v. Schellendorf (Eng. trans, War Office, 1905) Duties of the General 51017; Favé, IIistoire ct tactique dc: trois armes (Liége, 18 0); Maynert, Gesch. des Kriegm'rscns u. der [Icererveriassungen in uropa (Vienna, 1869); jahns, Handth ju'r cine Gm ichte dc: Kriegsu'csens v. der Urzeit bis zur Renaissance (Leipzig, 1880); de la Barre Duparc , Histoire de l'art de la guerre avant [usage dc Poudre (Paris, 1860 ; Riistow and Kiichly, Geschichte des ricchischen Kriegswescns (Aarau, 1852); KOchly and Rilstow, Gruchische Krielgsschrrflsteller (Lei zi , 1855); Filrstcr, in Hermes, xii. (1877); . G. Hogarth, Ighifip and Alexander (London, 1897)- Macdougall, Campai ns of Hannibal (London, 1858); Rilstow, lleerwesen, &c., Julius édsars (Nordhausen. 1855); ()rgan der M. Wirsensch. Verein of 1877 (Vienna); Pol 'bius literature of the 17th and 181h centuries; sup lement to M. V.B.. 1883; the works of Xenophon, Aelian, Arrian, egetius, Polybius. Caesar, &c. (see Kbchly and Riistow: a collection was made in the 15th century, under the title Veleres dc re militari scriptorrs, 1487); Oman, A History qjthe Art 0 War: Middle Agrs (London, 1808): Delpcch, La Tacti ue an X [1' siécle (Paris, 1886); Kohler, Die Entwickelung des riegrtuesens v. 11. Jahrhdt. bis zu dcn Hussilmkriegm (Breslau, 1886-1893); Ricotti Starla dc/Ie Compagnie di Vrntura (Turin, 1846); Stegcr, Gesch. rancesco Sforzas and d. ital. Condottieri (Leipzig, 1865): I. A. Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy and The Age of the De:P0lI;A Brandenbur Mobiliwtion of 1477 (German Geneml htaff Monograph. N0. 3); szlacky, "Kricgskunst der Bohmen," Zeitschrift bdhmisch. Lluseurns (Prague, 1828); George, Battles of English History (London, 1895); iottot. Lu Grands inspire: devant la science: Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1907); V. Ellger. Kriegswesen, &c., der Eidgenossen, I ., 175., 16. Juhrhdl. (1373); de la Chauvelays, Les Armies do her e: le Ti‘me'rai'rs (Paris, 1879); Guillaume, Hist. des bandes d'ordannance dam les Pays-Pa: Brussels, 1873); the works of Froissart, de Brantbme, Machiavelli, Lienhard Fronsperger Kriegsbuch, 15 0), de la Noue, du Bellay, &c.; Villari, Life and inc: 0 achiavelli (English version); “Die frommcn Landsknechte " M. W. 3., supplement, 1880); Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landshncchte (Stuttgart, 188 ); C, H. Firth, Cromwell's Army (London, 1 2); Heilmann, as Kriegrwesen der Kaiserlirhcn und b'chwe en (Leipzig, 18 0); C. Walton, History of the British Standing Army, 1660—1700 (Lon on, 1894); ,E. A. Althum in United Smice Magazine, February 1907; Austrian otlicial history of Prince Eugene's mmwgns, 8m; de [a Ban-g Duparcq, Hist. miltt. de la Prusse avant 17 (Paris, 1857); Marsigli, L'Etat mililaire de l'emp. ottoman (173.22; Prussian Staff History of the Silesian wars; C. von B(inder)- (rieglstein), Grist and Stofl int Kriege (Vienna, 1895); E. d'Hauterive, L'Arrnée SOItS la Revolution (Paris, 1894); C. Rousset, Les Votontaires de 1791—1794; Michelet, Le: Soldats de la Re'volution (Paris, 1878); publications of the French general stall on the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; H. Bonnal, Esprit de la guerre moderne (a series of studies in military history, 1805—18 0); Paimblant du Rouil, La Division Durutte, les Réfradaires, a so supplement. M.W.B., 1890; “ The French Conscription" (snufpl. M.W.B., 1892); C. v. der Goltz Von Rnssbach bIS Jena u Auerstddt. (a new edition of the original Rossbach und Jena, Berlin, 1883) ; German General Staff Monograph, No. to; N.W.B. supplements of 1845. 1846, 184 , 18 4, 1835,1856, 1857, 1858, 1862, 186 , 1866, 1867, 1887; v. unc er, reuxsen wa'hrend der franz. 0k upation (1872); Archives of Prussian war ministry, publications of 1892 and 1896; histories of the wars of 1866 and 1870: V. Chareton, Comme la Prurse a gféPGYé sa revanche, 1806—1813; Reports of Col. Baron Stofl'el, Frenc attache at Berlin (translation into English, War Ofiiee, London); Haxthausen, Les Forces militaires de la Prusse (Paris, 1853); de la Barre Duparcq, Etudes historiques ginérales el mililaires sur la Prusse (Paris, 18 4); Paixhans, Constitution militaire de la France (Paris, 1849); Due d'Aumale, Les Institutions militaires de la France (Paris, 1867); C. v. Decker, chr die Personlichlzeit des preussischen Soldaten (Berlin, 1842); War Ofiice, Army Book of the British Empire (London, 1893); M. johns, Das franziisrsche Heer von der grossen Revolution bis zur Gegen'wart (Lei ‘zig, 1873); Baron Kaulbars, The German Arm (in Russian) [St etersburg, 1890]; Die Schweis im 19. Jahrhuman (Bernc and Lausanne, 18 ); Heimann, L'Armée allernandr (Paris, 1895); R. de l'llomme de ‘ourbiére, Grunduige der deutschen Militanverwaltung (Berlin, 1882); G. F. R. Henderson, The Science of War (London, 1905); J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Army (London, 1899— ); R. de l'Homme de Courbiere, Gesch. der brandenbur -j>reussisch. Heeresvcrfarsung (Berlin, 1852); Krippentagel and iistel, Die euss. Armee von der dltesten Zeit bis zur Gegenwart (Berlin, 1883 ; Gansau e, Das brandenbg.-Preuss. Krie :— wesan440,1640,1740(Bcrli11, 1839 ;A.v.Boguslawksi,Die Land-we r, 1813—1893 (1893); A. R. v. Sichart, Geseh. d. k. hannover'. Armee (Hanover, 1866); v. Reitzenstein, Die 1:. honnover. Kaoallerie, 1631—1866 (1892); Schlee, Zur Gesch. des hessischen Kriegnuaens(Kassel, 1867); Leichtlen, Badens Kricgsverfassung (Carlsruhe, 1815) ; v. Stadlinger, Gesch. des wdrttembergischen Kriegswesens (Stuttgart, 1858); Miinich, Entwicleelung der bayerischen Armee (Munich, 1864); official Gesch. d. 1:. buyer. Armee (Munich, 1901 onward); thrdinger, Kriegsgeschichte v. Bayern Munich, 1868); H. Meynert, Gesch. des osterr. Kriegswesens ( ienna, 189(2), Kriegswesen Ungarn: (Vienna, 1876); Anger, Gesch. der K.- . Armee (Vienna, 1886;; Beitra' e zur Gexch. de: osterr. Heerwesens, 1754—1814 (Vienna, 1872 ; R. v. ttenfeld and Teuber, Die o'sterr. Armee, 1700—1867 (Vienna, 1895); v. \Nrede, Gesch. d. K. u. K. Wehrmacht (Vienna, 1902);

ay de Rainmoter, Histoire militaire de la Suisse Lausanne, 1788); Cusachs y Barado, La Vida Militar en Expana ( arcelona, 1888); Guillaume, Hist. de l'infanterie wallanne sous la maison d'EsPagne (Brussels, 1876); A. Vitu, Histoira civile dc l‘année (Paris, 1868); A. Pascal, Hist. do l‘arrne'e (Paris, 1847); L. Jablonski, L'Arrnée frangaise a travers les dges; C. Roma ny, Hist. e'nérale de l'armée nationale (Paris, 1893): E. Simond, ist. mil. de a France; Susane. Hist..de l'infanterie, cavalerie, artillerie francaises (Paris, 1874); Pere Daniel, Hist. de: rm'lices frangaises (1721); the official Historique‘ (les corps de trouge (Par'm, 1900— ); Cahu, Le Soldat francais (Paris, 1876); J. lolard, Cent on: de l'armée frangaire, 1789—1889 Paris, 1890); v. Stein, Lehre vom Heerwesen (Stutt art, 1872); du Verger 'de 5. Thomas, L'Italie et_son armée, 1865 ( aris, 1866); “ C. Martel." Military Italy (London, 1884); Sir R. Biddulph, Lord Cardwell atthe War Oflice (London, 1904) ; Willoughb ‘Verner, Military Iiife of the Duke 0 Cambridge (London, 190 ); . H. Daniel, The

ilitary Force: a the Crown (London, 1902 ; War Office, Annual RePort of the British Army; Broome', Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army (Calcutta, 18 0); W. J. Wilson, Hist. 0 the Madras Army (London, 1882—188 l; C. M. Clode, Militar arcs: of the Crown; Blume, Die Gru ge unserer Wehrkraft ( erlin, 1899); Spenser W'ilkinson, The Bram of an Arm (London, 18 0 and 18 I5); v. Olberg, Die franzb'sische Armee irn xersirplatz it im Felde erlin, 1861); Die Heere 14nd Flotte der Gegenwart, ed. Ze lin (Berlin, 1896): Molnrd, 'Puissances militaires de l'Europe Paris, 1895); works of Montecucculi, Puységur,-Vauban, Feuquieres, Guibert. Folard, Guichard, Joly de Maizeroy, Frederick the Great, Marshal Saxe, the prince de thf‘l'le, Na oleon, Carnot, Scharnhorst, Clausewitz, Napoleon lll., oltke, amley, &e. '


The rinci ' ' pa-ioth' ' :—- ' o the . Unitaeilggriiiil lyrilittilurlion; Unictaeil' gigtes}; $5221.12] 0: "llie lilitary Service Institution; French, Revue d'histoire and rvue de: arrnées étrangercs (general staff); Rau and Lauth, L' t rmlitaire des puissance: (about every 4, years); Revue militaire géne'rale, founded in 1907 by General Langlois; Almanach du draPeau (a igpular aide-mémm're published annually); German, the Vierteljahrs

t of the general staff: Mthtar-Worhenblatt (referred to above as M.W.B.—the su plements are of great value); von Lobell's Jahresberichte (annuaFdetailed reports on the state. &c., ofall armies —an English précis appears annually in the Journal of the R.U.S. Institution); Austrian, Streflleurs o'st. Milildr-Zeitrchrtft, with which was amalgamated (1907) the Organ d. rnilitdmrissenschaft. Vereins. The British War Office issues from time to time handbooks dealin with forei n armies. and, quarterly since A ril 1907.1 critim review ant? bibliography of recent military iterature in the rincipal languages, under the name of Recent Publications of hlilttary Interest. (C. F. A.)

ARNAL, QTIBNNE (1704—1872), French actor, was born at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, on the rst of February 1794. After serving in the army, and working in a button factory, he took to the stage. His first appearance (1815) was in tragedy, and for some time he was unsuccessful; it was not until 1827 that he showed his real ability in comedy parts, especially in plays by Félix August Duvert (1705—1876) and Augustin Theodore Lauzanne (1805—1877), whose Cabinets particuliers (1832), Le Mari de la dame de chwurs (1837). Parse minuit, L'Hamrne blasé (1843), La Clef dans le do: (1848) ,&c.,contained parts written for him. He was twenty years at the Vaudeville, and completed at the various Parisian theatres a stage career of nearly half a century. Arnal was the author of Epttre d boufle (1840), which is reprinted in his volume of poetry, Boutade: en vers (1861).

ARNALDUS DE VILLA NOVA, also called ARNALDUS or: VILLANUEVA, Anmwus VILLANOVANUS or ARNAUD DE V1111:NEUVE (c. 123 5—1313), alchemist, astrologer and physician, appears to have been of Spanish origin, and to have studied chemistry, medicine, physics, and also Arabian philosophy. After having lived at the court of Aragon, he went to Paris, where he gained a considerable reputation; but he incurred the enmity of the ecclesiastics and was forced to flee, finally finding an asylum in Sicily. About 1313 he was summoned to Avignon by'Pope Clement V., who was ill, but he died on the voyage. Many alchemical writings, including Thesaurus Thesaurorum or Rosarius Philosophorurn, Novum Lumen, Flo: Florum, and S pecuium Alchimiae, are ascribed to him, but they are of very doubtful authenticity. Collected editions of them were published at Lyons in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography by Symphorianus Campcgius), at Basel in 1585, at Frankfort in 1603, and at Lyons in 1686. He is also the reputed author of various medical works, including Breviariutn Practicae.

See I. B. Hauréau in the Histoire littc'raire de la France (1881), vol. 28; E. Lalande, Arnaud de Villeneuve, sa vie et ses aruvres (Paris, 1896). A list of writings is given by J. Ferguson in his Bibliotheca Chemica (1906). See also U. Chevalier, Retrerloire des source: his!" 80., Bio-bibliographie (Paris, 1903).

ARNAUD, HENRI (1641—1721), pastor and general of the Vaudois or Waldcnsians of Piedmont, was born at Embrun. About 1650 his family returned to their natiVe valley of Luserna, where Arnaud was educated at La Tour (the chief village), later visiting the college at Basel (1662 and 1668) and the Academy at Geneva (1666). He then returned home, and seems to have been pastor in several of the Vaudois valleys before attaining that position at La Tour (1685). ' He was thus the natural leader of his co-religionists after Victor Amadeus expelled them (1686) from their valleys, and most probably visited Holland, the ruler of which, William of Orange, certainly gave him help and money. Arnaud occupied himself with organizing his 3000 countrymen who had taken refuge in Switzerland, and who twice (1687—1688) attempted to regain their homes. The English revolution of 1688, and the election of William to the throne, encouraged the Vaudois to make yet another attempt. Furnished with detailed instructions from the veteran Josué Janavel (prevented by age from taking part in the expedition) Arnaud, with about 1000 followers, started (August ‘17, 1680) from near Nyon on the Lake of Geneva for the glorieuse rentrée. On the 27th of August, the valiant band, after many hardships and dangers, reached the Valley of St Martin, having passed by Sallanches and crossed the Col de Very (6506 ft.), the Enclave de la Fenétre (7425 ft.), the Col du Bonhomme (8147 ft.), the Col du Mont Iseran (9085 ft.), the Grand Mont Cenis (6893 ft.), the Petit Mont Cenis (7166 ft.), the Col de Clapier (8173 ft.), the Col de C6teplane (7589 ft.), and the Col du Piz (8550 ft.). They soon took refuge in the lofty and secure rocky citadel of the Balsille, where they were besieged (October 24, 1689 to May 14, 1690) by the troops (about 4000 in number) of the king of-France and the duke of Savoy. They maintained this natural fortress against many fierce attacks and during the whole of a winter. In particular, on the 2nd of May, one assault was defeated without the loss of a single man of Arnaud's small band. But another attack (May 14) was not so successful, so that Arnaud withdrew his force, under cover of a thick mist, and led them over the hills to the valley of Angrogna, above La Tour. A month later the V audois were received into favour by the duke of Savoy, who had then abandoned his alliance with France for one with Great Britain and Holland. Hence for the next six years the Vaudois helped Savoy against France, though suffering much from the repeated attacks of the French troops. But by a clause in the treaty of peace of 1696, made public in 1698, Victor Amadeus again became hostile to the Vaudois, about 3000 of whom, with Arnaud, found a shelter in Protestant countries. mainly in thrttemberg, where Arnaud became the pastor of Dtlrrmenz-Schoncnberg, N.W. of Stuttgart (1699). Once again (1704—1706) the Vaudois aided the duke against France. Arnaud, however, took no part in the military operations, though he visited England (1707) to obtain pecuniary aid from Queen Anne. He died at Schoncnberg (which was the church hamlet of the parish of Dtirrmenz) in 1721. It was during his retirement that be compiled from various documents by other hands his H istoire de la glorious: rentrte des Vaudois dons leurs vallécr, which was published (probably at Cassel) in 1710, with a dedication to Queen Anne. It was translated into English (1827) by H. Dyke Acland, and has also appeared in German and Dutch versions. A part of the original MS. is preserved in the Royal Library in Berlin.

Sec K. H. Klaiber, Henri Arnaud, n'n Lebensbild (Stuttgart. 1880); A. de Rochas d'Aiglun, Les Vallées mudoises (Paris, 1881); various chapters in the Bulletin du bicentenaire de la lon'euse rentre’e (Turin, 1889). (W. A. . C.)

ARNAULD, the surname of a family of prominent French lawyers, chiefly remembered in connexion with the Jansenist troubles of the 17th century. At their head was ANTOINE ARNAULD (1560—1619), a leader of the Paris bar; in this capacity he delivered a famous philippic against the Jesuits in 1594, accusing them of gross disloyalty to the newly converted Henry IV. This speech was afterwards known as the original sin of the Arnaulds.

Of his twenty children several grew up to fight the Jesuits on more important matters. Five gave themselves up wholly to the church. HENRI Aaruuw (1597—1692), the second son, became bishop of Angers in 1649, and represented Jansenism on the episcopal Bench for as long as forty-three years. The youngest son, ANTOlNB (1612-1694), was the most famous of Jansenist theologians (see below). The second daughter, AxcéuQur: (1591—1661), was abbess and reformer of Port Royal; here she was presently joined by her sister AGNES (1593—1671) and two younger sisters, both of whom died early.

Only two of Antoine's children married—Roar.“ Annuw D'ANDILLY (1588-1674), the eldest son, and CATHERINE I.» IMSTRE (1590—1651), the eldest daughter. But both of these ended their liVes under the shadow of the abbey. Andilly’s five daughters all took the veil there; the second, ANGEuQUE or: 51 JEAN ARNAULD D'ANDILLY (1624—1684) rose to be abbess, was a writer of no mean repute, and one of the most remarkable figures of the second generation of Jansenism. One of Andilly’s sons became a hermit at Port Royal; the eldest, AN'rOlNE (1615—1699), was first a soldier. afterwards a priest. As the Abbe Arnauld, he survives as author of some interesting Memoirs of his time. The second son, SIMON ARNAUID or. P01001041:


(1616—1699), early entered public life. After holding various embassies, he rose to be foreign secretary to Louis XIV., and was created marquis de Pomponne. Lastly Madame Lemaistre and two of her sons became identified with Port Royal. On her husband’s death she took the veil there. Her eldest son, Ann-01m: Lauusrm: (1608—1658), became the first of the .rolitaires, or hermits of Port Royal. There he was joined by his younger brother, Isaac Laumsrai: or: S1101 (1613—1684), who presently took holy orders, and became confessor to the hennits.

The Arnaulds' connexion with Port Royal (q.v.)—a convent of Ciste'rcian nuns in the neighbourhood of Versailles—dated back to 1599, when the original Antoine secured the abbess's chair for his daughter Angelique, then a child of eight. About 1608 she started to reform her convent in the direction of its original Rule; but about 1623 she made the acquaintance of du Vergier (q.v.) and thenoeforward began to move in a Jansenist direction. Her later history is entirely bound up with the fortunes of that revival. Angélique’s strength lay chiefly in her character. Her sister and collaborator, Agnes, was also a graceful writer; and her Letters, edited by Prosper Feugére (2 vols., Paris, 1858), throw most valuable light on the inner aims and aspirations of the Jansenist movement. The first ‘ relative to join their projects of reform was their nephew, Antoine Lemaistre, who threw up brilliant prospects at the bar to settle down at the Abbey gates (1638). Here he was presently joined by his brother, de Saci, and other hermits, who led an austere semi-monastic existence, though without taking any formal vow. In 1646 they were joined by their uncle, Arnauld d‘Andilly, hitherto a personage of some importance at court and in the world; he was a special favourite of the queen regent, Anne of Austria, and had held various offices of dignity in the government. Uncle and nephews passed their time partly in ascetic exercises—though Andilly never pretended to vie in austerity with the younger men—partly in managing the conVent estates, and partly in translating religious classics. Andilly put Josephus, St Augustine’s Confessions, and many other works, into singularly delicate French. Lemaistre attacked the lives of the saints; in 1654 Saci set to work on a translation of the Bible. His labours were interrupted by the outbreak of persecution. In 1661 he was forced to go into hiding; in 1666 he was arrested, thrown into the Bastille, and kept there more than two years. Meanwhile his friends printed his translation of the New Testament—really in Holland, nominally at Mons in the Spanish Netherlands (1667). Hence it is usually known as the Nouoeau Testament de Mons. It found enthusiastic friends and violent detractors. Bossuet approved its orthodoxy, but not its over-elaborate style; and it was destructively criticized by Richard Simon, the founder of Biblical criticism in France. On the other hand it undoubtedly did much to popularize the Bible, and was bitterly attacked by the Jesuits on that ground.

By far the most distinguished of the family, however, was Antoine—le grand Arnauld, as contemporaries called him— the twentieth and youngest child of the original Antoine. Born in 1612. he was originally intended for the bar; but decided instead to study theology at the Sorbonne. Here he was brilliantly successful, and was on the high-road to preferment, when he came under the influence of du Vergicr, and was drawn in the direction of Jansenism. His book, De la jréquente Communion (1643), did more than anything else to make the aims and ideals of this movement intelligible to the general public. Its appearance raised a violent storm, and Amauld eventually withdrew into hiding; for more than twenty years he dared not make a public appearance in Paris. During all this time his pen was busy with innumerable Jansenist pamphlets. In 1655 two very outspoken Leltrcs d an due et pair on Jesuit methods in the confessional brought on a motion to expel him from the Sorbonne. This motion was the immediate cause of Pascal's Provincial Letters. Pascal, however, failed to save his friend; in February 1656 Arnauld was solemnly degraded. Twelve years later the tide of fortune turned. The so-called peace of Clement IX. put an end to

Leland Arnauld.

persecution. Arnauld emerged from his retirement, was most graciously received by Louis XIV., and treated almost as a popular hero. He now set to work with Nicole (q.v.) on a great work against the Calvinists: La Perpetuité de la [01' calholique Ioudmnl l’eucharislie. Ten years later, however, another storm of persecution burst. Amauld was compelled to fly from France, and take refuge in the Netherlands, finally settling down at Brussels. Here the last sixteen years of his life were spent in incessant controversy with Jesuits, Calvinists and misbelievers of all kinds; here he died on the 8th of August 1604. His inexhaustible energy is best expressed by his famous reply to Nicole, who complained of feeling tired. “Tired!” echoed Arnauld, “ when you have all eternity to rest in?" Nor was this energy by any means absorbed by purely theological questions. He was one of the first to adopt the philosophy of Descartes, though with certain orthodox reservations; and between 1683 and 1685 he had a long battle with Malebranche on the relation of theology to metaphysics. On the whole, public opinion leant to Arnauld‘s side. When Malebranchc complained that his adversary had misunderstood him, Boileau silenced him with the question: “ My dear sir, whom do you expect to understand you, if M. Arnauld does not?” And popular regard for Arnauld's penetration was much increased by his Art dc pens-er, commonly known as the Port-Royal Logic, which has kept its place as an elementary text-book until quite modern times. Lastly a considerable place has quite lately been claimed for Arnauld among the mathematicians of his age; a recent critic even describes him as the Euclid of the 17th century. In general, however, since his death his reputation has been steadily on the wane. Contemporaries admired him chiefly as a master of close and serried reasoning; herein Bossuct, the greatest theologian of the age, was quite at one with d’Aguesseau, the greatest lawyer. But a purely contr0versial writer is seldom attractive to posterity. Anxiety to drive home every possible point, and cut his adversary ofi from every possible line of retreat, makes him seem intolerably prolix. “In spite of myself,” Amauld once said regretfully, “ my books are seldom very short.” And even lucidity may prove a snare to those who trust to it alone, and scornfully refuse to appeal to the imagination or the feelings. It is to be feared that, but for his connexion with Pascal, Arnauld’s name would be almost forgotten—or, at most, live only in the famo

epitaph Boileau consecrated to his memory— '

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Full details as to the lives and writings of the Arnaulds will be found in the various books mentioned at the close of the article on Port Royal. The most interesting account of An élique will be found in Mémoires pour servir d histoirc dc Port- oyul (3 vols., Utrecht. 1742). Three volumes of her correspondence were also ublished at the same time and place. There are excellent modern ives of her in En lish b Miss Frances Martin (Angc’lique Arnauld, 1873) and b A. H. (Ingélique ofParl Royal, 190?). Antoine Amauld s comp ete works—thirty-seven volumes in orty-two rts—were

ublished in Paris, 1775—1781. No modern biography 0 him exists;

ut there is a study of his philosophy in Bouillier, Histoire de la philosophic cartc'sienne (Paris, 1868); and his mathematical achievements are discussed by Dr Bo p in the 14th volume of the AandIungen zur Geschichte der maticmatischen Wirsenschaflen (Leipzig, 1902). The memoirs of Arnauld d'Andilly and of his son, the abbé Arnauld, are reprinted both in Petitot's and Poujoulat's collections of memoirs illustrative of the 17th century. (51'. C )

ARNAULT. ANTOINE VINCENT (1766-1834), French dramatist, was born in Paris in January 1766. Hisfirst play, Marius d M inlurms (1791), immediately established his reputation. A year later he followed up his first success with a second republican tragedy, Lucréce. He left France during the Terror and on his return was arrested by the revolutionary authorities, but was liberated through the intervention of F abre d’Eglantine and others. He was commissioned by Bonaparte in 1 797 with the reorganization of the Ionian Islands, and was nominated to the Institute and made secretary general of the university. He was faithful to his patron through his misfortunes, and after the Hundred Days remained in exile until 1819. In 1829 he was


re-elected to the Academy and became perpetual secretary in 1833. Others of his plays are Blanche e! Montcassin, ea In Vénitiens (17o8); and Gamanicus (1816), the performance of which was the occasion of a disturbance in the parkrre which threatened serious political complications. His tragedies are perhaps less known now than his Fable: (1813, 1815 and 1826), which are written in very graceful Verse. Arnault collaborated in a Vie politique cl mililaire dc Napoleon (182;), and wrote some very interesting Souvenir: d'un sexagénaire (1833), which contain much out-of-the-way information about the history of the years previous to 1804. Arnault died at Goderville on the 16th of September 1834.

His eldest son, Emilien Lucien (1787—1863), wrote several tragedies, the leading rbles in which 'were interpreted by Talma.

See Sainte-Beuve, Causerie: du lundi, vol. 7. Arnault's (Emu complete: (4 vols.) were published at the Hague and Paris in 1818— 1819, and again (8 vols.) at Paris in 1824.

ARND'I‘, ERNST HORITZ (1769—1860), German poet and patriot, was born on the 26th of December 1769 at Schoritz in the island of Rilgen, which at that time belonged to Sweden. He was the son of a prosperous farmer, and emancipated serf of the lord of the district, Count Putbus; his mother came of well-to-do German yeoman stock. In 1787 the family removed into the neighbourhood of Stralsund, where Arndt was enabled to attend the academy. After an interval of private study he went in 1791 to the university of Greifswald as a student of theology and history, and in 1793 removed to Jena, where he fell under the influence of F ichte. On the completion of his university course he returned home, was for two years a private tutor in the family of Ludwig Kosegarten (1758—1818), pastor of Wittow and poet, and having qualified for the ministry as a “ candidate of theology,” assisted in the church services. At the age of twentyeight he renounced the ministry, and for eighteen months he led a wandering life, visiting Austria, Hungary, Italy, France and Belgium. Returning homewards up the Rhine, he was moved by the sight of the ruined castles along its banks to intense bitterness against 'France. The impressions of this journey he later described in Reisen durch einen Theil Teulschlamis, U ngams, Italians and Frankreichs in den J ahrcn 1798 and 1799 (1802—1804). In 1800 he settled in Greifswald as privat-docent in history, and the same year published Uber die Freiheit der alten Republiken. In 1803 appeared Germanic" and EwaPa, “ a fragmentary ebullition,” as he himself called it, of his views on the French aggression. This was followed by one of the most remarkable of his books, Versuch eincr Gesclrichle der Leibeigenschaft in Pommern und Rilgen (Berlin, 1803), a history of serfdom in Pomerania and Rilgen, which was so convincing an indictment that King Gustavus Adolphus IV. in 1806 abolished the evil. Arndt had meanwhile risen from privat-docent to extraordinary professor, and in 1806 was appointed to the chair of history at the university. In this year he published the first part of his Geist der Zeit, in which he flung down the gauntlet to Napoleon and called on his countrymen to rise and shake ofi the French yoke. So great was the excitement it produced that Arndt was compelled to take refuge in Sweden to escape the vengeance of Napoleon. Settling in Stockholm, he obtained government employment, but devoted himself to the great cause which was nearest his heart, and in pamphlets, poems and songs communicated his enthusiasm to his countrymen. Schill’s heroic death at Stralsund impelled him to return to Germany and, under the disguise of “ Almann, teacher of languages,” he reached Berlin in December 1809. In 1810 he returned to Greifswald, but only for a few months. He again set out on his adventurous travels, lived in close contact with the first men of his time, such as Bliicher, Gneisenau and Stein, and in 1812 was summoned by the last named to St Petersburg to assist in the organization of the final struggle against France. Meanwhile, pamphlet after pamphlet, full of bitter hatred of the French oppressor, came from his pen, and his stirring patriotic songs, such as Was is! das deulsche V alerland? Der Go”, def Eisen wachsen liess, and Was blasen die Trumpeten? were on all lips. When, after the peace. the university of Bonn was founded in 1818, Arndt was appointed to the chair of modern history. In this year appeared the fourth part of his Geirt der Zeil, in which he criticized the reactionary policy of the German powers. The boldness of his demands for reform offended the Prussian government, and in the summer of 1819 he was arrested and his papers confiscated. Although speedily liberated, he was in the following year, at the instance of the Central Commission of Investigation at Mainz, established in accordance with the Carlsbad Decrees, arraigned before a specially constituted tribunal. Although not found guilty, he was forbidden to exercise the functions of his professorship, but was allowed to retain the stipend. The next twenty years he passed in retirement and literary activity. In 1840 he was reinstated in his professorship, and in 1841 was chosen rector of the university. The revolutionary outbreak of 1848 rekindled in the venerable patriot his old hopes and energies, and he took his seat as one of the deputies to the National Assembly at Frankfort. He formed one of the deputation that offered the imperial crown to Frederick William IV., (and indignant at the king's refusal to accept it, he retired with the majority of von Gagern’s adherents from public life. He continued to lecture and to write with freshness and vigour, and on his 90th birthday received from all parts of Germany good wishes and tokens of affection. He died at Bonn on the 29th of January 1860. Arndt was twice married, first in 1800, his wife dying in the following year; a second time in 1817.

Arndt's untiring labour for his country rightlly won for him the title of “ the most German of all Germans.’ is lyric poems are not. however, all confined to politics. Many among the Gedichte (1803—1818; complete edition, 1860) are re igious gleccs of great beauty. Among his other works are Reise durch Sr weden (179"); Nebenstimden, em: Boschreibun imd Gerchirhle der schottld‘ndisc en Inseln und der Orkaden (1820); Die Frage fiber dis Niederlande (1831); Erinnerungen our dern dusseren Leben (an autobiograph , an the most valuable source of information for Arndt's life, 1840); Rhein- and Ahrwanderungen (1846), Wanderun en and Wandlungen mil dem Reichsfreiherm van Stein (1858), and r0 poPulo Germanico (1854), which was originally intended to form the fifth part of the Geir! der Zeil. Arndt s Werke have been edited by H. Rbsch and H. Meisner in 8 vols. not complete) (l892—l898). Biogra hies have been written by . Langcnberg (1869) and Wilhelm our (5th ed., 1882); see also H. Meisner and R. Geerds, E. M. Arndt, ein Lebensl'n'ld in Briefen (1898), and R. Thiele, E. M. .4th (1894). There are monuments to his memory at Schoritz, his birthplace, and at Bonn, where he is buried.

ARND'I‘, JOHANN (1555—1621), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Ballenstedt, in Anhalt, and studied in several universities. He was at Helmstadt in 1576; at Wittenberg in 1577. At Wittenberg the crypto-Calvinist controversy was then at its height, and he took the side of Melanchthon and the cwpthalvinists. He continued his studies in Strassburg, under the professor of Hebrew, Johannes Pappus (1549-1610), a zealous Lutheran, the crown of whose life’s work was the forcible suppression of Calvinistic preaching and worship in the city, and who had great influence over him. In‘ Basel, again, he studied theology under Simon Sulzer (1508-1585), a broadminded divine of Lutheran sympathies, whose aim was to reconcile the churches of the Helvetic and Wittenberg confessions. In 1581 he went back to Ballenstedt, but was soon recalled to active life by his appointment to the pastorate at Badcborn in 1583. After some time his Lutheran tendencies exposed him to the anger of the authorities, who were of the Reformed Church. Consequently, in 1590 he was deposed for refusing to remove the pictures from his church and discontinue the use of exorcism in baptism. He found an asylum in Quedlinburg (1590), and afterwards was transferred to St Martin‘s church at Brunswick (1599). Amdt's fame rests on his writings. These were mainly of a mystical and devotional kind, and were inspired by St Bernard, J. Tauler and Thomas a Kempis. His principal work, Walrres Christenlum (160601609). which has been translated into most European languages. has served as the foundation of many books of devotion, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. Arndt here dwells upon the mystical union between the believer and Christ, and endeavours, by drawing attention to Christ's life in His people, to correct the purely forensic side of the Reformation theology, which paid almost exclusive attention


to Christ’s death for His people. Like Luther, Arndt was very fond of the little anonymous book, Deulsche Theologie. He published an edition of it and called attention to its merits in a special preface. After W ahres Christenlum, his best-known work is Paradiesgdrtlein aller christlichen Tugenden, which was published in 1612. Both these books have been translated into English; Paradiesgdrllein with the title the Garden of Paradise. Several of his sermons are published in R. Nesselmann's Buck der Predigten (1858). Arndt has always been held in very high repute by the German Pietists. The founder of Pietism, Philipp Jacob Spener, repeatedly called attention to him and his writings, and even went so far as to compare him with Plato (cf. Karl Scheele, Plato und Johann Arndt, Bin Vorlrag, &c.,


A collected edition of his works was published in Lei zig and Gorlitz in 1734. A valuable account of Arndt is to be ound in C. -Aschmann's Essai sur la vie, &c., de J. Arndt. See further, Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopa'dio.

ARNE, THOMAS AUGUSTINE (1710-1778), English musical composer, was born in London on the 12th of March 1710, his father being an upholsterer. Intended for the legal profession, he was educated at Eton, and afterwards apprenticed to an attorney for three years. His natural inclination for music, however, proved irresistible, and his father, finding from his performance at an amateur musical party that he was already a skilful violinist, furnished him with the means of educating himself in his favourite art. On the 7th of March r733 he produced his first work at Lincoln’s Inn Fields theatre, a setting of Addison’s Rosamond, the heroine's part being performed by his sister, Susanna Maria, who afterwards became celebrated as Mrs Cibber. This proving a success was immediately followed by a burletta, entitled The Opera of OPerar, based on Fielding’s Tragedy of Tragedies. The part of Tom Thumb was played by Arne's young brother, and the opera was produced at the Haymarket theatre. On the 19th of December 1 733 Arne produced at the same theatre the masque Dido and Aeneas, a subject of which the musical conception had been immortalized for Englishmen more than half a century earlier by Henry Purcell. Ame’s individuality of style first distinctly asserted itself in the music to Dr Dalton’s adaptation of Milton's Camus, which was performed at Drury Lane in 1738, and speedily established his reputation. In r740 he wrote the music for Thomson and Mallet’s Masque of Alfred, which is noteworthy as containing the most popular of all his airs—“ Rule, Britannia!” In 1740 he also wrote his beautiful settings of the songs, “ Under the greenwood tree,” “ Blow, blow, thou winter wind " and “ When daisies pied,” for a performance of Shakespeare’s As You Like 1!. Four years before this, in 1736, he had married Cecilia, the eldest daughter of Charles Young, organist of All Hallows Barking. She was considered the finest English singer of the day and was frequently engaged by Handel in the performance of his music. In 1742 Arne went with his wife to Dublin, where he remained two years and produced his oratorio Abel, containing the beautiful melody known as the Hymn of Eve, the operas Britannia, Eliza and Camus, and where he also gave a number of successful concerts. On his return to London he was engaged as leader of the band at Drury Lane theatre (1744.), and as composer at Vauxhall ( 174 5). In this latter year he composed his successful pastoral dialogue, Colin and Phoebe, and in 1746 the song, “ Where the bee sucks." In 1 759 he received the degree of doctor of Imusic from Oxford. In 1760 he transferred his services to Covent Garden theatre, where on the 28th of November he produced his Thomas and Sally. Here, too, on the 2nd of February 1762 he produced his Artaxerxes, an opera in the Italian style with recitative instead of spoken dialogue, the popularity of which is attested by the fact that it continued to be performed at intervals for upwards of eighty years. The libretto, by Arne himself, was a very poor translation of Metastasio’s Artererre. In 1762 also was produced the balladopera Love in a Collage. His oratorio Judith, of which the first performance was on the 27th of February 176r at Drury Lane, was revived at the chapel of the Lock hospital, Pimlico, on the

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