« السابقةمتابعة »
29th of February 1764, in which year was also performedhis setting of Metastasio’s Olimpiude in the original language at the King's theatre in the Haymarket. At a later performance of Judith at Covent Garden theatre on the 26th of February 1773 Arne for the first time introduced female voices into orator-i0 choruses. In 1769 he wrote the musical parts for Garrick’s ode for the Shakespeare jubilee at Stmtfordm-Avon, and in 1770 he gain: a mutilated version of Purcell’s King Arthur. 0111: of his last dramatic works was the music to Mason’s Camctacus, published in 1775. Though inferior to Purcell in intensity of feeling, Arne has not been surpassed as a composer of graceful and attractive melody. There is true genius in such airs as “Rule, Britannial" and “Where the bee sucks,” which still retain their original freshness and popularity. As a writer of glees he does not take such high rank, though he deserves notice as the leader in the revival of that peculiarly English form of composition. He was author as well as composer of The Guardian outwitted, The Rose, The Contest of Beauty and Virtue, and Phoebe at Court. Dr Arne died on the 5th of March 1778, and was buried at St Paul’s, Covent Garden.
See also the article in Grove's Dictionary (new ed); and two interesting papers in the Musical Times, November and December 1901.
“WITH, ALFRED, Rrrraa von (1819—1897), Austrian historian, born at Vienna on the 10th of July 1819, was the son of Joseph Calasanza von Arneth (1791—1863), a. w‘elbknown historian and archaeologist, ,whowrote a history of the Austrian empire (Vienna, 1827) and several works on numismatics. Alfred Arneth studied law, and became an official of the Austrian state archives, of which in 1868 he was appointed keeper. He. was a moderate liberalin politics and a supporter of the ideal of German unity. As such he was elected to the Frankfort parliament in 1848. In 1861 he became a member of the Lower Austrian diet and in 1869 was nominated to the Upper House of the Austrian Reichsrath. In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserh'che Akadcmie der Wirrenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at .Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich. He died on the 30th of July 1897.
Arneth was an indefatigable worker, and, as director of the archives, his broad-minded willingness to listen to the advice of experts, as well as his own sound sense, did much to promote the more scientific treatment and use of public records in most of the archives of Europe. His scientific temper and the special facilities which he enjoyed for drawing from original sources give to his numerous historical works a very special value.
Amon his ublications may be mentioned: Leben des Feldmarschal J Gra en Guido Starhmber (Vienna. 186 ); Prinz E en non Savoyen ( vols., ib. 1864); Care . der Maria heresa (10 vo 5., ib. 1863—1879 ; Maria Theresa u. Marie Antoinette, ihr Brufwechrel (ib. 1866); .Marie Antoinette, Joseph II. and Leopold IL, ihr Briefwechrel (1866); Maria. Theresa and Joseph 11., ihre Korrespondens samt Brie en Josephs an seinen Bruder Leo td ( vols., 1867); Beaumarc is and Sonnenfel: (1868); Joseph I. u Katharina van Russiand, ihr Briefwechsel (1869); Johann Christian Barthenstein und seine Zeit (1871); Joseph 11. and Leopold non Torkona, ihr Briefwechset (2 vols., 1872); Briefs der Kainrin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondence secréte entre Marie-The'rése et le comte de Mercy-A rgenteau (5; vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Gefi'roy; Graf
hilipp Cobenzl und seine Memoiren (1885): Carrespondance secrEte do comte de Mercy-Argenteau aoec t’ernfwrenr Joseph II. at Kermit: (2 vols., 1889-1891), in collaboration with Jules Flammermont; Anton Ritter van Schrnerting. E isoden on: seinem Leben 1835, 1848—1849 (1895); Johann Fret rr van Wessenberg, ein osterreichischer Staatrmann de: 19. Jahrh. (2 vols., 1898). Arneth also published in 1893 two volumes of early reminiscences under the title of Au: meinem Leben.
ARNHEI, or Aannsnr, the capital of the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the right bank of the Rhine (here crossed by a pontoon bridge), and a junction station 35 m. by rail of Utrecht. Pop. (1900) 57,240. It is connected by tramway with Zutphen and Utrecht, and there is a regular service of steamers to Cologne, Amsterdam, Nijmwegen, Tiel, 's Hertogenbosch and Rotterdam. Arnhem is'a gay and fashionable town prettily situated at the foot of the Veluwe hills, and enjoys I special reputation for beauty on account of its wooded and
hilly surroundings, which have attracted many wealthy people to its neighbourhood. The Groote Kerk of St Eusebius, built in the third quarter of the 15th century, contains the marble monument to Charles (d. 1538), the last duke of Gelderland of the Egmont dynasty. High up against the wall is an efiigy of the same duke in his armour. The fine lofty tower contains a chime of forty-five bells. The Roman Catholic church of St Walburgis is of earlier date, and a new Roman Catholic church dates from 1894. The town hall was built as a palace by Maarten van Rossum, Duke Charles’s general, at the end of the 15th century, and was only converted to its present use in 1830. Its grotesque external ornamentation earned for it the name of Duivelshuis, or devil’s house. The provincial government house occupies the site of the former palace of the dukes of (ielderland. Other buildings are the court-house, a public library containing many old works, a theatre, a large concert-hall, a museum of antiquities (as well as a separate collection of Spanish antiquities), a gymnasium, a teachers’ and art school, a building (1880) to contain the provincial archives, a hospital (1889) and barracks. On account of its proximity to the fertile Betuwe district and its situation near the confluence of the Rhine and Ysel, the markets and shipping of Arnhem are in a flourishing condition. A wharf for building and repairing iron steamers was constructed in 1889. The manufactures include woollen and cotton goods, paper, earthenware, soap, carriages, furniture and tobacco, which is cultivated in the neighbourhood. Woolcombing and dyeing are also carried on, and Lhere are oil and timber mills.
The environs of Arnhem are much admired. Following either the Zutphen or the Utrecht road, numerous pleasing views of the Rhine valley present themselves, and country houses and villas appear among the woods on every side. At Bronbcek, a short distance east of the town, is a hospital endowed by King William III. for soldiers of the colonial army. Beyond is the popular summer resort of Velp, with the castle of Biljoen built by Charles, duke of Gelderland, in 1530, and the beautiful park of the ancient castle of. Roaendaal in thevicinity. The origin of the castle of Roundul is unknown. The first account of it is in connexion with a tournament given there by Reinald 1., count of Gelderland, in the beginning of the 14th century, and it ever'after remained the favourite residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland. About the beginning of the 18th century fountains and lanesin the style of those at Versailles were laid out in the park, and soon' after the castle itself, of which only the round tower remained (and is still standing), was rebuilt. The park is open to the public, and is famous for the beauty of the beech avenues and fir woods. Beyond this is De Steeg, another popular resort, whence stretches. the famous Middachten Allee of beech trees to Dieren. On the Apeldoorn road is Sonsbeek, with a wooded park and small lakes, formerly a private
,seat. .and‘now belonging to the municipality. On the west of
Arnhem is‘another pleasure ground, called the Reeberg, with a casino, and the woods of Heienoord. Close by is the ancient and wdlereserved castle of Doornwerth with its own chapel. It was the soatlof an independent lordship until 1402, after which time it was held in fief from the dukes of Gelderland. Beyond Doornwerth, at Renkum, is the royal country seat called Oranje~ Nassau’s Oord, which was bought by the crown in 1881. I .
Hi:tory.——Arnhem, called Arnoldi Villa in the middle ages, is, according to some, the Arenaeum of the Romans, and is first mentioned in a document in.893. , In 1233 Otto 11., count of Gelderland, chose this spot as his residence, conferred muuicipal rights on the town, and fortified it. At a later period it entered the Hanseatic League. ,In 1475 it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. In 1505 it received the right of coining from Philip, son of the emperor Maximilian I. In 1514 Charles of Egmont, duke of Gelderland, took it from the Spaniards; but in 1543 it fell to the emperor Charles V., who made it the seat of the council of Gelderland. It joined the union of Utrecht in 1579, and _came finally under the effective government of the states-general in 1585, all the later attacks of the Spaniards being repulsed. In 1 586 Sir Philip Sidney died in the town from the effects of his wound received before Zutphen. The French took the town in 1672, but left it dismantled in 1674. It was refortified by the celebrated Dutch general of engineers,thoorn, in the beginning of the 18th.century. In 17o5 it was again stormed by the French, and in 1813 it was taken from them by the Prussians under Billow. Gardens and promenades have now taken the place of the old ramparts, the last of which was levelled in 1853.
ARNICA. a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Compositae, and containing 18 species, mostly north-west American. The most important species is Arm'ca montana (mountain tobacco), a perennial herb found in upland meadows in northern and central Europe (but not extending to Britain), and on the mountains of western and central Europe. A closely allied species (A. onguslifolia), with very narrow leaves, is met with in Arctic Asia and America. The heads of flowers are large, 2 to 2% in. across, orange-yellow in colour, and borne on the summit of the stem or branches; the outer ray-flowers are an inch in length. The achenes (fruits) are brown and hairy, and are crowned by a tuft of stiffish hairs (pappus). The rootstock of A. montano is tough, slender, of a dark brown colour and an inch or two in length. It gives off numerous simple roots from its under side, and shows on its upper side the remains of rosettes of leaves. It yields an essential oil in small quantity, and a resinous matter called arnicin, CHI-In01, a yellow crystalline substance with an acrid taste. The tincture prepared from it is an old remedy which has a popular reputation in the treatment of bruises and sprains. The plant was introduced into English gardens about the middle of the 18th century, but is not often grown; it is a handsome plant for a rockery.
ABNII, ELISABETH (BBTI‘INA) VON (1785—1859), German authoress, sister of Klemens Brentano, was born at Frankforton-Main on the 4th of April 1785. After being educated at a convent school in F ritzlar, she lived for a while with her grandmother, the novelist, Sophie Laroche (1731—1807), at Oflenbach, and from 1803 to 1806 with her brother-in-law, Friedrich von Savigny, the famous jurist, at Marburg. In 1807 she made at Weimar the acquaintance of Goethe, for whom she entertained a violent passion, which the poet, although entering into correspondence with her, did not requite, but only regarded as a harmless fancy. Their friendship came to an abrupt end in 1811, owing to “ Bettina's ” insolent behaviour to Goethe’s wife. In this year she married Ludwig Achim von Arnim (q.v.), by whom she had seven children. After her husband‘s death in 1831, her passion for Goethe revived, and in 183 5 she published her remarkable book, Goethe: Briefweclud mil cinem Kinda, which purported to be a correspondence betWeen herself and the poet. Regarded at first as genuine, it was afterwards for many years looked upon as wholly fictitious, until the publication in 1879 of G. von Loeper’s Brie/e Goethe: an Sophie Laroche mid Bellina Brenlana, nabs! dichlorirchen Beilagen, which proved it to be based on authentic material, though treated with the greatest poetical licence. Equally fantastic is her correspondence Die Gilnderode (1840), with her unhappy friend, the poet, Karoline von Gflnderode (r780—r806), who committed suicide, and that with her brother Klemens Brentano, under the title Klemens Brentano: Frl'llrlingskranz (1844). She also published Dies Bach gehdrl dent Konig (1843), in which she advocated the emancipation of the Jews, and the abolition of capital punishment. Among her other works may be mentioned "in: Pamphiliu: and die Ambrosia (1848). also a supposititious correspondence. In all her writings she showed real poetical genius, combined with evidence of an unbalanced mind and a mannerism which becomes tiresome. She died at Berlin on the 20th of January 1859. Part of a design by her for a colossal statue of Goethe, executed in marble by the sculptor Karl Steinhliuser (1813—1878). is in the museum at Weimar.
ABNII. HARRY KARL KURT EDUARD VQN, COUNT (18241881), German diplomatist, was a member of one of the most numerous and most widely spread families of the Prussian nobility. He was born in Pomerania on the 31d of October 1824, and brought up by his uncle Heinrich von Arnim, who was Prussian ambassador at Paris and foreign minister from March to June 1848, while Count Arnim-Boytzenburg, whose daughter Harry von Arnirn afterwards married, was ministerpresident. It is noticeable that the uncle was brought before a court of justice and fined for publishing a pamphlet directed against the ministry of Manteuflel. After holding other posts in the diplomatic service Amim was in 1864 appointed Prussian envoy (and in 1867 envoy of the North German Confederation)at the papal court. In 1869111: proposed that the governments should appoint representatives to be present at the Vatican council, a suggestion which was rejected by Bismarck, and foretold that the promulgation of papal infallibility would bring serious political difficulties. After the recall of the French troops from Reine he attempted unsuccessfully to mediate between the pope and the Italian government. He was appointed in 1871 German com' missioner to arrange the final treaty with France, a task which he carried out with such success that in 1871 he was appointed German envoy at Paris, and in 1872 received his definite appointment as ambassador, a post of the greatest difliculty and responsibility. Differences soon arose between him and Bismarck; he wished to support the monarchin party which was trying to overthrow Thiers, while Bismarck ordered him to stand aloof from all French parties; he did not give that implicit obedience to his instructions which Bismarck required. Bismarck, however, was unable to recall him because of the great influence which he enjoyed at court and the confidence which the emperor placed in him. He was looked upon by the Conservative party, who were trying to overthrow Bismarck, as his successor, and it is said that he was closely connected with the court intrigues against the chancellor. In the beginning of 1874 he was recalled and appointed to the embassy at Constantinople, but this appointment was immediately revoked. A Vienna newspaper published some correspondence on the Vatican council, including confidential despatches of Arnim's, with the object of showing that he had shown greater foresight than Bismarck. It was then found that a considerable number of papers were missing from the Paris embassy, and on the 4th of October Arnim was arrested on the charge of embezzling state papers. This recourse to the criminal law against a man of his rank, who had held one of the most important diplomatic posts, caused great astonish~ ment. His defence was that the papers were not official, and he was acquitted on the charge of embezzlement, but convicted of undue delay in restoring ofiicial papers and condemned to three months' imprisonment. On appeal the sentence was increased to nine months. Arnim avoided imprisonment by leaving the country, and in 1875 published anonymously at Zurich a pamphlet entitled “ Pro nihilo,” in which he attempted to show that the attack on him was caused by Bismarck’s personal jealousy. For this he was accused of treason, insult to the emperor, and libelling Bismarck, and in his absence condemned to five years’ penal servitude. From his exile in Austria he published two more pamphlets on the ecclesiastical policy of Prussia, “ Der Nunzius kommtl” (Vienna, 1878), and “Quid faciamus nos?" (ib. 1879). ' He made repeated attempts. which were supported by his family, to be allowed to return to Germany in order to take his trial afresh on the charge of treason; his request had just been granted when he died on the roth of May 1881.
In 1876 Bismarck carried an amendment to the criminal code making it an offence punishable with imprisonment or a fine up to £250 for an official of the foreign office to communicate to others ofiicial documents, or for an envoy to act contrary to his instructions. These clauses are commenly spoken of in Germany as the “Arnim paragraphs.” (J. W. HE.)
ARNII. LUDWIG AGHII (JOACIIII) VON (1781-1831), German poet and novelist, was born at Berlin on the 26th of January 1781. He studied natural science at Halle and Gottingen, and published one or two essays on scientific subjects; but his bent was from the first towards literature. From the earlier writings of Goethe and Herder he learned to appreciate the beauties of German traditional legends and folk-songs; and, forming a collection of these, published the result (1806— 1808), in collaboration with Klemens Brentano (q.v.) under the title Des Knaben Wunderhom. From 1810 onward he lived with his wife Bettina, Brentano’s sister, alternately at Berlin and on his estate at Wiepersdorf, near Dahme in Brandenburg, where he died on the arst of January 1831. Arnim was a prolific and versatile writer, gifted with a sense of humour and a refined imagination~qualities shown in the best-known of his works, Des Knaben Wander/ram, deficient as this is in the philological accuracy and faithfulness to original sources which would now be expected of such a compilation. In general, however, his writings, full as they are of the exaggerated sentiment and afiectations of the romantic school, make but little appeal to modern taste. There are possible exceptions, such as the short stories Fr'lrst Ganzgolt and Sdnger H albgoll and Der lallelmzalide auf dem For! Ralmmeau and the unfinished romance Die Kronenwdchter (1817), which promised to develop into one of the finest historical romances of the 19th century. Among Arnim’s other works may be mentioned H ollins Liebesleben (1802), Der Wintergarten (1809), a collection of tales; Amut, Reiclmun Schuld, and Busse dcr Gnifin Dolores (1810), a novel; Halle and Jerusalem (1811), a dramatic romance; and one or two smaller novels, such as Isabella van lgyplen (1812).
Arnim's Sdmtliche Werke were edited by his widow and published in Berlin in 1839—1239; second edition in 22 vols.,, 1853—1856. Selections have been ited by . Dohmke (1892); M. hoch, Armm, Klemens and Beltina Brenlano, 6rres (1823). Des Ignaben Wanderhorn has been frequently re ubhshed, t e best edition berng that of A. Birlinger and W. Crece ius (2 vols., 1872—1876). See R. Steig, Achim won Amim and Klemens Brentano (1894).
ARNIl-BOYTZBNBURG, HANS GEORG VON (1581—1641), German general and diplomatist, was born in 1581 at Boytzenburg in Brandenburg. From 1613 to 1617 he served in the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus, took part in the Russian War, and afterwards fought against the Turks in the service of the king of Poland. In 1626, though a Protestant, he was induced by Wallenstcin to join the new imperial army, in which he quickly rose to the rank of field marshal, and won the esteem of his soldiers as well as that of his commander, whose close friend and faithful ally he became. This attachment to Wallenstein, and a spirit of religious toleration, were the leading motives of a strange career of military and political inconstancy. Thus the dismissal of Wallenstein and the perilous condition of German Protestantism after the edict of Restitution combined to induce Arnim to quit the imperial service for that of the elector of Saxony. He had served under Gustavus many years before, and later he had defeated him in the field, when in command of a Polish army; the fortune of war now placed Arnim at the head of the Saxon army which fought by the side of the Swedes at Breitenfeld (1631), and indeed the alliance of these two Protestant powers in the cause of their common religion was largely his work. The reappearances of Wallenstein, however, caused him to hesitate and open negotiations, though he did not attempt to conceal his proceedings from the elector and Gustavus. During the Liitzen campaign, Arnirn was operating with success at the head of an allied army in Silesia. In the following year he was under the hard necessity of opposing his old friend in the field, but little was done by either; the complicated political situation which followed the death of Gustavus at Liitzen led him into a renewal of the private negotiations of the previous year, though he did nothing actually treasonable in his relations with Wallenstein. In 1634 Wallenstein was assassinated, and Arnirn began at once more active operations. He won an important victory at Liegnitz in May 1634, but from this time he became more and more estranged from the Swedes. The peace of Prague followed, in which Arnim’s part, though considerable, was not all-important ( 163 5). Soon after this event he refused an offer of high command in the French army and retired from active life. From 1637 to
ARNO, ARN or AQUILA (c. 750-821), bishop and afterwards archbishop of Salzburg, entered the church at an early age, and after passing some time at Freising became abbot of Elnon, or St Amand as it was afterwards called, where he made the acquaintance of Alcuin. In 785 he was made bishop of.Salzburg and in 787 was employed by Tassilo III., duke of the Bavarians, as an envoy to Charlemagne at Rome. He appears to have attracted the notice of the Frankish king, through whose influence in 798 Salzburg was made the seat of an archbishopric; and Arno, as the first holder of this office, became metropolitan of Bavaria and received the pallium from Pope Leo III. The area of his authority was extended to the east by the conquests of Charlemagne over the Avars, and he began to take a prominent part in the government of Bavaria. He acted as one of the mirsi dominici, and spent some time at the court of Charlemagne, where he was known by the assembled scholars as Aquila, and his name appears as one of the signatories to the emperor’s will. He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria. Soon after the death of Charlemagne in 814, Arno appears to have withdrawn from active life, although he retained his archbishopric until his death on the 24th of January 821. Aided by a deacon named Benedict, Arno drew up about 788 a catalogue of lands and proprietary rights belonging to the church in Bavaria, under the title of [ridicules or Congestum Amom's. An edition of this work, which is of considerable value to historical students, was published at Munich in 1869 with notes by F. Keinz. Many other works were produced under the protection of Arno, among them a Salzburg consuetudinary, an edition of which appears in Quellen and Erfirterungen zur bayrischen and deutsthen Geschichte, Band vii., edited by L. Rockinger (Munich, 1856). It has been suggested by W. von Giesebrecht that Arno was the author of an early section of Annales Laurissmses majores, which deals with the history of the Frankish kings from 741 to 829, and of which an edition appears in Monumenla Germam'ae historica. Scriptures, Band i. pp. 128-131, edited by G. H. Pertz (Hanover, 1826). If this supposition be correct, Arno was the first extant writer to apply the name Deutsch (thcodisca) to the German language.
ARNO (anc. Amur), a river of Italy which rises from the Monte Falterona, about 25 m. E.N.E. of Florence, 4265 ft. above the sea. It first runs S.S.E. through a beautiful valley, the Casentino; near Arezzo it turns W., and at Montevarchi N.N.W.; 10 m. below it forces its way through the limestone rock at Incisa and 10 m. farther on, at Pontassieve, it is joined by the Sieve. Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 7% 111. west of Pisa, after a total course of 155 m. In prehistoric times the river ran straight on along the valley of the Chiana and joined the Tiber near Orvieto; and there was a great lake, the north end of which Was at Incisa and the south at the lake of Chiusi. The distance from Pisa to the mouth in the time of Strabo was only 2) m. The Serchio (anc. Auser), which joined the Arno at Pisa in ancient times, now flows into the sea independently. The Arno is navigable for barges as far as Florence; but it is liable to sudden floods, and brings down with it large quantities of earth and stones, so that it requires careful regulation. The most remarkable inundations were those of 1537 and 1740; in the former year the water rose to 8 ft. in the streets of Florence. The valley between Incisa and Arezzo contains accumulations of fossil bones of the deer, elephant, rhinoceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, bear, tiger, &c.
ARNOBIUS (called Afar, and sometimes “i the Elder ”), early Christian writer, was a teacher of rhetoric at Sicoa Venerea in proconsular Africa during the reign of Diocletian. His conversion to Christianity is said by Jerome to have been occasioned by a dream; and the same writer adds that the bishop to whom Arnobius applied distrusted his professions, and asked some proof of them, and that the treatise Adverqu Gentes was composed for this purpose. But this story seems rather improbable; for Arnobius speaks contemptuoust of dreams, and besides, his work bears no traces of having been written in a short time, or of having been revised by a Christian bishop. From internal evidence (bk. iv. 36) the time of composition may be fixed at about A.D. 303. Nothing further is known of the life of Arnobius. He is said to have been the author of a work on rhetoric, which, however, has not been preserved. His great treatise, in seven books, A dversur Genie: (or Nationes), on account of which he takes rank as a Christian apologist, appears to have been occasioned by a desire to answer the complaint then brought against the Christians, that the prevalent calamities and disasters were due to their impiety and had come upon men since the establishment of their religion. In the first book Arnobius carefully discusses this complaint; he shows that the allegation of greater calamities having come upon men sinCe the Christian era is false; and that, even if it were true, it could by no means be attributed to- the Christians. He skilfully contends that Christians who worship the self ~existent God cannot justly be called less religious than those who worship subordinate deities, and concludes by vindicating the Godhead of Christ. In the second book Arnobius digresses into a long discussion on the soul, which he dees not think is of divine origin, and which he scarcely believes to be immortal. He even says that a belief in the soul’s immortality would tend to remove moral restraint, and have a prejudicial effect on human life. In the concluding chapters he answers the objections drawn from the recent origin of Christianity. Books iii., iv. and v._ contain a violent attack on the heathen mythology, in which he narrates with powerful sarcasm the scandalous chronicles of the gods, and contrasts with their grossness and immorality the pure and holy worship of the Christian. These books are valuable as a repertory of mythological stories. Books vi. and vii. ably handle the questions of sacrifices and worship of images. The confusion of the final chapter points to some interruption. The work of Arnobius appears to have been written when he was a recent convert, for he does not possess a very extensive knowledge of Scripture. He knows nothing of the Old Testament, and only the life of Christ in the New, while he does not quote directly from the Gospels. He is also at fault in regard to the Jewish sects. He was much influenced by Lucretius and had read Plato. His statements concerning Greek and Roman mythology are based respectively on the Pratreplicus of Clement of Alexandria, and on Antistius Labeo, who belonged to the preceding generation and attempted to restore Neoplatonism. There are some pleasing passages in Arnobius, but on the whole he is a tumid and a tedious author.
Entri0N5.—Migne, Pair. Lat. iv. 349; A. Reifferscheich in the Vienna CorPus Script. Err/es. Lat. (Hiya. _ ‘
TRANSLATIONS.—-A. H. Bryce and . Campbell in Ante-Nicene Fathers, vi. '
Liraruruan.—H. C. G. Moule in Diet. Chr. Bing. i.; HerzogHauclt, Realmcyklopudie; and G. Kruger, Early Chr. Lil. p. 304 (where full bibliographies are given).
ARNOBIUS (“the younger”), Christian priest or bishop in Gaul, flourished about 460. He is the author of a mystical and allegorical commentary on the Psalms, first published by Erasmus in 1522, and by him attributed to the elder Arnobius. It has been frequently reprinted, and in the edition of De la Barre, 1580, is accompanied by some notes on the Gospels by the same author. To him has sometimes been ascribed the anonymous treatise, Arnobii catholici cl Serapiom's confliclus de Deo Irina e! um) . . . dc graliae liben' arbitn'i concordio, which was probably written by a follower of Augustine. The opinions of Amobius, as appears from the commentary, are semiPelagian.
ARNOLD, known as “ Annow or Baascra ” (d. 1x55), one of the most ardent adversaries of the temporal power of the popes. He belonged to a family of importance, if not noble. and was born probably at Brescia, in Italy, towards the end of the 11th century. He distinguished himself in his monastic studies, and went to France about 1115. He studied theology in Paris, but there is no proof that he was a pupil of Abelard. Returning to Italy he became a canon regular. His life was rigidly austere, St Bernard calling him “ homo neque manducans neque bibens.” He at once directed his efforts against the corruption of the clergy, and especially against the temporal ambitions of the high dignitaries of the church. During the schism of Anacletus (1131—1137) the town of Brescia was torn by the struggles between the partisans of Pope Innocent II. and the adherents of the anti~pope, and Arnold gave effect to his abhorrence of the political episcopate by inciting the peopleto rise against their bishop, and, exiled by Innocent 11., went to France. St Bernard accused him of sharing the doctrines of Abelard (see Ep. 189, 195), and procured his condemnation by the council of Sens (1140) at the same time as that of the great scholastic. This was perhaps no more than the outcome of the fierce polemical spirit of. the abbot of Clairvaux, which led him to include all his advarsaries under a single anathema. It seems certain that Arnold professed moral theology in Paris. and several times reprimanded St Bernard, whom he accused of pride and jealousy. St Bernard, as a last resort, begged King Louis VII. to take severe measures against Arnold, who had to leave France and take refuge at Ztlrich. There he soon became popular, especially with the lay nobility; but, denounced anew by St Bernard to the ecclesiastical authorities, he returned to Italy, and turned his steps towards Rome (1 145). It was two years since, in 1143, the Romans had rejected the temporal power of the pope. The urban nobles had set up a republic, which, under forms ostensibly modelled on antiquity (eg. patriciate, :enalu: Populusque romanus, &c.), concealed but clumsily a purely oligarchical government. Pope Eugenius III. and his adherents had been forced after a feeble resistance to resign themselves to exile at Viterbo. Arnold, after returning to Rome, immediately began a campaign of virulent denunciation against the Roman clergy, and, in particular, against the Curia which he stigmatized as a “ house of merchandise and den of thieves.” His enemies have attributed to him certain doctrinal heresies, but their accusations do not bear examination. According to Otto of Freising (Lib. de gestis Fridcriri, bk. ii. chap. xx.) the whole of his teaching, outside the preaching of penitence, was summed up in these maxims:--“ Clerks who have estates, bishops who hold fiefs, monks who possess property, cannot be saved.” His eloquence gained him a hearing and a numerous following, including many laymen, but consisting principally of poor ecclesiastics, who formed around him a party characterized by a rigid morality and not unlike the Lombard Patarenes of the nth century. But his purely political action was very restricted, and not to be compared with that of a Rienzi or a Savonarola. The Roman revolution availed itself of Arnold’s popularity, and of his theories, but was carried out without his aid. His name was associated with this political reform solely because his was the only vigorous personality which stood out from the mass of rebels, and because he was the principal victim of the repression that ensued. On the 15th of July 1 148 Eugenius III. anathematized Arnold and his adherents; but when, a short time afterwards, the pope, through the support of the king of Naples and the king of France, succeeded in entering Rome, Arnold remained in the town unmolested, under the protection of the senate. But in 1152 the German king Conrad III., whom the papal party and the Roman republic had in vain begged to intervene, was succeeded by Frederick l. Barbarossa. Frederick, whose authoritative temper was at once ofi'ended by the independent tone of the Arnoldist party, concluded with the pope a treaty of alliance (October 16, "51) of such a nature that the Arnoldists were at once put in a minority in the Roman government; and when the second successor of Eugenius 111., the energetic and austere Adrian [V.(tlir Englishman, Nicholas Breakspear), placed Rome under an inter-_
(diet, the senate, already rudely shaken, submitted, and Arnold was forced to fly into Campania (115 5). At the request of the pope he was seized by order of the emperor Frederick, then in Italy, and delivered to the prefect of Rome, by whom he was condemned to death. In June n55 Arnold was hanged, his body burnt, and the ashes were thrown into the Tiber. His
death produced but a feeble sensation in Rome, which was
already pacified, and pased almost unnoticed in Italy. The adherents of Arnold do not appear actually to have formed, either before or after his death, a heretical sect. It is probable that his adherents became merged in the communities of the Lombard Waldenses, who shared their ideas on the corruption of the clergy. Legend, poetry, drama and politics have from time to time been much occupied with the personality of Arnold of Brescia, and not seldom have distorted it, through the desire to see in him a hero of Italian independence and a modern democrat. He was before everything an ascetic, who denied to the church the right of holding property, and who occupied himself only as an accessory with the political and social consequences of his religious principles.
The bibliography of Arnold of Brescia is very vast and of very .
unequal value. The following works will be found useful: W. von Giesebrecht, Arnold van Brescz'a (Munich, 187,3); G. Gaggia, Arnaldo da Brescra (Brescia, 1882); and notices by acandard in the Revue des- questions historiques (Paris, 1884), p. 52-1-14, by R. Breyer in the Histar. Taschenbuch (Lei zig, r889 , vol. Vlil. pp. 123-! 8, and by A. Hausrath in Neue Hgidelberg. Jahrb. ([891), Ban i. p. 72-144- (P. A; ARNOLD, BENEDICT (r74r-r8or), American soldier, born in Norwich, Connecticut, on the 14th of January r74r. He was the great-grandson of Benedict Arnold (1615—r678), thrice colonial governor of Rhode Island between 1663 and 1678; and was the fourth in direct descent to bear the name. He received a fair education but was not studious, and his youth'was marked by the same waywardness which characterized his whole career. At fifteen he ran away from home and took part in an expedition against the French, but, restless under restraint, he soon deserted and returned home. In 1762 he settled in New Haven, where he became the proprietor of a drug and book shop; and he subsequently engaged successfully in trade with the West Indies. Immediately after the battle of Lexington Arnold led the .local militia company, of which he was captain, and additional volunteers to Cambridge, and on the 29th of April x775 he proposed to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety an expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga. After a delay ' of four days the ofier was accepted, and as a colonel of Massachusetts militia he was directed to enlist in the west part of Massachusetts and in the neighbouring colonies the men necessary for the undertaking. He was forestalled, however, by Ethan Allen (q.v.), acting on behalf of some members of the Connecticut Assembly. Under him, reluctantly waiving his own claim to command, Arnold served as a volunteer; and soon afterwards, Massachusetts having yielded to Connecticut, and having angered Arnold by sending a committee to make an inquiry into his conduct, he resigned and returned to Cambridge. He was then ordered to co-operate with General Richard Montgomery in the invasion of Canada, which he had been one of the first to suggest to the Continental Congress. Starting with 1100 men from Cambridge on the 17th of September 1775, he reached Gardiner, Maine, on the 20th, advanced through the Maine woods, and after suffering terrible privations and hardships, his little force, depleted by death and desern'on, reached Quebec on the 13th of November. The garrison had been forewarned, and Arnold was compelled to await the coming of Montgomery from Montreal. The combined attack on the 315t of December 177 5 failed; Montgomery was killed, and Arnold was severely wounded. Arnold, who had been commissioned a brigadier-general in January 1776, remained in Canada until the following June, being after April in command at Montreal. Some time after the retreat from Canada, charges of.mis~ conduct and dishonesty, growing chiefly out of his seizure from merchants in Montreal of goods for the use of his troops, were
brought against him; these charges were tardin investigated by the Board of War, which in a report made on the 23rd of May 1777, and confirmed by Congress, declared that his “ character and conduct " had been “ cruelly and groundlessly aspersed.” Having constructed a flotilla on Lake Champlain, Arnold engaged a greatly superior British fleet near Valcour Island (October 1r, r776), and after inflicting severe loss on the enemy, made his escape under cover of night. Two days later he was overtaken by the British fleet, which however he, with only one war-vessel, and that crippled, delayed long enough to enable his other vessels to make good their escape, fighting with desperate valour and finally running his own ship aground and escaping to Crown Point. The engagement of the 11th was the first between British and American fleets. Arnold’s brilliant exploits had drawn attention to him as one of the most promising of the Continental officers, and had won for him the friendship of Washington. Nevertheless, when in *February 1777 Congress created five new major-generals, Arnold, although the ranking brigadier, was passed OVer, partly at least for sectional reasons—Connecticut had already two major-generals —in favour of his juniors. At this time'it was only Washington’s urgent persuasion that prevented Arnold from leaving the service. Two months later while he was at New Haven, Governor Tryon’s descent on Danbury took place; and Arnold, who took command of the militia after the death of General Wooster, attacked the British with such vigour at Rfdgefield (April 27, 1777) that they escaped to their ships with difficulty.
In recognition of this service Arnold was now commissioned major-general (his commission dating from 17th February) but without his former relative rank. After serving in New Jersey with Washington, he joined General Philip Schuyler in the Northern Department, and in August 1777 proceeded up the Mohawk Valley against Colonel St Leger, and raised the siege of Fort Stanwix (or Schuyler). Subsequently, after Gates had superseded Schuyler (August 19), Arnold commanded the American left wing in the first battle of Saratoga (September 19, 1777). His ill-treatment at the hands of General Gates, whose jealousy had been aroused, led to a quarrel which terminated in Arnold being relieved of command. He remained with the army, however, at the urgent request of his brother officers, and although nominally without command served brilliantly in the second battle of Saratoga (October 7, 1777), during which he was seriously wounded. For his services he was thanked by Congress, and received a new commission giving him at last his proper relative rank.
In June 1778 Washington placed him in command of Philadelphia. Here he soon came into conflict with the state authorities, jealous of any outside control. In the social life of Philadelphia, largely dominated by families of Loyalist sympathies, Arnold was the most conspicuous figure; he lived extravagantly, entertained lavishly, and in April 1779 took for his second wife, Margaret Shippen (1760—1804), the daughter of Edward Shippen (1729—1806), a moderate Loyalist, who eventually became reconciled to the new order and was in 1799-1805 chief-justice of the state. Early in February 1779 the executive council of Pennsylvania, presided over by Joseph Reed, one of his most persistent enemies, presented to Congress eight charges of misconduct against Arnold, none of which was of any great importance. Arnold at once demanded an investigation, and in March a committee of Congress made a report exonerating him; but Reed obtained a reconsideration, and in April 1779 Congress, though throwing out four charges, referred the other four to a court-martial. Despite Arnold’s demand for a speedy trial, it was December before the court was convened. It was probably during this period of vexatious delay that Arnold, always sensitive and now incited by a keen sense of injustice, entered into a secret correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton with a view to joining the British service. On the 26th of January 1780 the court, before which Arnold had ably argued his own case, rendered its verdict, practically acquitting him of all intentional wrong, but, apparently in deference to the Penn~ sylvania authorities, directing Washington to reprimand him