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for two trivial and very venial offences. Arnold, who had confidently expected absolute acquittal, was inflamed with a burning anger that even Washington’s kindly reprimand, couched almost in words of praise, could not subdue.

It was now apparently that he first conceived the plan of betraying someimportant post to the British. With this in view he sought and obtained from Washington (August 1780) command of West Point, the key to the Hudson River Valley. Arnold's offers now became more explicit, and, in order to perfect the details of the plot, Clinton’s adjutant-general, Major John Andre, met him near Stony Point on the night of the 21st of September. On the 23rd, while returning by land, André with incriminating papers was captured, and the officer to whom he was entrusted unsuspectineg sent information of his capture to Arnold, who was thus enabled to escape to the British lines. Arnold, commissioned a brigadier-general in the Bizitish army, received £6315 in compensation for his property losses, and was employed in leading an expedition into Virginia which burned Richmond, and in an attack upon New London (q.v) in September 1781. In December 1781 he removed to London and was consulted on American affairs by the king and ministry, but could obtain no further employment in the active service. Disappointed at the failure of his plans and embittered by the neglect and scorn which he met in England, he spent the years 1787-1791 at St John, New Brunswick, once more engaging in the West India trade, but in 1791 he returned to London, and after war had broken out between Great Britain and France, was active in fitting out privateets. Gradually sinking into melancholia, worn down by depression, and sufiering from a nervous disease, he died at London on the 14th of June 1801.

Arnold had three sons—Benedict, Richard and Henry—by his first wife, and four sons—Edward Shippen, James Robertson, George and William Fitch—by his second wife; five of them, and one grandson, served in the British army. Benedict (1768— 1795) was an officer of the artillery and was mortally wounded in the West Indies. Edward Shippen (1780-1813) became lieutenant of the Sixth Bengal Cavalry and later paymaster at Muttra, India. James Robertson (1781—1854) entered the corps of Royal Engineers in 1708, served in the Napoleonic wars, in Egypt and in the West Indies, and rose to the rank of lieutenantgeneral, was an aide-de-camp to William IV., and was created a knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic order and a knight of the Crescent. George (1787—1828) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Second Bengal Cavalry at the time of his death. William Fitch (1794—1828) became a captain in the Nineteenth Royal Lancers; his son, William Trail (1826-1855) served in the Crimean War as captain of the Fourth Regiment of Foot and was killed during the siege of Sevastopol.

Biat1oca1\1>1-1Y.-—Jared Sparks' L176 and Treason of Benedict Arnold (Boston, 1835), in his " Library of American Biography," is biassed and unfair. The best eneral account is Isaac Newton Arnold's Life of Benedict Arno (Chicago, 1880), which, while offering no apologies or defence of his treason, laysferhaps too great emphasis on his rovocations. Charles Burr odd'a The Real Benedict Arnold ( ew York, 1903) is a curious attem to make Arnold's wife wholly responsible for his defection. rangois dc BarbéMarbois's Complol d' Arnold el de Sir H. Clinton contre les

ts- Uni: (Paris, 1816) contains much interesting material, but is inaccurate. Two g accounts of the Canadian Ex ition are {untin H. Smith's Arnold's March from Cambrid e to be: (New 'ork, 1903), which contains a reprint of Arnol '11 journal 0 the evicdition; and John Codman’s Arnold's Expedition to uebec (. cw York, 1901). Arnold's Letter: on the Exfledllwn lo anada were printed in the Maine Historical Society's Collection: for 1831 (re 1'. 186 ). See also William Abbatt, The Crisis of the Revolution New ork. I899); The Northern Invasion of 1780 Bradford Club Series, No. 6, New York, 1866); “ The Treason of enedict Arnold" (letters of Sir Henry Clinton to Lord George Germaine) in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Bio hy, vol. xxii. (Philadelphia, 1898); and Proceedings 0 a Gener ourt Martial for the Trial of Major-General Arnold (P iladelphia. 1780; reprinted with introduction and notes, New York, 1865).

ARNOLD. SIR EDWIN (1832—1904), British poet and journalist. was born on the 1oth of June 1832, and was educated at the King’s school, Rochester: King's College. London: and University College, Oxford, where in 1851 he gained the Newdi


gate prize for a poem on Belshazzar's feast. On leaving Oxford he became a schoolmaster, and went to India as principal of the government Sanskrit College at Poona, a post which he held during the mutiny of 1857, when he was able to render services for which he was publicly thanked by Lord Elphinstone in the Bombay council. Returning to England in 1861 he worked as a journalist on the stall of the Dafly Telegraph, a newspaper with which he continued to be associated for more than forty years. It was he who, on behalf of the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph in conjunction with the New Y ark Herold, arranged for the journey of H. M. Stanley to Africa to discover the course of the Congo, and Stanley named after him a mountain to the north-east of Albert Edward Nyanza. Arnold must also be credited with the first idea of a great trunk line traversing the entire African continent, for in 1874 he first employed the phrase “ a Cape to Cairo railway ” subsequently popularized by Cecil Rhodes. It was, however, as a poet that he was best known to his contemporaries. The Light of Asia appeared in 1879 and won an immediate success, going through numerous editions both in England and America. It is an Indian epic, dealing with the life and teaching of Buddha, which are expounded with much wealth of local colour and not a little felidty of versification. The poem contains many lines of unquestionable beauty; and its immediate popularity was rather increased than diminished by the twofold criticism to which it was sub— jected. On the one hand it was held by Oriental scholars to give a false impression of Buddhist doctrine; while, on the other, the suggested analogy between Sakyamuni and Christ offended the taste of some devout Christians. The latter criticism probably suggested to Arnold the idea of attempting a second narrative poem of which the central figure should be the founder of Christianity, as the founder of Buddhism had been that of the first. But though The Light of the World (1891), in which this idea took shape, had considerable poetic merit, it lacked the novelty of theme and setting which had given the earlier poem much of its attractiveness; and it failed to repeat the success attained by The Light of Asia. Amold’s other principal volumes of poetry were Indian Song of Songs (1875), Pearls of the Faith (1883), The Song Celestial (1885), With Sodi in the Garden (1888), Poliphar’: Wife (1892) and Adzuma (1893). In his later years Arnold resided for some time in Japan, and his third wife was a Japanese lady. In Seas and Lands (1891) and Japoniza (1892) he gives an interesting study of Japanese life. He received the order of C.S.I. on the occasion of the proclamation of Queen Victoria as empress of India in 1877, and in 1888 was created K.C.I.E. He also possessed decorations conferred by the rulers of Japan, Persia, Turkey and Siam. Sir Edwin Arnold died on the 24th of ,March 1904.

ARNOLD, GOTTFRIED (1666—1714), German Protestant divine, was born at Annaberg, in Saxony, where his father was a schoolmaster. In 1682 he went to the Gymnasium at Gera, and three years later to the university of Wittenbcrg. Here he made a special study of theology and history, and afterwards, through the influence of P. J. Spener, “ the father of pietism." he became tutor in Quedlinburg. His first work, Die Erste Licbe su C hristo, to which in modern times attention was again directed by Leo Tolstoy, appeared in 1696. It went through five editions before 1728, and gained the author much reputation. In the year after its publication he was invited to Giessen as professor of church history. The life and work here, however, proved so distasteful to him that he resigned in 1698, and returned to Quedlinburg. In 1699 he began to publish his largest work. described by Tolstoy (The Kingdom of God is within ,You, chap. iii.) as “ remarkable, although little known," U nparteiisrhe Kirchen-und Ketzerhistorie. in which he has bmn thought by some to show more impartiality towards heresy than towards the Church (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 277). His next work, Gelleimniss der gottlichen'Sophia, published in 1700, seemed to indicate that he had developed a form of mysticism. Soon afterwards, however, his acceptance of a pastorate marked a change, and he produced a number of noteworthy works 011 practical theology. He was also known as the autho'

of sacred poems. Gottfried Arnold has rightly been classed with the pietistic section of Protestant historians (Bibliolheca Sacra, 1850).

See Calwer-Zeller, T heologs'sches Handwbrterbuch, and the account

((ifah‘in; in Albert Knapp's new edition of Die ersle Lieba su Christa r 5 .

ARNOLD, lA’l‘l‘HEW (1822—1888), English poet, literary critic and inspector of schools, was born at Laleham, near Staines, on the 24th of December 1822. When it is said that he was the son of the famous Dr Arnold of Rugby, and that Winchester, Rugby and Balliol College, Oxford, contributed their best towards his education, it seems superfluous to add that, in estimating Matthew Arnold and his work, training no less than original endowment has to be considered. A full academic training has its disadvantages as well as its gains. In the individual no less than in the species the history of man’s development is the history of the struggle between the impulse to express original personal force and the impulse to make that force bow to the authority of custom. . Where in any individual

'the first of these impulses is stronger than usual, a complete academic training is a gain; but where the second of these impulses is the dominant one, the effect of the academic habit upon the mind at its most sensitive and most plastic period is apt to be crippling. In regard to Matthew Arnold, it would be a bold critic of his life and his writings who should attempt to say what his work would have been if his training had been different. In his judgments on Goethe, Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley and Hugo, it may be seen how strong was his impulse to bow to authority. On the other hand, in Arnold’s ingenious reasoning away the conception of Providence to “ a stream of tendency not ourselves which makes for righteousness,” we see how strong was his natural impulse for taking original views. The fact that the very air Arnold breathed during the whole of the impressionable period of his life was academic is therefore a very important fact to bear in mind.

In one of his own most charming critical essays he contrasts the poetry of Homer, which consists of “ natural thoughts in natural words,” with the poetry of Tennyson, which consists of “ distilled thoughts in distilled words.” “ Distilled " is one of the happiest words to be found in poetical criticism, and may be used with equal aptitude in the criticism of life. To most people the waters of life come with all their natural qualities~sweet or bitter— undistilled. Only the ordinary conditions of civilization, common to all, flavoured the waters of life to Shakespeare, to Cervantes, to Burns, to Scott, to Dumas, and those other great creators whose minds were mirrors—broad and clear—for reflecting the rich drama of life around them. To Arnold the waters of life came distilled so carefully that the wonder is that he had any originality left. A member of the upper stratum of that “ middle class” which he despised, or pretended to despiwthe eldest son of one of the most accomplished as well as one of the most noble-tempered men of his time—Arnold from the moment of his birth drank the finest distilled waters that can be drunk even in these days. Perhaps, on the whole, the surprising thing is how little he suffered thereby. Indeed those who had formed an idea of Arnold’s personality from their knowledge of his “ culture,” and especially those who had been delighted by the fastidious and feminine delicacy of his prose style, used to be quite bewildered when for the first time they met him at a dinner-table or in a friend’s smoking-room. His prose was so self-conscious that what people expected to find in the writer was the Arnold as he was conceived by certain “ young lions " of journalism whom he satirized—a somewhat overcultured petil-mailre—almost, indeed, a coxcomb of letters. On the other hand, those who had been captured by his poetry expected to find a man whose sensitive organism responded nervously to every uttered word as an aeolian harp answers to the faintest breeze. What they found was a broad-shouldered, manly—almost burly—Englishman with a fine countenance, bronzed by the open air of England, wrinkled apparently by the sun, wind-worn as an English skipper’s, open and frank as a fox-hunting squire’s—and yet a countenance whose finely


chiselled features were as high-bred and as commanding as Wellington's or Sir Charles Napier‘s. The voice they heard was deep-toned, fearless, rich and frank, and yet modulated to express every nuance of thought, every movement of emotion and humour. In his prose essays the humour he showed was of a somewhat thin-lipped kind; in his more important poems he showed none at all. It was here, in this matter of humour, that Arnold's writings were specially misleading as to the personality of the man. Judged from his poems, it was not with a poet like the writer of “ The Northern Farmer,” or a poet like the writer of“ Ned Bratts," that any student of poetry would have dreamed of classing him. Such a student would actually have been more likely to class him with two of his contemporaries between whom and himself there were but few points in common, the “ humourless ” William Morris and the “ humourless " Rossetti. For. singularly enough, between him and them there was this one point of resemblance: while all three were richly endowed with humour, while all three were the very lights of the sets in which they moved, the moment they took pen in hand to write poetry they became sad. It would almost seem as if, like Rossetti, Arnold actually held that poetry was not the proper medium for humour. No wonder, then, if the absence of humour in his poetry did much to mislead the student of his work as to the real character of the man.

After a year at Winchester, Matthew Arnold entered Rugby school in 1837. He early began to write and print verses. His first publication was a Rugby prize poem, Alars'c at Rome, in 1840. This was followed in 1843, after he had gone up to Oxford in 1840 as a scholar of Balliol, by his poem Cromwell, which won the Newdigate prize. In 1844 he graduated with second-class honours, and in 184 5 was elected a fellow of Oriel College, where among his colleagues was A. H. Clough, his friendship with whom is commemorated in that exquisite elegy T hyrsr's. From 1847 to 1851 he acted as private secretary to Lord Lansdowne; and in the latter year, after acting for a short time as assistantmaster at Rugby, he was appointed to an inspectorship of schools, a post which be retained until two years before his death. He married, in June 1851, the daughter of Mr Justice Wightman. Meanwhile, in 1849, appeared The Strayrd Reveller, and olher Poems, by A, a volume which gained a considerable esoteric reputation. In 1852 he published another volume under the same initial, Empadocles on Elna, and other Poems. Empedades is as undramatic a poem perhaps as was ever written in dramatic form, but studded with lyrical beauties of a very high order. In 1853 Arnold published a volume of Poems under his own name. This consisted partially of poems selected from the two previous volumes. A second series of poems, which contained, howeVer, only two new ones, was published in r855. 50 great was the impression made .by these in academic circles, that in 1857 Arnold was elected professor of poetry at Oxford, and he held thechair for ten years. In 18 58 he published his classical tragedy, Merope. Nine years afterwards his New Poems (1867) Were published. While he held the Oxford professorship he published several series of lectures, which gave him a high place as a scholar and critic. The essays1 0n Translating Homer: Three Lectures given at Oxford, published in 1861, supplemented in 1862 by On Translating H omcr: Last Words, a fourth lecture given in reply to F. W. Newman’s Homeric Translation in Theory and Practice (1861), and On the Study of Celtic Literature, published in 1867, were full of subtle and brilliant if not of profound criticism. So were the two series of Essays in Criticism, the first of which, consisting of articles reprinted from various reviews, appeared in 1865. The essay on “ A Persian Passion Play " was added in the editions of 187 5; and a second series, edited by Lord Coleridge, appeared in 1888.

Arnold’s poetic activity almost ceased after he left the chair of poetry at Oxford. He was several times sent by government to make inquiries into the state of education in France, Germany. Holland and other countries; and his reports, with their thorough-going and searching criticism of continental methods, R1 These essays were edited in 1905 with an introduction by W. H. D.


as contrasted with English methods, showed how conscientiously he had devoted some of his best energies to the work. His fame as a poet and a literary critic has somewhat overshadowed the fact that he was during thirty-five years of his life—from :85: to r886-—employed in the Education Department as one of H.M. inspectors of schools, while his literary work was achieved in such intervals of leisure as could be spared from the public service. At the time of his appointment the government, by arrangement with the religious bodies, entrusted the inspection of schools connected with the Church of England to dergymen, and agreed also to send Roman Catholic inspectors to schools managed by members of that communion. Other schools— those of the British and Foreign Society, the Wesleyans, and undenominational schools generally—were inspected by laymen, of whom Arnold was one. There were only three or four of these officers at first, and their districts were necessarily large. It is to the experience gained in intercourse with Nonconformist school managers that we may attribute the curiously intimate knowledge of religious sects which furnished the material for some of his keen though good-humoured sarcasms. The Edu-' cation Act of 1870, which simplified the administrative system, abolished denominational inspection, and thus greatly reduced the area assigned to a single inspector. Arnold took charge of the district of Westminster, and remained in that office until his resignation, taking also an occasional share in the inspection of training colleges for teachers, and in conferences at the central office. His letters, parsim, show that some of the routine which devolved upon him was distasteful, and that he was glad to entrust to a skilled assistant much of the duty of individual examination and the making up of schedules and returns. But the influence he exerted 'on schools, on the department, and on the primary education of the whole country, was indirectly far greater than is generally supposed. His annual reports, of which more than twenty were collected into a volume by his friend and official chief, Sir Francis (afterwards Lord) Sandford, attracted, by reason of their freshness of style and thought, much more of public attention than is usually accorded to bluebook literature; and his high aims, and his sympathetic appreciation of the efiorts and difficulties of the teachers, had a remarkable efiect in raising the tone of elementary education, and in indicating the way to improvement. In particular, he insisted on the formative elements of school education, on literature and the “ humanities,” as distinguished from the collection of scraps of information and “ useful knowledge "; and he sought to impress all the young teachers with the necessity of broader mental cultivation than was absolutely required to obtain the government certificate. In his reports also he dwelt often and forcibly on the place which the study of the Bible, not the distinctive formularies of the churches, ought to hold in English schools. He urged that besides the religious and moral purposes of Scriptural teaching, it had a literaryvalue of its own, and was the best instrument in the hands even of the elementary teacher for uplifting the soul and refining and enlarging the thoughts of young children.

On three occasions Arnold was aired to assist the government by making special inquiries into the state of education in foreign countries. These duties were especially welcome to him, serving as they did as a relief from the monotony of school inspection at home, and as opportunities for taking a wider survey of the whole subject of education, and for expressing his views on principles and national aims as well as administrative details. in r8 59, as foreign assistant commissioner, he prepared for the duke of Newcastle’s commission to inquire into the subject of elementary education a report (printed r860) which was afterwards reprinted (186r) in a volume entitled The Popular Education of France, with Notices of that of Holland and Switzerland. in 1865 he was again employed as assistant-commissioner by the Schools Inquiry Commission under Lord Taunton; and his report on this subject, On Secondary Education in Foreign Countries (l866), was subsequently reprinted under the title Schools and Unimsitie: on the Continent (r868). Twenty years later he was sent by the Education Department to make special


inquiries on certain specified points, cg. free education, the status' and training of teachers, and compulsory attendance at schools. The result of this investigation appeared as a parliamentary paper, Special Report on certain point: conneded roith Elementary Education in Germany, Switzerland and France, in r886. He also contributed the chapter on “ Schools " (r837— 1887) to the second volume of Mr Humphry Ward's Reign of Queen Victoria. Part of his official writings may be studied in Report: for Elementary Schools (r852—r882), edited by Sir F. Sandford in 1889.

All these reports form substantial contributions to the history and literature of education in the Victorian age. They have been quoted often, and have exercised marked influence on subsequent changes and controversies. One great purpose underlies them all. It is to bring home to the English people a conviction that education ought to be a national concern, that it should not be left entirely to local, or private, or irresponsible initiative, that the watchful jealousy so long shown by Liberals, and especially by Nonconformists, in regard to state action was a. grave practical mistake, and that in an enlightened democracy, animated by a progressive spirit and noble and generous ideals, it was the part of wisdom to invoke the collective power of the state to give effect to those ideals. To this theme he constantly recurred in his essays, articles and official reports. “ Porro unum est necessariurn. One thing is needful; organize your secondary education."

In 1883 a pension of {250 was conferred on Arnold in recognition of his literary merits. In the same year he went to the United States on a lecturing tour, and again in 1886, his subjects

being “ Emerson ” and the “ Principles and Value of Numbers."

The success of these lectures, though they were admirable in matter and form, was marred by the lecturer's lack of experience in delivery. It is sufficient, further, to say that Culture and Anarchy: an Essay in Political and Social Criticism, appeared in 1869; St Paul and Protestantism, with an Introduction on Puritanism and the Church of England (1870); Friendship’s Garland: being the Conversations, Letter: and Opinions of the late Arminius Baron von Thunder-ten-Tronckh (r87r); Literature and Dogma: an Essay towards a Better Apprehension of the Bible (r873); God and the Bible: 0 Review of Objection: to Literature and Dogma (1875); Last Essays on Church and Religion (1877); Mixrd Essay: (1879); Irish Essays and Other: (1882); Discourses in America (1885). Such essays as the first of these, embodying as they did Arnold’s views of theological and polemical subjects, attracted much attention at the time of their publication, owing to the state of the intellectual atmosphere at the moment; but it is doubtful, perhaps, whether they will be greatly considered in the near future. Many severe things have been said, and will be said, concerning the inadequacy of poets like Coleridge and Wordsworth when confronting subjects of a theological or philosophical kind. Wordsworth’s High Church Pantheism and Coleridge’s disquisitions on the Logos seem farther removed from the speculations of to-day than do the dreams of Lucretius. But these two great writers lived before the days of modern science. Arnold, living only a few years later, came at a transition period when the winds of tyrannous knowledge had blown off the protecting roof that had covered the centuries before, but when time and much labour were needed to build another roof of new materials —a period when it was impossible for the poet to enjoy either the quietism of High Church Pantheism in which Wordsworth had basked, or the sheltering protection of German metaphysics under which Coleridge had preached—a period, nevertheless, when the wonderful revelations of science were still too raw, too cold and hard, to satisfy the yearnings of the poetic soul. Objectionable as Arnold‘s rationalizing criticism was to contemporary orthodoxy, and questionable as was his equipment in point of theological learning, his spirituality of outlook and ethical purpose were not to be denied. Yet it is not Arnold’s views that have become current coin so much as his literary phrases —his craving for " culture " and “ sweetness and light," his con~ tempt for “ the dissidence of Dissent and the Protestantism

of the Protestant religion," his “ stream of tendency not ourselves making for righteousness,” his classification of “ Philistines and barbarians "——-andso forth. His death at Liverpool, of heart failureon the 15th of April 1888,wassudden and quite unexpected.

Arnold was a prominent figurein that greatgalaxyof Victorian poets who were working simultaneously—Tennyson, Browning, Rossetti, William Morris and Swinburne ——poets between whom there was at least this connecting link, that the quest of all of them was the old-fashioned poetical quest of the beautiful. Beauty was their watchword, as it had been the watchword of their immediate predecessors—Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Shelley and Byron. That this group of early 19th-century poets might be divided into two—those whose primary quest was physical beauty, and those whose primary quest was moral beauty—is no doubt true. Still, in so far as beauty was their quest they were all akin. And so with the Victorian group to which Arnold belonged. As to the position which he takes among them opinions must necessarily vary. On the whole, his place in the group will be below all the others. The question as to whether he was primarily a poet or a prosaleur has been often asked. If we were to try to answer that question here, we should have to examine his poetry in detail—we should have to inquire whether his primary impulse of expression was to seize upon the innate suggestive power of words, or whether his primary impulse was to rely upon the logical power of the sentence. In nobility of temper, in clearness of statement, and especially in descriptive power, he is beyond praise. But intellect, judgment, culture and study of great poets may do much towards enabling a prose-writer to write what must needs be called good poetry. What they cannot enable him to do is to produce those magical efi'ects which poets of the rarer kind can achieve by seizing that mysterious, suggestive power of words which is far beyond all mere statement. Notwithstanding the exquisite work that Arnold has left behind him, some critics have come to the conclusion that his primary impulse in expression was that of the poetically-minded pros-clear rather than that of the born poet. And this has been said by some who nevertheless deeply admire poems like “The Scholar Gypsy,” “Thyrsis,” “ The Forsaken Merman, ” “ Dover Beach," “ Heine’s Grave,” “ Rugby Chapel,” “ The Grande Chartreuse," “ Sohrab and Rustum,” “ The Sick King in Bokhara,” “ Tristram and Iseult," &c. It would seem that a man may show all the endowments of a poet save one, and that one the most essential—the instinctive mastery over metrical effects.

In all literary expression there are two kinds of emphasis, the emphasis of sound and the emphasis of sense. Indeed the difference betWecn those who have and. those who have not the true rhythmic instinct is that, while the former have the innate faculty of» making the emphasis of sound and the emphasis of sense meet and strengthen each other, the latter are without that faculty. But so imperfect is the human mind that it can rarely apprehend or grasp simultaneously these two kinds of emphasis. While to the born prorateur the emphasis of sense comes first, and refuses to be more than partially conditioned by the emphasis of sound, to the born poet the emphasis of sound comes first, and sometimes will, even as in the case of Shelley, revolt against the tyranny of the emphasis of sense. Perhaps the very origin of the old quantitative metres was the desire to make these two kinds of emphasis meet in the same syllable. In manipulating their quantitative metrical system the Greeks had facilities for bringing one kind of emphasis into harmony with the other such as are unknOWn to writers in accentuated metres. This accounts for the measureless superiority of Greek poetry in verbal melody as well as in general harmonic scheme to all the poetry of the modern world. In writers so diverse in many ways as Homer, Eschylus, Sophocles, Pindar, Sappho, the harmony between the emphasis of sound and the emphasis of sense is so complete that each of these kinds of emphasis seems always begetting, yet always born of the other. When in Europe the quantitative measures were superseded by the accentuated measures a reminiscence was naturally and inevitably left behind of the old system; and the result has been, in the English language at


least. that no really great line can be written in which the emphasis of accent, the emphasis of quantity and the emphasis of sense do not meet on the same syllable. Whenever this junction does not take place the weaker line, or lines, are always introduced, not for makuhift purposes, but for variety, as in the finest lines of Milton and Wordsworth. Wordsworth no doubt seems to have had a theory that the accent of certain words, such as “ without," “within,” &c., could be disturbed in an iambic line; but in his best work he does not act upon his theory, and endeavours most successftu to make the emphasis of accent, of quantity and of sense meet. It might not be well for a poem to contain an entire sequence of such perfect lines as

“ I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous boy,” or ‘ “ Thy soul was like a star'and dwelt apart,"

for then the metricist’s art would declare itself too loudly and weaken the imaginative strength of the picture. But such lines should no doubt form the basis of the poem, and weaker lines— lines in which there is no such combination of the three kinds of emphasis—should be sparingly used, and never used for makeshift purposes. Now, neither by instinct nor by critical study was Arnold ever able to apprehend this law of prosody. If he does write a line of the first order, metrically speaking, he seems to do so by accident. Such weak lines as these are constantly occurring— “ The poet, to whose mighty heart

Heaven doth a quicker pulse impart,

Subdues that energy to scan

. Not his own course, but that of man.”

Much has been said about what is called the “ Greek temper ” of Matthew Arnold’s muse. A geod deal depends upon what it meant by the Hellenic spirit. But if the Greek temper expresses itself, as is generally supposed, in the sweet acceptance and melodious utterance of the beauty of the world as it is, accepting that beauty without inquiring as to what it means and as to whither it goes, it is difficult to see where in Arnold's poetry this temper declares itself. Surely it is not in Empedacles on Etna, and surely it is not in M erope. If there is a poem of his in which one would expect to find the joyous acceptance of life apart from questionings about the civilization'in which the poet finds himself environed (its hopes, its fears, its aspirations and its, failures)—~such questionings, in short, as were for ever vexing Amold’s soul—it would be in “The Scholar Gypsy,” a poem in which the poet ‘tries to throw himself into the mood of a “ Romany Rye.“ The great attractiontof the gypsies to ' Englishmen of a certain temperament is that they alone seem to feel the joyous acceptance of life which is supposed to bespecially Greek. Hence it would have been but reasonable to look, if anywhere, for the expression of Arnold’s Greek temper in a poem which sets out to describe the feelings of the student‘who, according to Glanville’s story, left Oxford to wander over England with the Romanies. But instead of this we got the old fretting about the unsatisfactoriness of modern civilization. Glanville’s Oxford student, whose story is glanced at now and again in the poem, flits about in the scenery like a cloudshadow on the grass; but the way in which Arnold contrives to avoid giving us the faintest idea either dramatic or pictorial of the student about whom he talks so much, and the gypsies with whom the student lived, is one of the most singular feats in poetry. The reflections which come to a young Oxonian lying on the grass and longing to escape life’s fitful fever without shuffling off this mortal coil, are, no doubt, beautiful reflections beautifully expressed, but the temper they show is the very opposite of the Greek. To say this is not in the least to disparage Arnold. “ A man is more like the age in which he lives," 'says the Chinese aphorism, “ than he is like his own father and mother.” and Arnold’s polemical writings alone are suflicient to show that the waters of life he drank were from fountains distilled, seven times distilled, at the topmost slope of roth-century civilization. Mr George Meredith’s “ Old Chartist” exhibits far more of the temper'of acceptance than does any poem by Matthew Arnold.

His most famous critical dictum is that poetry is a “ criticism

of life." What he seems to have meant is that poetry is the crowning fruit of a criticism of life; that just as the poet’s metrical effects are and must be the result of a thousand semiconscious generalizations upon the laws of cause and efiect in metric art, so the beautiful things he says aboutlife andthe beautiful pictures he paints of life are the result of his generalizations upon life as he passes through it, and consequently that the value of his poetry consists in the beauty and the truth of his generalizations. But this is saying no more than is said in the line—

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To suppose that Arnold confounded the poet with the writer of penrées would be absurd. Yet having decided that poetry consists of generalizations on human life, in reading poetry he kept on the watch for those generalizations, and at last seemed to think that the less and not the more they are hidden behind the dramatic action, and the more unmistakably they are intruded as generalizations, the better. For instance, in one of his essays he quotes those lines from the “ Chanson de Roland ” of Turoldus, where Roland, mortally wounded, lays himself down under a pine-tree with his face turned towards Spain and the enemy, and begins to “ call many things to remembrance; all the lands which his valour conquered, and pleasant France, and the men of his lineage, and Charlemagne, his liege lord, who nourished him "—

“ De plusurs choses a remembrer Ii prist.
De tantes teres cume li bers cunquist,
De dulce France. des humes de sun ligu,
De Carlemagne sun seignor ki l'nurrit."

“ That," says Arnold, “ is primitive work, I repeat, with an undeniable poetic quality of its own. It deserves such praise, and such praise is sufficient for it." Then he contrasts it with a famous passage in Homer—that same passage which is quoted in the article POETRY, for the very opposite purpose to that of Arnold‘s, quoted indeed to show how the epic poet, leaving the dramatic action to act as chorus, weakens the barb-m of the picture—the passage in the Iliad (iii. 243444) where the poet, after Helen’s pathetic mention of her brother’s comments on the causes of their absence, “criticizes life " and generalizes upon the impotence of human intelligence, the impotence even of human love, to pierce the darkness in which the web of human fate is woven. He appends Dr Hawtrey’s translation:—

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There, in their own ear land. their fatherland, Lacedaemon.

“ We are here," says Arnold, “in another world, another order of poetry altogether; here is rightly due such supreme praise as that which M. Vitel gives to the Chanson do Roland. If our words are to have any meaning, if our judgments are to have any solidity, we must not heap that supreme praise upon poetry of an order immeasurably inferior.” He does not see that the two passages cannot properly be compared at all. In the one case the poet gives us a dramatic picture; in the other, a comment on a dramatic picture.

Perhaps, indeed, the place Arnold held and still holds as a critic is due more to his exquisite felicity in expressing his views than to the penetration of his criticism. Nothing can exceed the easy grace of his prose at the best. It is conversational and yet absolutely exact in the structure of the sentences; and in spite of every vagary. his distinguishing note is urbanity. Keenedged as his satire could be, his writing for the most part is as urbane as Addison's own. His influencs on contemporary criticism and contemporary ideals was considerable, and generally wholesome. His insistence on the necessity of looking at “ the thing in itself," and the need for acquainting oneself with " the best that has been thought and said in the world," gave a new stimulus alike to originality and industry in criticism; and in his own selection of subjects—such as Joubert. or the dc Guérinrwrhe opened a new world to a larger class of the better


sort of readers, exercising in this respect an awakening influence in his own time akin to that of Walter Pater a few years afterwards. The comparison with Pater might indeed be pressed further, and yet too far. Both were essentially products of Oxford. But Arnold, whose description of that “ home of lost causes, and forsaken beliefs, and unpopular names, and impossible loyalties,” is in itself almost a poem, had a classical austerity in his style that savoured more intimately of Oxford tradition, and an ethical earnestness even in his most flippant moments which kept him notably aloof from the more sensuous school of aesthetics.

The first collected edition of Arnold’s poems was published in r869 in two volumes, the first consisting of Narrative and Elegiaz Poems, and the second of Dramatic and Lyric Poems. Other editions ap red in 1877, 1881; a library edition (I: vols., 1885); a onevo ume re rim of the poems printed in the li rary edition with one or two a ditions (1890). Publications by Matthew Arnold not mentioned in the foregoin article include: England and the Italian

uslian (183?), 3 pam let; A French Eton; or, hliddle Class

ucation a the State £1864); Higher School: and Universities in Germany_(1874), a partia reprint from School: and Universities on the Continent (1868); A Bible Reading for Schools; The Great Prophecy 0 Israel“: Restoration, an arrangement of Isaiah, chs. xl.-lxvi. (1 72), republished with additions and varying titles in 1875 and [883; an edition of the Six Chief Lives from Johnson's Lives of the Poet: (1878); editions of the Poem: o Wordsworth (1870!. and the Poetry of Byron (1881), for the Golden reasury Series, with prefatory essa s reprinted in the second series of Essays in Criticism: an edition of lters, Speeches and Tracts on Irish Afl'airs by Edmund Burke (1881); and many contributions to periodical iterature. The Letters 0 MatthewArnold(1848—1888)were collected and arranfid

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1 2. A com lete and uni Agihold (Ii/V0 5., 1904-1905) includes the letters as edited by Mr ol. iii. contains a com lete bibliography of his works. may of the early editions of whic are ve valuable, by Mr T. B. Smart, who published a separate bibliogra y in 1892. A valuable note on the rather complicated subject oprrnold's bibli phy is iven by Mr H. Buxton Forman in Arnold's Poems, arrative.

giac and Lyric (Temple Classics, 1900).

It was Arnold's expressed desire that his bi raph should not be written. and before his letters were publis ed t ey underwent considerable editing at the hands of his family. There are, however, monographs on Matthew Arnold (18%) in Modern English Writers b Prof. Saintsbury, and by Mr H. . Paul (1902), in the English I\ en of Letters Series. These two works are su plemented by Mr G. W. E. Russell, who, as the editor of Arnold's etters, is inasense the official biographer, in Matthew Arnold (Mgr! , Literary Lives Series). There are also studies of Arnold in r . M. Robertson's Modern Humanist: (1 1),and in W.H.Hudson’s tudiesin Interpretation (1896), in Sir]. . Fitch's Thomas and Matthew Arnold (1897). and a review of some of the works above mentioned in the rterly for january 1905 by T. H. Warren. (T. W.-D.; ]. . Fl)

ARNOLD. SAMUEL (1740—1802), English composer, was born at London on the 10th of August 1740. He received a thorough musical education at the Chapel Royal, and when little more than twenty years of age was appointed composer at C ovent Garden theatre. Here, in 1765, he produced his popular opera. The Maid of the Mill, many of the songs in which were selected from the works of Italian composers. In 1776 he transferred his services to the Haymarket theatre. In 1783 he was made composer to George III. Between 1765 and 1802 he wrote as many as forty-three operas, after-pieces and pantomimes, of which the best were The Maid of the Mill, Rosamond, Inklo and Y arico, The Battle of H exham, The Mountaineers. His oratorios included The Cure of Soul (1767), Abirnelech (1768), The Resurrection (1773), The Prodigal Son (1777) and Elisha (1795). In 1783 he became organist to the Chapel Royal. In 1 786 he began an edition of Handel’s works, which extended to 40 volumes. but was never completed. Inr7qg he became organist of Westminster Abbey, where he was buried after his death on the 22nd of October 1802. Arnold is chiefly remembered now for the publication of his Cathedral M usir, being a collection in store of the most valuable and useful compositions for that smico by tlu several English masters of the last 200 your: (1790).

ARNOLD, THOIAS (1795-1842), English clergyman and headmaster of Rugby school, was born at West Cowes, in the Isle of Wight. on the 13th of June 1705. He was the son of William and Martha Arnold, the former of whom occupied thc

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