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former of these two points he entered at large, that such a man was as capable of shining in and explained the nature of sovereign juris- the higher ranks of the service as any of those diction acquired by conquest, which he con who had been promoted on the late occasion ? tended was generally circumscribed by the If the Admiralty should be suffered to perfitt nature of the British constitution, rather than in such an arbitrary selection of officers for a by that of any other country ; but it was still Aag, the naval service would be essentially inmore circumscribed by the nature of the te- jured; for it would appear, that merit was nure by which we hold our poffeffions in not considered as the road to preferment, India, but more particularly Calcula, which, but tha: interest had the principal weight in by a regular chain of historical facts, he the scale. proved to be derived solely from gist or pur Sir John Miller paid fome compliments to chase.

the noble Lord at the head of the Admiralty, Sir Gilbert was many hours on his legs, who, be frid, was, in his opinion, one of and at half past ten o'clock he expressed a the bravest and most honest men in the service. wish, that as he was then much exhausted, But he could not help thinking; that his Lord. the further confideration of the charge might ship had Mewn a great want of judgment in be adjourned to Wednesday fe’nnight. The the late promotions. He did not know any Committee concurred in the with, and the one seaman, excepe a few members of the House being resumed, adjourned immedi. House, who did not condemn the Admiralty ately.

for the selection they had made. He took a APRIL 29.

review of the arguments uled by the MiMr. Bastard rose, to make another at. nister in the last debate on this subject, and tempi in favour of the superseded naval of endeavoured to refute them. With regard to ficers. No sufficient answer had been given the interference of the legislative with the on any former occasion to the arguments and executive power, he thought the former Statements adopted by those who had done him ought to interpose not only where they could the honour of supporting his side of the ques. make out fome ground of censure, but where tion. No reasons had been afsigned for the they had reason to apprehend future mischief. supersedure of so many brave and meritorious He concluded with expressing his assent to the officers, who were equally fit for service motion. with the Captains that had been promoted to Mr. Grenville spoke in opposition to the the Aug. The arts and caprice of the Ad motion, He thought it highly improper miralty Board had been exhibited in a glaring that this House should convey a ceníure by

One and the same year had been implication, on any branch of the executive alledged to be a year of war, for the sake of power, without having ample grounds made promoting some Captains, and a year of peace, out to justify that censure. A motion of this for the purpose of passing by others. Some kind ought to follow, not precede, an enhad been set aside as having civil offices, quiry into the conduct of the parties comwhile others, who were in pofleflion of civil plained of. He said it appeared to him to employments, were raised to the fag. One be derogatory to the dignity of the House, to Captain had been passed by, merely because give fanction to such a practice. He expressed he had been engaged in the impress service. his high opinion of the merit and integrity of These, and other instances of the arbitrary the First Lord of the Admiralty, who, he conduct of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was convinced, had justifiable reasons for his were sufficient grounds for the motion he conduct in the selection which he had lately would now make, which was, " That it is made. He concluded with moving the prethe opinion of this House, that the Board of vious question. Admiralty in the late naval promotions, have Lord Aplley vindicated the Board of Ad. patred by many officers of great merit and miralty for the selection they had made. In approved services, who were not excluded every promotion to the flag, he said, some from the fag by the orders of Council." Captaias had been palied by ; for it could not

Sir William Molesworth rose to second the be supposed that the senior Captains were als motiin. He agreed with his Hun. Friend ways the most capable of serving, or most in his opinion of the capricious and unjust calculated for the command o a squadron. conduct of the Commissioners of the Admi. Mr. Edwards warmly supported the mo. ralty, in pafling by officers of acknowledged tion of the Hon. Gentleman. merit and relpectability. He particularly Mr. Martin gave his cordial afsent to the instanced the case of Capt. Balfour, who had motion. performed one of the most brilliant services Admiral Alexander Hood professed his that could be namedhe alluded to the cut dilike to the motion. He applauded the ting fome French ships out of the barbour of Hon. Gentleman who had brought it forward, Louisburgh. Was it not natural to suppose, for his good intentions, and zealous endea

vours

manner,

Mar 1.

merit,

vours to serve the gentlemen of the navy. Mr. Bast:ri's motiou was therefore reBut he begged leave to observe, that, in bis jected. Adjourned. opinion, the mode he had adopted, of calling

APRIL 30. forth the interference of the House, would Several estimates from the Exchequer ra'her injure than benefit the caule he were presented, and ordered to lie on the was engaged in. This House was not a pro table; among which was the estimate of the per place for discuiting the comparative pro- expences attending the trial of Warren fesional merits of officers, or whether one Hastings, Eiq. and which amounted to was better qualified for a higher command 80581. 155. 141. than another. The executive Ministers were The House, according to order, resumed the persons who were to judge of those me the proceedings on the wool bill, which rits; and they were responsible for any im had fallen to the ground by the failure of a proper selection.-But it did not appear to sufficient number of Members to conftihim, that this discretionary power had been tute a House on Thursday laft, and Mr. Parcapriciously or wantonly exercised in the late tridge again resumed his pleadings in favour promotions of Aug-officers. The right of of the bill; after which Mr. Anfiey, selecting those who were deemed the most Chairman of the Wool Committee, was worthy of promotion, without a bliou regard called to the bar, and examined. Ad. to seniority, had been found highly beneficial journed to to the service,

Mr. Loveden concurred in the motion. The order of the day being read for the

Cape. W bh was not willing to give credit commitment of the wool bill, and the Spea. to the judgment or disinterested views of the ker having put the question for that purpose, Admiralty Board. He thought they had acted Sir Jubn Thorold role, and detailed his partially, and was therefore rez:dy to give his objections to the bill. li was, he said, unaffent to ihe motion.

nec llary, vexatious, and oppreffive. The Sir Peter Parker did not altogether approve laws now existing against the exportation of th: paling hy so many officers of ondoubted wow, had not been proved to be ineffica

cious or nuratory; and ihis ought to have Mr. Courtenay, in a humourous speech, been previouilly thewn by those who had surported the mocion. He afiigned leveral introduced the bill now peoding. It did Judicrous rralons as pretences for justifying not appear to him to be fufiiciently clear, the Firtt Lord of the Allmiralty. lo not re that the quantity of wool exported was so garding the tharks of this House to officers great as the framers of the bill supposed it who had deferred well of their country, the to he; and amidlt lo large an aniount of noble Lord means, he faid, to convey 3 Cell wool as chris Kingdom produced, the quanfure on the interference of the House in that tiry exported was, even from the highest refpect, by infinuating that they were not Matement, proportionahly inconsiderable. priper judges of merit, and that it was out of The bill was rigorous in its provisions for the their line to print out ment in the naval or discovery and punishinent of those who military serv ce. In pating by a Copain be might be charged with exporting this comCille he had been employed in the impress modity; and it would give great encourageservice, which was univerta'ly allowed to be ment to informers, by throwicg the onus illegal and unconftitutional, he suficiently probandi on the accused persons, who were Thewed his regard for the conflitution, and alio by this bill, to be seized without any his unwillingness to encourage any thing that warrant or authority from a magistrate. He was derogatory to is genuine maxims. In concluded bis objections with moving, as superseding m.ny Captains who lund perform an amendment, that the further consideraed the most meritorious fervices to their tion of this bill be deferred for three months, country, he adopted the opinion of the phi The Hon. Mr. Hub.rt proefled himself losophers of antiquicy, that virtue is its own a fria. I to the hill, which he thought, was

word. He thought those officers would be justified by the magnitude of the evil com, content with the consciousness of having done planed of. their day, and roughil no other reward. Mr. Harrison strongly opposed the bill.

Sir James Jountione, Mr. Henniker, It appeared to him to be 3 mass of unconftitu. C.pi. Machride, Sir Edmund Affleck, and tioval assertions, and pregnant with absurdity, Mr. Duke, jun, spoke in su, port of the Sir Josephi Mawhey approved the prinII rion.

ciple of the bill, thongh le objected to some This House now prrceeded to a divificr., of the clauies. He hoped the House would when the numbers were

nut oppose the commitment of it. For the previous queflion

Sir Rob, Clayton was unfriendly to the bill. Against it

169

Mr. Rolle spoke in favour of the hill,

and denied that it would injure the landca Majority 51

interest.

220

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The Chancellor of the Exchequer spoke The flourishing condition of the revenue in favour of the bill. He conceived, that was not to be ascribed to any temporary the interests of she land-holder and manu chuse, but to an increasing commerce and facturer were the fame.

navigation. Our Newfoundland 6shery had The question being put on Sir J. Tho produced last year 200,000 quintals of fish, rold's amendment, the House divided, when more than had ever been before produced in there appeared, Ayes 47.-Noes 112. any one year. The Greenland fishery bad Majority 65.

thriven beyond the most fanguine expectaThe original question for the commit tion. The year before the latt, the vefTeis ment of the bill was then put, and carried employed in it amounted in number to 140, without a divifion.

and the men and boys on board of them Berween ten and eleven, the House ad. aniounted to 6400; at that time the bounty journed.

paid by the public was 405. a tou for MAY 2.

e.ery vefsel engaged in that fithery; but as The House voted the sum of one thou it was thought to be sufficiently established, sand pounds, as a compensation to the Com. Parliament had judged it expedient to remifiioners for managing the claims of the duce the bounty to 30°, per ton; and yet American Loyalists.

under the reduced bounty the ships in the

Greenland fishery had increased last year The House resolved itself into a Com. from 140 to 253 ; and we had employed in mittee of Ways and Means, Mr. Gil that excellent oursery for hardy seamen, bert in the chair.

10,000 men and boys. Our imports and The Chancellor of the Exchequer con exports had also increased most surprisingly; gratulated the Committee on the flourishing and far exceeded what they ever were in ftate of the finances and resources of the the most prosperous years preceding the country, which had enabled Goverument to loss of America. This flourishing Matc of defray the ordinary and extraordinary de the revenue had enabled the government mands of the State without a loan, without to meet all the extraordinary expences, and new taxes, and without diverting from its to extinguiih in le's than two years two miloriginal purpose any part of the million ap lions and a half of the national debi, without propriated to the gradual discharge of the the aid of a loan, or a single new tax. Next national debt. Since the time when the re. year it might be expected that the revenue port was made by the Committee of Ac. would be ftill more productive, for we should counts of the probable expences of the have a debt of 500,ocol. to receive from the country in future, very confiderable addi Eaft- India Company; the produce of the duty tions had been made to them, some of on tubucco would be greatly improved by rewhich must in their nature be permanent, gulations which he should be able to submic others would pass away and recur no more. to parlament next feflion; and in order to The Committee however would view the equalise the distilleries of England and Scotformer without regret, as those permanent land, he would also propose in the next sefiion additional expences would place our diftant an additional duty to be paid by the Scetch pofleflions in a state of defence far more re diftillers for their licences to diftil. spectable thin they had ever been in before. Since the war, we had actually provided The naval and military establishments cost for the payment of 33 millions sterling. the country ahove 400,000l. a year more We had added to our expenditure three milthan the Committee of Accounts had ima. lions a year; towards defraying which we gined; and yet this additioval expence, to had imposed taxes to the amount of gether with 311,000l. expended in prepa- 1,500,ocol, and the remainder had been rations for war during the last summer, and produced merely by regulations in our re180,000l. voted for the pay of bis R. H. venue, and without taxes : We had met exthe Prince of Wales's debts, had been de traordinary expences, and with the million frayed without any loan or new tax, out of surplus, had already funk 2,300,000l.of the the superabundant produce of the revenue. sublick debs. All this had been done withWhat chen might not be expected from that out Marving any of the branches of the pub. revenue when we should be able to find the lick service; on the contrary, we had extrue level of our peace establishment, when pended since the war, on the favourite ferour expenciture should be brought within the vice of the country, 7,000,00ol. in buildi. line chalked out for it by the Committee of ing and repairing Tips ; and during the Accounts, and when the revenue should be five years the peace had lafted, we had unencumbered with those temporary demanus 800 ready for sea more ships than had ever which had prefied upon the present year, been got ready in any five years after the but would recor no more, such as the ex. conclufion of a war. During the last five pence of the lare preparations for war, and years, our exertions had produced thirty 12:1 the discharge of bis R. H. the Prince's debts, of the line, and thirty five frigates. He

then

MAY 7.

then desired the Committee to turn their nesses were withdrawn, moved, “ That it eyes to the filuation of France, on whose appears to this Committee, that an improper hide the advantage had certainly been the infuence has been exerted by the Board of last war. He could speak with certain'y of Ordnance in eleétions for Queenborough." her finances from a state of them just pub Mr. Edwards said, that the noble Duke at lished under the authority of the French go the head of the Ordnance was ready to appear, vernment, and which he had received within to give an account of his conduct at their bar ; a few hours. The prospect of mighty ad- but the House were so decided on the point, vantages from the independence of Ame that they would not suffer the idea. rica had vanilhed, and the expences of At lengon the House divided, Ayes, 25; France at this moment exceeded her in. Noes, 114. Majority for the Duke of Richcome by the immense sum of 2,900,000l. mund, 89. Her income was certainly prodigious ; it was stated at 470 millions of livres, or The House resolved itself into a Commit20,000,cool, sterling a year ; but her ex tee on the first charge against Sir Elijah Impey. penditure amounted to 22,900,000l. fter Sir Gilbert Elliot resumed his speech on the ling. To provide for that deficiency, loans subject, and undertook to prove that the Enwere to be opened, and renewed every year glish laws did not extend to the oatives of In. for five years. Thus that long period muft dia ; and that the crime for wbich Nundacoelapse before France could bring her income mar had suffered death, was not capital by the to a level with her expences. He did not laws of his country. He said that Sir Elijah cake deliglic in the distresses of a neigh- knew Nunducomar was the public accuser of bour ; but he could not but feel pleasure at Mr. Hastings, and this he stated to be the che prosperity of this country, which must prisoner's capital crime in the eyes of his be the more striking, as contrasted with the Judge. After Sir Gilbert had been four hours adversity of a rival.

on his legs, he felt himself exhausted ; and He then Nated the amount of the claims after some conversation it was resolved that of American fufferers, admitted and likely the subject should be finally discussed on a futo be admitted by the Commiilioners, io be ture day. about 2,100,000l. Out of this sum about The House was then resumed and ad600,00ol. had been advanced to the claim. journed. ants on account; the remainder would be

May 8. made good without any new tax, and solely The House, in a Committee on the wool by lotteries. The bargain he had made this bill, went through the same with amendyear for the lottery was so very good for the ments, ordered she came to be printed, and Public, that it would produce a gain of the further consideration of the said report la 270,cool. from which he would deduct be received on that day se'nnight. 12,cool. for the expence of drawing, &c. and then there would be a net produce of Mr. Burgess moved that the Solicitors for 258,@col. for the Loyalilis.

the Commions be ordered to prelent to the He concluded hy moving several resolu House a regular statement of the expences tions for issuing Exchequer bills, for form- attending Mr. Hastings's trial, specifying the ing a lottery, &c.

particular purpose to which the several sums Mr. Sheridan endeavoured to prove that are appropriated ; which was agreed to. our finances were not in so fiourishing a Mr. Pitt after a few prefatory observations, state as the Minister had described them; moved that this House will, early in the next and he said that in reality our expenditure Setlion, take into consideration the petitions would be found to exceed our income by agunft the Slave trade, and deliberate on no less a sum than 800,cool. But we what may be proper to be done in that rela were like the French, putting off the evil peet. The questiou being put, the Minister's day, and not daring to look our situation in motion was carried. the face,

The House being in a Committee on the After much conversation all Mr. Pitt's articles of impeachment exhibited againit Sir resolutions were carried without a divifion, Elijah Impey, and the House adjourned.

Sir Gilbert Elliot moved the following reMAY 6.

folution, " That it is the opinion of this ComThe House went into a Committee, to con mittce, that the first charge exhibited against Sider further of the petition from Queenbo- Sir Elijah Impey, contains matter of im. rough.

peachment against the said Sir Elijah Impey." After a short preface from Mr. Alderman This brought on a debate, which lafted till Sawbridge, witnelics were called to the bar half past seven in the morning, when the moand examined.

tion was negatived by a majority of 18. Mar. Alderman Sawbridge, when the wit- Ayes, 55; Noes, 73.

MAY 9.

OBSERVATIONS MADE IN A TOUR IN SWISSERLAND,

IN MDCCLXXXVI.

By Monsieur De LAZOWSKI. I Always find in the apparent prosperi- neighbouring nations ; it is evident, that

ty of a country, something to con the laws ought to vary in respect to all firm the truth, That general pros- these circumstances : for, that which was perity follows, the circumstances be- luxury two ages past, but mediocrity ng the same, nearly the degree of liberty. at present : and is it not a thing contrary Iface is better than Lorraine, and Bailc to the spirit of a popular government to

better than Allace. is not by the have a principle of legislation, which tends number of country houses, which ought by its nature to lead to disputes, to oblige to be frequent, and which are fo, in the the legislature to weigh perpetually in a environs of a rich city, in which the in. balance, opinions alone, what may be habitants have the simple and republican prohibited or permitted, and to develope manners, by which I judge of the degree commotions, of which the popular go. of its prosperity. That fign often de vernment have always a principle. ceives in a monarchy; it proves luxury, But if the republican manners recal the and a great inequality of fortunes; but order of which the diffentions are rethe strength and the prosperity of nations moving, then manners will be the rampart can only exist in the ease of the people and against luxury; and if they are not so, the culture of their lands. It is, there. the citizens will prefer their enjoyments to fure, by other ligns that I have been able the enthusiasm of the republic, and will to examine. It is in the apparent riches make every effort for preventing the introof the farm-houses, it is in their orna. duction of new fumptuary laws. It will ients, which

prove

that the citizen is at result then, that they will have for these his ease, and ihat the farm is his re. laws, the same respect as for other laws; treat and his pleasure ; a fact which has they never alter or correct them, and been confirmed at Balle. It is the mul- then by that alone, it is clear that those titude of houses of every kind which tells laws are void. me that the number of citizens which can 2dly. They are null, because luxury exallow theinselves the pleasure of the coun.

ercises itself in cafes not foreseen. Thus, try, was great, and that the competition at Balle, if it is prohibited to wear for becoming proprietors was great; a clothes of filk, they take those in which fact, which carries with it the idea of a there is a little mixture of cotton, or mass of capitals employed.

thread, or wool. Thus coaches are beMuch has been written on Swif come common, though it is prohibited to serland : I was not there long enough to have footmen behind; they open on the multiply observations; and as I find so inside, as with the physicians at Paris ; much in books concerning it, I have the and although the population of the city Jess to minute, writing as I do only for does not exceed 13 to 15000 souls, yet myself; but as I have observed, perhaps, they reckon more than 200 coaches, and foine detached facts, which have relation are costly in the choice of their horses. to some leading enquiries, I shall limit The ladies cannot be dressed in Alk, uni myself to them.

less it be black ; but the law has foreseen At Balle, as in the other Swiss repub- nothing of the head-dresses, and nothing lics, there are fumptuary. laws, and they can be more contrary to the spirit of reare kept like other laws, exactly to the formation than the parade of their heads, letter : but they are null, because luxury which they run into as much as in France; employs itself" upon objects which the and the expence of gauzes is certainly laws have not foreseen, and could not greater in the end than that of laces. foresee. I have, therefore, been more 3dly. In thort, it is impossible to place confirmed in the opinion, which I had bounds to the enjoyments of a rich people. formed in England, that inanners were It is not luxury which corrupts, but the only effective laws against luxury; and riches. It is these which give considera. it would still remain a lublidiary question tion and distinction, and, nevertheless, to know, if luxury is not the vehicle of the principle of a popular government is to commerce in whatever states are supported reinforce the means of becoming rich, in in a great measure by their manufac- assuring to every one the fruits of their tures.

industry and their property, and in preist. Since luxury is relative to the cir- venting idleness; without giving in emcumstances of the (imes, above all to the ployments and abuses the means of fub. advancement of the age, of circulation, lifting by doing nothing. This exists adof the situation, and the condition of the mirably at Balle; and at the fame time Vol. XIII,

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