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which was generally deemed impregnable. dia's country, but would also add to the repus With respect to its relative position, it must tation of our arms in a degree much beyond be confidered, that it stands on the principal the risque and expence of the undertaking, Foad leading from Agra to Malwa, Guzerat, repeatedly expressed his opivion to Mojne and the Decan; and that, too, near the place Pophall, together with a with that it might where it enters the hilly tract which advances be aitempted; and founding his hopes of from Bandefcond, Malwi, ar.d Agimere, to fuccess on the confidence that the garrison a parallel with the river Jumnah, throughout would probably have in the natural frength the greatest part of its course. And from all of the place. these circumstances of general ar.d particular It was accordingly undertaken ; and the htuation, together with its natural and ac following account of the place, and the man. quired advantages as a fortress, the poffeffion ner of our getting poffeffion of it, was writ. o! it was deemed as necessary to the ruling ten by Captain Jonathan Scott, at that time Emperors of Hindoftan, as Duver Castle Persian Interpreter to Major Popham, to his might have been to the Saxon and Norman brother Major John Scott. Kings of England. les palace was used as a The fortress of Gwalior stands on a vast ftate prison as early as 1317, and continued rock of about four miles in length, but nar. to be such until the downfal of the empire. row and of unequal breadth, and nearly far

On the final dismemberment of the empire at the top. The fides are lo steep as to apGwalior appears to have fatien to the loc of a pear almost perpendicular in every part; for Rajah of the Jat cribe, who affumed the where it was not naturally fo, it has been government of the distriâ in which it is scraped away ; and the height from the plain immediately fitualtd, under the title of Rana below is from two hundred to three hundred of Gobud or Guhd. Since that period it fect. The rampart conforms to the edge of has changed makers more than once; the the precipice all round; and the only entrance Mabratias, whose dominions extend to the to it is by steps running up the fide of the neighbourhood of it, having tometimes pof rock, defended on the fide next the country feffed it, and at other times the Rana ; but by a wall and bastions, and further guarded the means of transfer were always either fa- by seven ftone gateways, at certain distances mine or treachery, nothing like a hege hav- from each other. The area within is full of ing ever been attempted.

noble buildings, reservoirs of water, wells, Gwalior was in the poffeffion of Madajee and cultivated fand ; so that it is really a litScindia, a Mahralla Chief, in 1979, at the le distria in itself. At the northweft fout of dose of which year the Council General of the mountain is the town, pretty large, arid Bengal concluded an alliance with the Rana; well built ; the houses all of None. To have in consequence of which four battalions of besieged this place would be vain, for nothing F-poys, of five hundred nien each, and some but a surprize or blockade could liave carpieces of artillery, were sent to his affiltance, ried it. his district being overrun by the Mahrattas, A tribe of banditti from the district of the and himself almoft shut up in his furt of Rana had been accustomed to rob about this Gohud. The grand object of his alliance town, and once in the dead of night had was to penetrate into Scindia's country, and climbed up the rock, and got into the fort. finally to draw Scindia himself from the This incelligence they had communicated to the western lide of India, where he was attend. Rana, who often thought of availing himself ing the motions of General Goddard, who of it, but was fearful of undertaking an enwas then employed in the reduction of Gu. terprize of such moment with his owa zerat; it being Mr. Hastings's idea, chat troops. At lengih he iuformed Major Popwhen Scindia found his own dominions in ham of it, who sent a party of the robbers daager, he would detach himself from the to conduct some of his own fpies to the spot. ' Confederacy, of which he was the principal They accordingly climbed up in the night, member, and thus leave matters open for an and found that the guards generally went to accommodation with the Court of Poonah. Teep after their rounds. Popram now or I fell out exactly as Mr. Hanings predicted. dered ladders to be made, but with so much Major William Popham was appointed to secrecy, that until the night of surprize only the command of the little ai my rent to the myself and a few others knew it. - On the Rana's affistance and was very successful, as 30 of August, in the evening, a party was 'well in clearing his countryof the enemy, as in

ordered to be in readiness to march under the driving them out of one of their own most command of Cap:ain William Brace; and valuable districts, and keeping poffellinn of Popham put himself :t the head of two bale it. And Mr. Haltings, who jusly conclud. talions, which were immediately to follow ed that the capture of Gwalior, if practica. the storming party. To prevent as much as bie, would not only open the way into Scia- peftible any noilt in approaching or afceud.

ing

ing the Rack, a kind of Moes of woollen themselves to be stop; warm are cluth were made for the sepoys, and stuffed kept up by the small pas renadiers; with cotton. At eleven o'clock the whole until Major Popham hin the considera detachment marched from the camp at Rey ble reinforcement, camer. the garri pour, cight miles from Gwalior, thro' unfre ion then retreated to the si

*ings, and quented paths, and reached it at a little before discharged a few rockets, vi terwards day. break. Just as Captain Bruce arrived' retreated precipitately 1 be the gate ; at the foot of the rock, he saw the lights whilf the principal officers, thus deserted, af. which accompany the rounds moving along fembled together in one house, and hung out a the rampart, and heard the sentinels cough, faz. Major Popham sent an offieet to give (the made of signifying that all is well in an them affurance of quarter and protection; and Indian camp or garrison) which might have thus, in the space of two hours, this important damped the spirit of many men, but served and astonishing fortress was completely in our only to inspire him with more confidence, poffeffion; we had only twenty men woundas the moment for action, that is the interval ed, and one killed. On the side of the enemy, between the passing the rounds, was now al. Bapogee the Governor was killed, and most certained. Accordingly when the lights were of the principal officers wounded. gone, the wooden ladders were placed against Thus fell the strongest fortress in Hindo. the rock, and one of the rabhers first mounted, tan, garrisoned by a chosen body of twelve and returned with an account that the guard hundred men, on August 4, 1780; and whichi, was retired to deep. Lieutenant Cameron, before the capture of it by the Englih, was our engincer, next mounted, and tied a rope- pronounced by the Princes of Hindoftan, as Ladder to the battlements of the wall; this kind far as their knowledge in the military art exof ladder being the only one adapted to the pur- tended, to be impregnable. In the year 1783 pose of scaling the wall in a body, (the wooden Madajee Scindia besieged this fortress, then ones only serving to ascend from crag to frag poflefied by the Rana of Gohud, with an army of the rock, and to affift in fixing the rope of seventy thousand men, and effected the reladders. When all was ready, Captain Bruce, duction by the treaclesy of one of the Rana's with twenty sepoys, grenadiers, slended officers, who formed the plan of admission without being discovered, and squatted down of a party of Scindia's troops i these were under the parapet; but, before a reinforce- immediately supported by another party, who ment arriv.d, three of the party had so little attacked an opposite quarter, and got admis. recollection as to fire on fome of the garrison fion also. wizo happened to be lying asleep near them. The First View is taken from the NorthThis had nearly ruined the whole plan : the gar Weft in order to Thew the buildings, but the rifan were, of course, alarmed, and ran in great attack was made at the opposite side or rather pombers toward the place; but, ignorant of end, as is seen in the Second View, for the the strength of the assailants, (as the men fired breadth only of the rock is exlubited in the on had been killed outright) they suffered First View.

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EXTRACTS of ORIGINAL LETTERS from Dr. ARBUTHNOT to

Mr. WATKINS.

London, Sapr 30, 1721. too late, to keep Prior's will secret, for it PRIOR 1.as had a narrow efcape by dy; is thought not to be too reputable for

ing; tur, if he had lived, he had Lord Harley to execute this will. Be to married a brimstone birch, one Belly kind as to say nothing whence you had Cox, the keeps an alchonle in Long your intelligence.

We are to have a Acre. Her husband died about a monin bowl of punch at Buffy Cox's. She would ago, and Prior has left his eita'e betw.cool tain bave put it upon Lewis that she was his fervant Jonathan Drift and B:y Cox. his Emma; The ownect, Flanders Jane Lewis got drunk witha punch with Bess was his Cloe. I know no security from night in fore latt. Don't say where you thefe dotages in batchelors, but to repent bad tiis news of Prior. I hope all my of their mif. spent time, and marry with Mittreis's Ministers will not behave theina all ipeed. Pray tell your fellow-traveller felves to.

fo. Londox, 0.7, 10, :721. THERE is zican Cuisicken, now it is

To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. SIR, THE death of a nobleman which has lately happened, who did no less honour to his

country than to the distinguished class to which he belonged, seems to have been un. accountably passed over with hardly any observation : even the notice of his departure was not announced in the newspapers until a month after the event took place. I know not to what caule to afcribe this inattention; for surely, the Earl of Kinnon deferved more respect. Perhaps you will allow a new correspondent a place in your Magazine for the following performance, which he has every reason to believe the

production of this nobleman. Thomas Earl of Kinnoul, and Lord Hay, was born in 1710. In his father's lifc

time he served in parliament for the town of Cambridge, for which place he was chosen i 1741, 1747, and 1754; and in the two lait was chairman of the committee of privileges and elections. In May 1741, he was appomted one of the commissioners of the revenue in Ireland, and in Nov. 1746, commillioner of trade and plantations. In 1754, he was constituted one of the lords of the treafiry; and in 1755, joint paymaiter-general of his Majesty's land forces. On Jan. 24, 1758, he was named chancellor of the dutchy and county-palatine of Lancaster; and on the 27th, was (worn a member of the privy-council. In the lame month he was also choten recorder of Cambridge; and on Nov. 27, 1759, was noininated ambassıdor-extraordi. nary, and plenipotentiary to the court ot Portugal, from whence he returned to England in November the year following. When the present King alcended the throne, his Lorulhip continued his office of chancellor of the du cy; but religned, it in Dec. 176.. Since that period he lived retired, and died on 27th Nov. 1787,

I am, &c, Edinburgh, Jan. 10, 1788.

CALEDONICUS.

HINTS FOR REGULATING MR. H. HOPE'S STUDIES.

BY THE LATE EARL OF KINNOUL.

MR.GILLIER's sensible plan for Mr. riad some of the Latin claffics, he may by

Hope's education thews a reach of consulting good commen:aries learn somethought and extent of knowledge. thing of the manners of the Romans troin

I agree with Mr. Gillier, that before the Poets, particularly Horace, Juvenal, Mr. Hope ftudies the civil law, he should and Ovid de Fattis. be acquainted with the Roman History. As to the comic writers, Terence is

For this purpose he inay read Livy, pure and elegant; but Plautus's language Sallust, Hooke's Roman History; then is difficult, his meaning often so običured Middleton's Life of Cicero, with Cicero's by a prevailing tui'n to wit and humour Letters, in the order of time as there quio as not to be found out without labour, ted.

and his characters are entirely Grecian. If he should choose to read at the same When Mr. Hope is reading the Ro. time any French authors for his improve- man history, a general and tuccinct view ment in that language, Mably upon the of the hiltory of the world, previous to Rise and Fall of the Romans, or Monter. that time, may be useful. This may be quieu sur la Decadence des Romaines, or acquired by reading, Vertot's Roman Revolutions, will be en Sleidan de Quatuor Monarchiis, lertaining and instructive.

Bossuet's Histoire Universelle, Fur Roman antiquities, Mr. Hope may The short History of Greece printed read either Kennet's Roman Antiquities fonie

years ago at Edinburgh. in English, or Newport's in Latin.

Mr. Gillier's sentiments are just, that in Heineccius's Antiquities are necessary order to form liberal notions of any lyf. to one wbo is to study civil law, but they tem in law, the ground.work hould be should be read with the Inititutes, as will laid in the great foundations of justice bereafter be mentioned.

and equity. If Mr. Hope, for his amusement or im With this view, Mr. Hope, that he provement in the Latin language, Ihould may be acquainted with moral philofoVOL. XIII.

phy,

phy, and with the principles of the laws of stand the civil law in the view of practice, nature and nations, should read,

must be thoroughly master of Voet. ist, The English translation of Xeno Cujaccius is a book by much too long phon's Memorabilia, which comprehends to be read from beginning to end; but in the Socratic philosophy.

all questions of liticuliy, and likewise on 2d, Cicero's philosophical works, viz. any interesting subject, l'ecourse should be De Officiis, Senectute, Amicitia, Legibus, had to him as the very best of all civilians. and Tusculanæ Qualtiones.

In the course of reading the Pandects, 3d, Seneca's Morals.

Mr. Hope should have much recourse to These will give him a pretty difinet the text of the Corpus Juris itself, from notion of the most valuable part of hea- which he will draw real inttruction, and then morality.

more entertainment chan from any comTo these may be added,

mentator. it, Hutchinson's Moral Philosophy, or After reading the Institutes and Pandects any good modern treatise on that subject. in the manner above-mentioned, Mr. Then he should read Puffendorf's De- Hope may conclude with Vinnius upon voirs d'Honme et de Citoyen par Barbey- the Instirutes, as containing a clear a..d rac, or Burlemaqui's Droit Naturel. elegant suinmary of the principles of the

2d, Montesquieu's Esprit des Loix. koman law, and which, if carefully peo

The President and Mr. Solicitor Dun- ruled, will fix them on his memory. das are clearly of opinion, that Mr. Hope Mr. Gillier in his letter seems to think should be thoroughly grounded in the par. too much time beitowed upon the ftudy of ticular itudies already liggetted, befure he ibe Roman law; but upon re-considering enters upon the itudy of the law; and for that opinion, he will alter it when he rethat reason they apprehend, that in his pre- flects that the grand principles of equity, fent situation he cannot think of beginning juttice, and the law of all modern nations the Institutes before the winter 1773-4. are to be found there, and the deviations

When Mr. Hope begins the study of froin the Rinian law in any modern coun. the civil law, let him be aware at firit of try does not arise from the disapprobation pushing further into the science, than of it, but from the manners, circumstances, merely fixing the definitions and divisions and revolutions in that country. in his memury.

Mr. Hope, afier this course of the Ro. For that purpose Mr. Solicitor would man law, may read Beinkeistick's excel. recommend doing little more than reading lent Tieatile upon the Law of Nations, the Institutes itself with fome easy com - with much plealure and instruction. mentary. Although Huber and Hupinis Afier reading the civil law, before Mr. are not so elegant and deep as Vinnius, Hope fits down to the Scortilla law, he they are more proper for a young begin. lhould be acquainted with the feudal lyiner.

tem, and hould also be so far matter of Although the Solicitor disapproved of the history of Scotland as to retain in his going deeply into the science at firtt ive memory all those events which occasioned does not mean to diffuade Mr. Hope from any alteration in the constitution ; for the caiting up and peruling the capital laws revolutions in that state give a tinge to the in the Corpus Juris, which may be quoted municipal law of any kingdoir, hy Huber and Hopius. He does not For the feudal lyttein, and likewise in arean 10 exclude Heineccius's Institutes, order to turn the connection between an. for Heineccius has collected the definitions cient and modern history, Mr. Hope may and divisions in a very methodical-mar- real, /

A, Tacitus, that most noble historian, Heineccius's Antiquities must also be from whom he will receive much enie: read at the same time, as the titles in both tainment and instruction. exactly correspond.

2d, Giannoni's History of Naples; and If Mr. Hope reads with attention what 3d, Robertfon's History of Charles V. is here recommended as the work of one particularly the Introduction to each, year, he will have laid a good foundation, which contain molt excellent summaries of and will find the study of the Pandects not the darker times, and explain the rise and only easy, but agreeable.

progress of the feudal iystem in a very Heineccius on the Pandects, and Voet, inafterly manner. which is the inost pra&tical bouk, must be For ihe Scottish history no better occurs carefully perused from beginning to end. to me than Buchanan's History, Druin. For any young man who desires to under mond of Hauthornden's History of the five

James's,

ner.

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