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and thei ben fulle devoute and righte trewe on devout and very true one to another. And to another. And thei sette not be 2 no they do not practice any tricks, or. frauds, or Barettes, ne be Cawteles,“ ne of no Disceytes.5 deceits. And he hath under him seventyAnd he hathe undre him 72 Provynces; and two provinces; and in every province is a in every Provynce is a Kyng. And theise king. And these kings have kings under Kynges han Kynges undre hem; and alle them; and all are tributaries to Prester ben tributaries to Prestre John. And he John. And he hath in his lordships many hathe in his Lordschipes many grete mar- great marvels. For in his country is the sea veyles. For in his Contree is the See that that men call the Gravelly Sea, that is all men clepen ? the Gravely & See, that is alle gravel and sand, without any drop of water; Gravelle and Sond 'with-outen ony drope of

and it ebbeth and floweth in great waves, as Watre; and it ebbet he and flowethe in grete other seas do; and it is never still nor in Wawes, 10 as other Sees don; and it is never peace in any season.

And no man may pass stille ne in pes 11 in no manner

cesoun. 13

that sea by ship or by any kind of craft : and And no man may passe that See be Navye therefore may no man know what land is ne be no maner of craft : 15 and therfore may beyond that sea. And albeit that it have no no man knowe what Lond is beyond that See. water, yet men find therein and on the banks And alle-be-it that it have no Watre, yit men very good fish of different kinds and shapes fynden 16 there-in and on the Bankes fulle gode from those that men find in any other sea; and Fissche of other maner of kynde and schappe they are all very good to eat and delicious for thanne men fynden in ony other See; and thei man's food. ben of right goode tast and delycious to mannes mete.

And a 3 journeys long fro that See, ben gret And three days' distance from that sea are Mountaynes; out of the whiche gothe 17 out a great mountains; out of which flows a great gret Flood,18 that comethe out of Paradys; and river, that comes from Paradise; and it is full it is fulle of precious Stones, withouten ony of precious stones, without any drop of water; drope of Water; and it rennethe 19 thorghe the and it runs through the desert, on the one side, Desert, on that 20 o 1 syde, so that it makethe so that it makes the sea gravelly; and it the See' gravely; and it berethe 17 in-to that flows into the sea and ends there. And this See, and there it endethe. And that Flome 18 river runs three days in the week, and brings rennethe also 3 dayes in the Woke, 21 and with it great stones and rocks also, and that brynget he with him grete Stones and the in great abundance. And as soon as they Roches 22 also therewith, and that gret plentee. have entered into the Gravelly Sea, they are And anon as thei ben entred in-to the gravely

more but are lost forever. And See, thei ben seyn no more, but lost for evere during the three days that the river runs, no more. And in tho 3 dayes that that Ryvere man dares enter into it: but during the other rennethe no man dar 24 entren in-to it: but days one may enter well enough. Also in the other dayes men dar entren wel ynow.25 beyond that river, further upward towards the Also beyonde that Flome, 18 more upward to de ts, is a great plain of gravel between the the Desertes, is a gret Pleyn alle gravelly mountains; and in that plain, every day at betwene the Mountaynes; and in that Playn the rising of the sun, there begin to grow small every day at the Sonne risynge begynnen to trees; and they grow till midday, bearing growe smale Trees; and thei growen til fruit; but no man dares take any of that mydday, berynge Frute; but no man dar fruit, for it is a thing of faërie. And after taken of that Frute, for it is a thing of midday they decrease and enter again into Fayrye 26 And aftre mydday thei discrecen 27 the earth; so that at the setting of the sun and entren ayen 28 in-to the Erthe; so that at they appear no more; and so they do every the goynge doun of the Sonne thei apperen no day: and that is a great marvel. more; and so thei don every day: and that is a gret marvaylle. set not by (= do not practice) 3 frauds 15 device 16 find

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JOHN WICLIF (D. 1384)
THE GOSPEL OF MATHEW

THE GOSPEL OF MATHEU
(FIRST VERSION)

(SECOND VERSION) CHAP. V

CAP. V Jhesus forsothe,' seynge a cumpanyes, wente And Jhesus, seynge ? the puple, wente up inup in-to an hill; and when he hadde sete, his to an hil; and whanne he was set, hise disdisciplis camen nigheto hym. And he, ciplis camen to hym. And he openyde his openynge his mouthe, taughte to hem, say- mouth, and taughte hem, and seide, “Blessed inge, “Blessid be the pore in spirit, for the ben pore men in spirit, for the kyngdom of kingdam in hevenes is heren. Blessid be hevenes is herne. Blessid ben mylde men, mylde men, for thei shuln welde 6 the eerthe. for thei schulen 5 welde 6 the erthe. Blessid Blessid be thei that mournen, for thei shuln 5 ben thei that mornen, for thei schulen be be comfortid. Blessid be thei that hungren coumfortid. Blessid ben thei that hungren and thristen rightwisnesse," for thei shuln ben and thristen rightwisnesse, for thei schulen fulfillid. Blessid be mercyful men, for thei be fulfillid. Blessid ben merciful men, for thei shuln gete mercye. Blessid be thei ihat ben 8 schulen gete merci. Blessid ben thei that of clene herte, for thei shuln see God. Blessid ben of clene herte, for thei schulen se God. be pesible men, for thei shuln be clepid' the Blessid ben pesible men, for thei schulen be sonys of God. Blessid be thei that suffren clepid 9 Goddis children. Blessid ben thei persecucioun for right wisnesse," for the kyng- that suffren persecusioun for rightfulnesse, for dam of hevenes is herun. Yee shulen 5 be the kingdam of hevenes is herne. Ye schulen blessid, when men shulen curse you, and be blessid, whanne men schulen curse you, shulen pursue you, and shulen say al yvel 10 and schulen pursue you, and shulen seie al ayeins 11 you leezing, 12 for me. Joye yce yvel 10 ayens you liynge, for me. Joie 13 with-yn-forth,14 and glade yee with-out-forth, ye, and be ye glad, for youre meede 15 is plenfor youre meede 15 is plentevouse 16 in hevenes; tevouse 16 in hevenes; for so thei han purforsothe so thei han 17 pursued and 18 prophetis sued also profetis that weren bifor you. Ye that weren before you. Yce ben & salt of the ben salt of the erthe; that if the salt vanysche erthe; that yif 19 the salt shal vanyshe awey, awey, whereynne schal it be saltid? To no wherynne shal it be saltid ? To no thing it is thing it is worth overe,20 no 21 but 22 that it be worth over 20 no 21 bot 22 that it be sent out, cast out, and be defoulid of men. Ye ben and defoulid of men. Ye ben 8 light of the light of the world; a citee set on an hil may world; a citee putt on an hill may nat be hid; not be hid; ne me teendith 23 not a lanterne, nether men tendyn a lanterne, and putten and puttith it undur a busschel, but on a it undir a busshel, but on a candilstike, that candilstike, that it yyve light to alle that ben it yeve 24 light to alle that ben in the hous. in the hous. So schyne youre light befor So shyyne

youre light before men, that thei men, that thei se youre goode werkis, and see youre good werkis, and glorifie youre Fadir glorific youre Fadir that is in hevenes. Nil 26 that is in hevens. Nyle 26 ye gesse, or deme,27 ye deme, 27 that Y cam to undo the lawe, or that Y came to undo, or distruye, the lawe, the profetis; Y cam not to undo the lawe, but or the prophetis; I came not to undo the lawe, to fulfille. Forsothe Y seie to you, til hevene but to fulfille. Forsot he 28 I say to you and erthe passe, o 29 lettir or o 29 titel shal trewthe, til heven and eri he passe, oon not passe fro the lawe, til alle thingis be doon. i, that is leste 30 lettre, or titil, shal nat passe Therfor he that brekith oon of these leeste 30 fro the lawe, til alle thingis be don. Theriore maundementis,31 and techith thus men, schal he that undoth, or breketh, oon of these leste 30 be clepid 32 the leste in the rewme 33 of hevenes; maundementis, 31 and techith thus men, shal but he that doith, and techith, schal be clepid be clepid 32 the leste in the rewme 33 of hevenes; greet in the kyngdom of hevenes. And Y seie 1 indeed ? seeing 4 theirs 5 shall rule

but 23 light 24 give

Subj. of command righteousness 9 called 10 evil 11 against 26 do not, literally, wish not (Lat. nolite) 27 think

rejoice 14 with-yn-forth inwardly verily 30 least 31 commandments 32 called 15 reward 16 plenteous 17 have 18 also 19 if 20 besides kingdom

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forsothe, this! that doth, and techith, shal be clepid grete in the kyngdame of hevenes. Forsothe Y say to you, no-but-yif ? youre rightwisnesse shal be more plentevouse than of scribis and Pharisees, yee shulen not entre in-to kyngdam of hevenes. Yee han 3 herde that it is said to olde men, Thou shal nat slea; forsothe he that sleeth, shal be gylty of dome. But I say to you, that evereche 5 that is wrothe to his brother, shal be grity of dome; forsothe he that shal say to his brother, Racha, that is, a word of scorn, shal be gylty of counseile; 6 sothly he that shal say, Fool, that is, a word of dispisynge, shal be gylti of the fijr ? of helle. Therfore yif thou ofirist thi yift

at the auter, and there shalt bythenke, 10 that thi brother hath sum-what ayeins thee, leeve there thi yift before the auter, and go first for to be recounseilid, or acordid, to thi brother, and thanne thou cummynge shalt offre thi yiste. Be thou consentynge to thin adversarie soon, the whijle thou art in the way with hym, lest peraventure thin adversarie takell thee to the domesman,12 and the domesman take thee to the mynystre,13 and thou be sente in-to prisoun. Trewely I say to thee, Thou shalt not go thennes, til thou yelde 14 the last ferthing. Ye han herd, that it was said olde men, Thou shalt nat do lecherye. Forsothe Y say to you, forwhy 15 every man that seeth a womman for to coveite hire, now he hath do lecherie by hire in his herte. That yif thi right eiye sclaundrel6 thee, pulle it out, and cast it fro thee; for it speedith to thee, that oon 18 of thi membris perishe, than al thi body go in-to helle. And yif thi right hond sclaundre thee, kitt 19 it awey, and cast it fro thee; for it spedith to thee, that oon of thi membris perishe, than that al thi body go in-to helle. Forsothe it is said, Who-evere shal leeve his wyf, yeve he to hir a libel, that is, a litil boke, of forsakyng. Sothely Y say to you, that every man that shal leeve his wyf, outaken 21 cause of fornicacioun, he makith hire do lecherie and he that weddith the forsaken wijf, doth avoutrie.22 Efte-soonys

yee han herd, that it was said to olde men, Thou shalt not forswere, sothely to the Lord thou shalt yeeld thin oethis.25 Forsothe Y say to you, to nat

to you, that but your rightfulnesse be more plentevouse than of scribis and of i'arisees, ye schulen not entre into the kyngdom of hevenes. Ye han 3 herd that it was seid to elde men, Thou schalt not slee; and he that sleeth, schal be gilti to doom. But Y seie to you, that ech man that is wrooth to his brothir, schal be gilti to doom ; and he that seith to his brother, Fy! schal be gilti to the counseil ; 6 but he that seith, Fool, schal be gilti to the fier of helle. Therfor if thou offrist thi yifte 8 at the auter, and ther thou bithenkist, that thi brothir hath sum-what ayens thee, leeve there thi yifte bifor the auter, and go first to be recounselid to thi brothir, and thanne thou schalt come, and schalt offre thi yifte. Be thou consentynge to thin adversarie soone, while thou art in the weie with hym, lest peraventure thin adversarie takeli thee to the domesman,12 and the domesman take thee to the mynystre,13 and thou be sent in-to prisoun. Treuli Y scie to thee, thou shalt not go out fro thennus, til thou yelde 14 the last ferthing. Ye han herd that it was seid to elde men, Thou schalt do no letcherie. But Y seie to you, that every man that seeth a womman for to coveite hir, hath now do letcherie bi hir in his herte. That if thi right iye sclaundre 16 thee, pulle hym out, and caste fro thee; for it spedith 17 to thee, that oon 18 of thi membris perische, than that al thi bodi go in-to helle. And if thi right hond sclaundre thee, kitte 19 hym aweye, and caste fro thee; for it spedith to thee that oon 18 of thi membris perische, than that al thi bodi go in-to helle. And it hath be seyd, Who-evere leeveth his wiif, yyve he to hir a libel of forsakyng. But Y seie to you, that every man that leeveth his wiif, outtakun cause of fornycacioun, makith hir to do letcherie, and he that weddith the forsakun wiif, doith avowtrye. Eftsoone ye han herd, that it was seid to elde men, Thou schalt not forswere, but thou schalt yelde thin othis to the Lord. But Y seie to you, that ye swere not for ony thing; nethir bi hevene, for it is the trone of God; nether bi the erthe, for it is the stole of his feet; nether bi Jerusalem, for it is the citee of a greet kynge; nether thou shalt not swere bi thin heed, for thou maist not make oon heere white ne blacke;

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swere on al manere; neither by hevene, for but be youre word, yhe, yhe; Nay, nay; and it is the trone of God; nether by the erthe, that that is more than these, is of yvel. Ye for it is the stole of his feet; neither by Jeru- han herd that it hath be seid, Iye for iye, and salem, for it is the citee of a greet kyng; tothe for tothe. But Y seie to you, that ye neither thou shalt swere by thin heved,' for ayenstonde 3 not an yvel man; but if ony thou maist not make oon heer whyt or blak; smyte thee in the right cheke, schewe to him bu be

youre word yea, yea; Nay, nay; for- also the tothir; and to hym that wole stryve sothe that that is more than this, is of yvel. with thee in doom, and take awey thi coote, Yee han herde that it is said, Eiye ? for eiye, leeve thou to him also thi mantil; and whototh for toth. But y say to you, to nat ayein- ever constreyneth thee a thousynde pacis, go stonde 3 yvel; but yif any shal smyte thee thou with hym othir tweyne. Yyve 6 thou in the right cheeke, yeve to hym and · the to hym that axith of thee, and turne not tother; and to hym that wole stryve with awey fro hym that wole borewe 1 of thee. Ye thee in dome, and take awey thi coote, leeve han herd that it was seid, Thou shalt love thi thou to hym and “thin over-clothe; and who- neighbore, and hate thin enemye. But Y evere constrayneth thee a thousand pacis, go seie to you, love ye youre enemyes, do

ye

wel thou with hym other tweyne. Forsothe yif 6 to hem that hatiden you, and preye ye for to hym that axith of thee, and turne thou hem 8 that pursuen, and sclaundren you; nat awey fro hym that wol borwer of thee. that ye be the sones of your Fadir that is in Yee han herd that it is said, Thou shalt love hevenes, that makith his sunne to rise upon thin neighbore, and hate thin enmy. But Y goode and yvele men, and reyneth on just men say to you, love yee youre enmyes, do yee wel and unjuste. For if ye loven hem 8 that loven to hem 8 that haten you, and preye yee for you, what mede il schulen ye han? whether men pursuynge, and falsly chalengynge 10 you; pupplicans doon not this? And if ye greten that vee be the sonys of youre Fadir that is in youre britheren oonli, what schulen ye do hevenes, that makith his sune to springe up more? ne doon not hethene men this? Therupon good and yvel men, and rayneth upon fore be ye parfit, as youre hevenli Fadir is juste men and unjuste men. For yif ye loven parhit.” hem that loven you, what meed 11 shul 12 yee have? whether and · puplicans don nat this (It will be observed that the Second l'ersion agrees thing? And yif yee greten, or saluten, youre with the Authorized Version in the division bretheren oonly, what more over 13 shul yee into chapters, while the First l'ersion condon? whether and * paynymmys 14 don nat tains a few verses usually assigned to Chapter this thing? Therfore be yee partit,15 as and * VI.] youre hevenly Fadir is parfit. . Take yee hede, lesi ye don your right wisnesse before men, that yee be seen of hem, ellis sye shule nat han meed at youre Fadir that is in hevenes. Therfore when thou dost almesse,li nyle is thou synge byfore thee in a trumpe, as ypocritis don in synagogis and street is, that thei ben maad worshipiul of men; forsothe I save to you, thei han resceyved her 19 meede. But Thee doynge almesse, 17 knowe nat the left hond what thi right hond doch, that thi almes be in hišlis, and thi Fadir that seeth in hidlis, shal yelde to thee."

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SYR GAWAYN AND THE GRENE KNYGHT

(Unknown Author)

FYTTE THE FIRST

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XI Ther wacz 1 lokyng on lenthe, the lude 3 to

beholde, For uché mon had mervayle quat 5 hit mene

myght, That a hathel 6 and a horse myght such a hwe

lach. As growe grene as the gres 8 and grener hit

semed, Then grene aumayl 10 on golde lowande 11

bryghter. Al studied that ther stod, and stalked hym

nerre, Wyth al the wonder of the worlde, what he

worch 13 schulde; For fele sellyez 14 had thay sen, bot such never

are, For-thi for fantoum and fayryye 16 the folk there hit demed.

240 Ther-fore to answare wacz arghe

freke,18 And al stouned 19 at his steven,20 and ston-stil

seten, In a swoghe sylence 21 thurgh the sale 22 riche; As 23 al were slypped upon slepe, so slaked hor lotez 24

In hyye; 25
I deme hit not al for doute,26
Bot sum for cortaysye,
Let hym that al schulde loute
Cast 28 unto that wyye.3

XI Long was there looking, that lord to behold, For each man had marvel what might be the

meaning That a horseman and a horse might such a hue

catch. As grow-green as the grass and greener yet

seemed they, Than green enamel on gold glowing brighter. All studied that stood there, and stalked to

him nearer, With all the wonder in the world what wiles

he was planning; For many sights had they seen, but such a

sight never ; So for phantom and faërie the folk there did

deem it. Therefore to answer was fearful many a fine fellow,

240 And all were stunned by his speech and stone

still sat they, In a sheer silence through the hall splendid; As if they had slipped into sleep, so slacked they their talking,

That day;
Not all for fear, I trow,
But some in courteous way,
Let him to whom all bow
The stranger first assay.

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many a noble knight amazed 20 voice 21 in a swoon-like silence 22 hall

as if 24 so slackened their noises 25 suddenly 26 fear 27 but let him to whom all should bow (= Arthur) speak

29 dais 30 happening courteously greeted him

4 indeed 35 house 36 I am called

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