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tained the decency neceffary between princes, without enforcing, and probably without expecting obedience but in his own prefence.

The king of Pruffia's edict regarded only himself, and therefore it is difficult to tell what was his motive, unless he intended to fpare himself this mortification of abfurd and illiberal flattery, which, to a mind ftung with difgrace, muft have been in the highest degree painful and difgufting.

Moderation in profperity is a virtue very difficult to all mortals; forbearance of revenge, when revenge is within reach, is fcarcely ever to be found among princes. Now was the time when the queen of Hungary might perhaps have made peace on her own terms; but keenness of refentment, and arrogance of fuccefs, with-held her from the due ufe of the prefent opportunity. It is faid, that the king of Pruffia in his retreat fent letters to prince Charles, which were fuppofed to contain ample conceffions, but were fent back unopened. The king of England offered likewife to mediate between them; but his propofitions were rejected at Vienna, where a refolution was taken not only to revenge the interruption of their fuccefs on the Rhine by the recovery of Silefia, but to reward the Saxons for their seasonable help, by giving them part of the Pruffian dominions.

In the beginning of the year 1745 died the emperor Charles of Bavaria; the treaty of Frankfort was confequently at an end; and the king of Pruffia, being no longer able to maintain the character of auxiliary to the emperor, and having avowed no other reafon for the war, might have honourably withdrawn his forces, VOL. IV. and

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and on his own principles have complied with terms of peace but no terms were offered him; the queen pursued him with the utmost ardour of hoftility, and the French left him to his own conduct, and his own destiny.

His Bohemian conquests were already loft; and he was now chafed back into Silefia, where, at the beginning of the year, the war continued in an equilibration by alternate loffes and advantages. In April, the elector of Bavaria feeing his dominions over-run by the Auftrians, and receiving very little fuccour from the French, made a peace with the queen of Hungary upon eafy conditions, and the Auftrians had more troops to employ against Pruffia.

But the revolutions of war will not fuffer human prefumption to remain long unchecked. The peace with Bavaria was fcarcely concluded when the battle of Fontenoy was loft, and all the allies of Austria called upon her to exert her utmost power for the prefervation of the Low Countries; and, a few days after the lofs at Fontenoy, the first battle between the Pruffians and the combined army of Auftrians and Saxons was fought at Niedburg in Silefia.

The particulars of this battle were variously reported by the different parties, and published in the journals of that time; to tranfcribe them would be tedious and ufelefs, because accounts of battles are not eafily understood, and because there are no means of determining to which of the relations credit fhould be given. It is fufficient that they all end in claiming or allowing a complete victory to the king of Pruffia, who gained all the Auftrian artillery, killed four thousand, took

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feven thoufand prifoners, with the lofs, according to the Pruffian narrative, of only fixteen hundred men.

He now advanced again into Bohemia, where, however, he made no great progrefs. The queen of Hungary, though defeated, was not fubdued. She poured in her troops from all parts to the reinforcement of prince Charles, and determined to continue the struggle with all her power. The king faw that Bohemia was an unpleafing and inconvenient theatre of war, in which he fhould be ruined by a mifcarriage, and fhould get little by a victory. Saxony was left defencelefs, and if it was conquered might be plundered.

He therefore published a declaration against the elector of Saxony, and, without waiting for reply, invaded his dominions. This invafion produced another battle at Standentz, which ended, as the former, to the advantage of the Pruffians. The Auftrians had

fome advantage in the beginning; and their irregular troops, who are always daring, and are always ravenous, broke into the Pruffian camp, and carried away the military cheft. But this was easily repaired by the fpoils of Saxony.

The queen of Hungary was ftill inflexible, and hoped that fortune would at last change. She recruited once more her army, and prepared to invade the territories of Brandenburg; but the king of Pruffia's activity prevented all her defigns. One part of his forces seized Leipfic, and the other once more defeated the Saxons; the king of Poland fled from his dominions, prince Charles retired into Bohemia. The king of Pruffia entered Drefden as a conqueror, exacted very fevere contributions from the whole country, and the

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Auftrians

Auftrians and Saxons were at laft compelled to receive from him fuch a peace as he would grant. He impofed no fevere conditions except the payment of the contributions, made no new claim of dominions, and, with the elector Palatine, acknowledged the duke of Tuscany for emperor.

The lives of princes, like the histories of nations, have their periods. We fhall here fufpend our narrative of the king of Pruffia, who was now at the height of human greatness, giving laws to his enemies, and courted by all the powers of Europe.

BROWNE.

BROW W NE*.

S

IR THOMAS BROWNE was born at London, in the parish of St Michael in Cheapfide, on the 19th of October, 1605. His father was a merchant, of an antient family at Upton in Cheshire. Of the name or family of his mother, I find no ac

count.

Of his childhood or youth, there is little known, except that he loft his father very early; that he was, according to the common fate of orphans, defrauded by one of his guardians; and that he was placed for his education at the school of Winchester.

His mother, having taken § three thousand pounds, as the third part of her husband's property, left her fon, by confequence, fix thoufand, a large fortune for a man deftined to learning at that time, when com

* First printed in 1752.

+ Life of fir Thomas Browne, prefixed to the Antiquities of Norwich.

✰ Whitefoot's character of fir Thomas Browne, in a marginal note, § Life of fir Thomas Browne.

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