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6 SIR,

done with pendulúms, for it is like mea. foot in diameter, and twelve inches suring bodies at rest with moving in high, full of water, which must be ftruments, or shooting at game with a divided into forty-eight parts, to make trembling hand.

as many elementary pounds, which Supporing those gentlemen had over again may be divided into as many come the difficulties they gave them aliquot parts as are necessary to keep to selves, how could they have found a the ancient denomination of pounds, comparative statement for knowing the half.pounds, quarters, ounces, drams, Jength of their pendulum, from the cen- grains, &c. only changing the number are of suspension to its centre of oscillae sixty into fixty-four for a dram. two, which proves of what little use a

Having, Sir, given you a short acpendulum is to measure motionless bo.. count of the standards I have found out, dies? What makes it appear more ri- you must know what the Bishop d'Autun diculous is, that the globe's surface runs Taid to Sir John Riggs Miller. I wrote over a space of about 21,600,00p fathoms to the Baronet, who lent me the memnoir in twenty four hours; which is exaâlly and letter of this prelate sent him. measuring a surface of 43,000,000 yards,

London, April 7, 1790. with a three-feet rule, that cannot be kept feady. This must ever make letter I have examined. They come from a

“THE Bishop of Autun's proposals and common sense say, that measuring in sensible man; and show he is a very proper such a manner is against all the rules of person to decide the question in hand, mucha reason, seeing that the ideas of motion better than many of those book wife gentry and rest are diametrically in contradic. who are stocked with other people's ideas, tion to one another.

without having any of their own, which Our country principles for measuring has made these favans jumble the whole, so as surface are on fixed rules, which lead to not to have one clear idea towards what is • divide in aliquot parts to infinity: they necessary to make a standard. What can be are nothing more than three barly corns more against a rule for coming to a fixed for one inch, and the meature of gravity, measure than what the Bishop f'ays has been

tried ? And again, what can come from if fixed on, fixty grains of wbeat for a

their operations, till they have a couple of dram, and a quarı of ale to make two pounds.

comparative standards ? These are the basis of our me fure, of the ancient principle for a standard to di

“ The worthy Abbé de la Caille got hold which made me find that a cylindrical vide a degree of latitude into 60,000 parts ; foot of water weighs forty eight pounds; which was very right; but then he runs out and that one inch of water, of a cylin. of the road, and makes use of his Paris mea-, drical figure, and fix feet high, weighs sure to procure a degree on the meridian of two pounds, or a quart of ale; with 57,930 toijes, one of which must be five feet these round numbers I have found, that eight inc bis five twelfths and a quarter. is the medium column of the atmosphere not such a conclufion in fractions like a man is fifteen hundred weight. And from who has loft light of his musick, and plays these rules I have found two universal with instrument out of time. Handards for measuring folids and Huids. “ The Bishop says, the Abhé's principles The first standard for space is taken

are true, but he thinks they are not Itrictly

exact. I thall say, why did not this learned from a degree of latitude on the meri.

man keep to his divisions of 60,000 parts, dian, which may be measured on the and name them toises? then he would have ground in fathoms, feet, and inches. The second fandard for gravity is but a second to find for gravity.

had an elementary standard for space, and taken from the most simple element; “ The Abbé de la Calle says, an elementhis is water, which, being reduced to a tary measure should be taken from the pencolumn of one inch in diameter and a dulum which beats the seconds, one of which fathom long, will make two pounds. would make an ell, and two of them would

To have the division for the first stan. make a toise that divides into feet and indard, I shall repeat, that one degree of ches, &c. Jatitude on the meridian muit be divided “ The Bishop again says, that those mea. into fixty minutes, which I namie miles, sures properly put in execution would not the mile into a thousand fathoms, a fa: give positive exactness. And, at the same thom into fix feet, and the foot into time, he lets us know that an ingenious extwelve inches, which can be measured periment has been made by Monsieur de la

Voisiere, and that with great aceuracy, on on the ground, as I have said.

the weight of a cubic foot of distilled water, The divisions of the second standard in order to have an invariable pound in a cile are made with a cylinder of a latitudinal bic velfel. Then M. de la Voisicie runs to

his wabbling pendulum, for a fixed mea claim other nations inventions, as M. de fure; to make it more difficult, he says, it la Lande fays of us, in his hasly defire has 36 inches, eight lines 52-Tooths. Here

of appearing wife. I ask, are not these inches founded in the instrument in motion, which must be stopped Mr. URBAN.

July 10. to measure its length, after the beat has been known, and which must answer to the DR R. JOHNSON, in his Lives of number of 86,400 for 24 hours, which cau

the English Poets, gives the fol. not be verified before the far comes to the lowing account of the gentlemen conmeridian again.

cerned with Mr. Pope in translating the “ Very happily for these gentlemen, that Odyfley. the arbors of wheel and pignions carry hands “ When the success of the Iliad gave en. which antwer to the division of time, other.

couragement to a version of the Odysley, wise they could never find the mimber of Pope, weary of the toil, called Fenton and beats; nevertheless they have not a true ac Broome to his assistance; and, taking only count of the distance from the center of suf half of the work upon himself, divided the pension to the center of oscillation.

other half between his partners, giving four “ But, en atterdant, I shall make bold to books to Fenton, and eight to Broome. The claim the principle of water, for a compara- books allotted to Fenton were the first, the live standard, being an English invention, fourth, the nineteenth, and the twentieth. till M. de la Voisiere his proved it has not To the lot of Broome fell the second, sixth, been published the 10th of April, in the eighth, eleventh, twelfth, sixteenth, eigh, Journal des Savans d’Amsterilam, and also teenth, and twenty-third, together with the in the Esprit des Journaux, printed at Liege, burthen of writing all the notes. and publisheet' at Paris, and sent to the so “ As this translation is a very important ciety for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. at event in foetical history, the reader has a London, the 22d of January, 1781, and again right to know upon what grounds 1 establish published at Vienna with other matters ia my narration. That the version was not 1785.

wholly Pope's was always known. He had « 1 do not, Sir, in the least defire to make mentioned the assistance of two friends in mis use of M. de la Voifiere's invention of mea. Proposals; and at the end of the work fome suring in cubic vefsels, or any other system account is given by Broome of their diferent which has the resemblance of a square, to parts, which however mentions only five bring into harmony with a circle. I ever books as written by the coadjutors; the Thun fuch operations, and keep to our old- fourth and twentieth by Fenton ; the sixth, fashioned quadrant and cylindrical vessels; the eleventh, and the eighteenth, by himselfs they have never puzzled me with fractions; though Pope, in an advertisement, prefixed on the contrary, their fimplicity has given afterwards to a new volume of his works, me rules to come at the measure in hand, and clained only twelve. A natural curiosity, has even brought me to find that a cylindric after the real conduct of fo great an undercal columo of atmosphere, of a foot diameter, taking, incited me once to enquire of Dr. has 1500 pounds of gravity, as I have said.

Warburton, who told me, in his warm lan. • M. de la Voisiere's making use of distilled guage, that he thought the relation given in water is, without doubt, right; but his running the note a lie; but that he was not able to to his dungling pendulum, and his fixing it at ascertain the several shares. The intelligence, ebree feet ore eight of an inch and 12-100lbs, is which Dr. Warburton could not afford me, ertainly going from the subje:t (Since he I obtained from Mr. Langtou, to whom Mr. looks ont for what thould be exact); and what Spence had imparted it.” makes it worse, is his going into divisions on the very mesure lie wants to correct; and that Bicome's note is a lie, may not we

Instead of laying with Warburton, which can never be true, not even with fractions, which proves, that these far-fetched fuppose that Broome, out of modesty, notions of finding perfection in imperfect in- mentioned only those books which he Rruments cannot make an uncertain idea thought he had translated with the be metamorphosed into a positive and clear greaieit success, and perhaps with the principle.

leatt alli Nance from Pope? His words “Thus much, Sic, I thought was proper to may potlibly bear this construction. "If explain, as you are going to publish on thote my performance,” says he, “has merit, mallers, and as you intend to answer the either in these [notes ), or in my part nuble-ipiricad Bithos, I any with respect, Sir, of the translation (namely, in the 6th, your niost humble and obedient servant,

uith, and 18th books), it is but just to “ WILLIAM BLAKE Y."

attribute it to the care and judgement of P.S. You see, Mr. Urban, the confe-. Mr. Pope, by whole hand every lhcet quence this matter is of, both for useful was corrected.” nets and the reputation of baving ideas in That Pope corrected, or at leastie. our owr, land, without going arlfully to vilcd, every Meet, cannot be doubled,

as he was answerable for the whole. In has displayed as much elegance of style, a note to the Dunciad, he himself speaks and harmony of numbers, as we find in of his affisting Broome in correcting his any other part of the poem. And there verses in these general terms: “ Con- is, I think, a general equality in the pocanen dealt very unfairly with our poét, etical diction, which could not be de. not only frequently imputing to him rived from the occasional alterations of Mr. Broome's verses (for which he the master-poet. might indeed seem, in some degree, ac Dr. Johnson observes, “that the countable, having corrected what that readers of poetry have never been able gentleman did), but those of the Duke to distinguish the books of Broome and of Buckingham and others.” Dunc. II. Fenton from those of Pope." We do 299. Broome himself freely acknow not indeed And in this excellent work ledges Pope's “ daily revisal and correc that manifest disparity of tyle which tion of his and Fenton's publications." generally characterizes different poets ;

The licence for vefing the right of yer in some passages, perhaps, the wri. printing the translation of the Odyssey ter may be discovered by certain peculi. in Lintot, the book feller, is dated Feb. ariries, or unusual expressions. I shall 19, 1724 5. The first volume in 12mo mention one of them. An ingenious was printed in 1725, the last in 1726; reader may possibly discover more indu. and the note at the conclusion was write bitable criteria. ten the same year. For, Broome him The English poets almost unanimous. self tells us, that the verses, “Lec vul- ly represent Death as a tremendous fpeco gar souls," &c. at the end of the nores, tre of the masculine gender. were addressed to Mr. Pope in 1726. Thus Shakspeare: See Poems, p. 94. At that time the

I, in my own woe charmi'd, translators 'might rather with that their could not find Death, where I did bear bime readers and subscribers should be left to

groan ;

[monster their own conjectures, and attribute as Nor feel bim, where he struck. This ugly much as they thought proper to the ce. 'Tis strange be hides bim in frelh cups, soft beds, lebrated translator of the Iliad.

Sweet words; or hath more ministers than we Mr. Spence, in his Essay on the Odyr. That draw bis knives i' th' war. Cymb. V. 2. fey, printed in 1727, gives us no infor

Thus Milion : mation on this head. He only says, Grim Death, my son and for. P. L. II. 804 “ Most people, I think, are ready to

Death, thou hast seen agree, that Pope is the only, master. In bis first shape on man; but many shapes hand in this translation. Be that as it Of Death, and many are the ways that lead may, he has recommended the whole To bis grim cave. Ibid. X1.466. with his name; he gives the finishing Aroke to every thing; and the Dialugues Death with his scythe cut off the fatal thread,

And thus Pope : speak of him as if he were really the author of the whole. It would have been

And a whole province in bis triumph led. a confused thing, and often not practi• Let ghaftly death in all his forms appear, sable, to have spoken, at every turn, I saw him not; it was not mine to fear. to the right person.” Pref.

Odys. XIV. 2550 It may be observed, that the licence

In Broome's Poems we have the fol. prefixed to the first volume allerts, that the praoslation was “ underlaken by A.

lowing lines on Death: lexander Pope, esq." and that the citle

A thousand ways, alas! frail mortals lead

To ber dire den, and dreadful all to tread ; page to thecarlies editions is only “The

See! in the horrors of yon house of woes, Odyssey of Homer, trandlated from the Tronps of all maladies the fiend inclose! Greek;" we may therefore conclude, High on a trophy rais'd of human bones, that, as the two associates had perform Swords, (pears, and arrows, and fepulchral ed their parts with great applause, Pope stones, ip particular might not choose that the In horrid state foe reigns; attendant ills public dould immediately know the full Besiege ber throne, and, when foc frowns, the extent of that affiftance which he had re.


Poems, p. 215. ceived from his auxiliaries.

Death Thakes aloft ber dart, and o'er ber prey In the eleventh book (the descent in Szalks with dire joy, and marks in blood ber to hell), where Homer frequently rises way.

Ibid. p. 65. into the greatest sublimity, Broome, the Here Death is personified in the femie acknowledged traoslato: of that book, nir: gender, contrary to the usual suso GENT, MAG. July, 1792.

Theb. I. 749


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tom of Pope and other English poets *; makes them seem their own." I have been
we may therefore presume, without any told that they were afterwards reconciled ;
external evidence, that the following but I am afraid their peace was without
animated description is written by the friendship.”
same band :

The palage in the Dunciad, to
When war has thunder'd with its loudest which, I think, Johnson alludes, ap-

pears among the variations, B. III. v.
Death thou hast seen in all ber ghastly forms. 331, and was written in 1726 :
In duel met ber on the listed ground,

Hibernian politicks, 0, Swift! thy doom;
When hand to hand they wound return for

And Pope's, translating ten whole years with

But never have thy eyes astonish'd view'd
So vile a deed, so dire a scene of blood.

Pope began his translation of the Iliad
Ey'n in the flow of joy, when now the bowl

in 1912, his 25th year, and concluded
Glows in our veins, and opens ev'ry soul,

it in 1718, his zoch year. He “under-
We groan, we faint; with blood the dome is took” the Odyffey in 1721, and finished

[tide. it in 1725. These then are the ten years
And o'er the pavement floats the dreadful which he mentions; but not having
Her breast all gore, with lamentable cries, been so long engaged in translating with
The bleeding, innocent Cassandra dies. Broome, the same line, among the va.
Then, tho'pale Death froze cold in ev'ry vein, riations at v. 323, stands thus:
My sword I strive to wield, hur strive in vain. And Pope's tranflating three whole years with
Odys. XIX. 515.

I do not produce these as the best On this passage was the following
lines in this admirable book, the ele- ' note :
venth of the Odysley; but merely to “ He (the author of the Danciad] con-
specify one of those incidental circum- cludes his irony with a stroke upon hintelf ;
fiances in poetical language, by which for whoever imagines this a sarcasm on the
we may sometimes discover the author of other ingenious person is furely mistaken.
an anonymous publication.

,The opinion our author had of him was suf-
“ The price,” says Dr. Jolinfon, “gt ficiently thewn by his joining him in tlie une
which Pope purchased affittance was 3col. dertaking of the Olyiley ; in which Mr.
paid to Fenton, and 5a0l. to Broome, with Broome, having engaged without any previ.
as many copies as he wanted for his friends, ous agreement, discharged his part so much
which amounted to one hundred more. The

to Mr. Pope's satisfaction, that he gratified
payment maie to Fenton I know but hy him with the full sum of five bundred pounds,
hearsay ; Broome's is very distinctly told by and a present of all those books, for which
Pope in the notes to the Dunciad.

his own inierest could procure him subscri-
Is It is evident," continues our biographer,' bers, to the value of one hundred more. Our
« that, according to Pope's own estimate, auihor only seems to lament that he was em-
Broome was unkindly treated. If four books ployed in tranNation at all.”
could merit 300l., eight, and all the notes, Here, I must confess, I suspect a lao
equivalent at least to four, had certainly a

tent and ungenerous sarcasm. The
right to more than fix.
« Broome probably considered himself as placency, or rather the air of vanity,

phrase, surely miraken;" the com-
injured; and there was for some tinie more with which he mentions his baving gra-
He always spoke of Pope as too much a lover tified Mr. B. with the full sum of fix
of money; and rope pursued him with hundred pounds, and his pretending to
avowed hoftility; for he not only named him lament that he himself was employed in
disrespectfully in the Dunciad, but quoted - a work which establidhed his fortune and
him more than once in the Bathos, as a pro- his fame, carry with them ftrong sym-
ficient in the art of sinking. And in his enu ptoms of diflimulation. However, in
meration of the different kinds of poets, dire later editions, the two lines are thus
tinguished for the profound, he reckons corrected :
Broome among "the parrots, that repeat ano- Hibernian politieks, O, Swift! thy fate;
ther's words in such a hoarse odd voice as

And Pope's, ten years to comment and trans

* Gray, I know, has made Death “ the

When Pope speaks of his comments,
QUEEN of a grily troop :" but by this inju-
dicious title he has diverted the spectre of his he alludes to his edition of Shakspeare,
formidable appearance. In French, Death published in 1721, as well as to the
'fha Mort) is feminine. English writers, with comments on Honer. The share which
much greater propriety, represent Death as he himself took in the notes on the Iliad
the king of terrors.

cannot now be ascertained. The larger


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part of the extra&ts from Eustathius, powerful adversary in reciprocal Atrokes “ with several excellent observations," of satire. However, in the second were fent him by Broome, as we are edition of his poems, publilhed in 1739, informed in the Ponfcript inserted at the when the amicable connexion was conclusion of the Iliad, written by Mr. probably dissolved, Broome, though Pope in 1920, when he condescended to Pope was yet alive *, takes uncommon speak impartially and favourabiy of pains to vindicate his claim to that cre. « his friend.” Another gentleman of dit as a critick and a poet which he Cambridge is also said to have lent his thought he deserved. For in an adver. atlistance, but Johnson says he soon tisement prefixed to his Poems he says, grew weary of the work; and a third “the author has not in serted into this was recommended by Thirlby, who is collection any part of his translation of Dow known to be Jorein. When the the eight books of the Odyfsey, pubOdyffey was to be illustrated with notes, lithed by Mr. Pope.” In a note at p. Broome resumed the office of commen: 55 he says, “the author translated right tator, and was employed without any books of the Odyssey." At p. 98, he coadjutor.

says again, “the author trandated eig be Though Pope had spent ten years in books of the Odyffey.” And in the commenting and trandaring, he had Preface he' says, “ If my credit should very little reason to complain of his fail as a poet, I may have recourse to fate. « His subscribers to the Iliad were my remarks upon Homer, and be par575. The copies, for which subscrip. doned for my industry as the annotaror tions were given, were 654; for those in part upon the Iliad, and entirely upon copies he had nothing to pay. He the Odyssey," p. xii. He likewise obe cherefore received, including 2001. a ferves in a note, p. 47, that Fenton volume from Lintot, 53201. without translated four books of the Odyssey. deduction, as the books were supplied « The first copy of Pope's books, with by the bookseller. For each volume of those of Fenton, are to be seen,” says Johnche Odyfsey he received rool. The fun, " in the Museum. The parts of Pope number of his subscribers was 574, and are less interlined than the Iliad ; and the of copies 819.” On thefe occasions latter books of the Iliad less than the former. we may suppose that many pecuniary He grew dextrous by pr. tice ; and every compliments were paid him above the theet enabled him to write the next with fum ftipulated in the Proposals. So that more facility The books of Fenton have his profits, when he had paid his affift- very few alterations by the hand of Pope. ants, was very confiderable, and pro- Those of Broome have not been found ; buc cured him that ease and affluence which Pope complained, as it is reported, that he thousands of learned and ingenious men bad much trouble in correcting them.” have merired, and laboured to acquire ; On this extract I would observe, that but merited and laboured without fuc Johnson's account of Pope's complaint is cess.

only founded on report ; that it is im. The pallages in the Bathos, evidently poflible to determine whether Broome applied to Broome, contain only the or Pope thought himself more interested joitials of his name. The first is that in destroying the copy, and actually of the parrots already cited, marked suppressed it; that is, whether Broome with W.B. W. H. &c. The second, I wanted to conceal the great number, or believe, is that of the lortoises, which, Pope the paucity, of his corrections ; he says, are flow and chill, and, like and, lastly, upon a presumption chat the pastoral writers, delight much in gar- books which have not been found are dens. They have for the most part a

the translations of Broome, it may be fine embroidered thell, and underneath worth while to enquire if they are the it a heavy lump. A. P. W. B. L. E. faine that are afcribed to him by Johnthe Right Hon. E. of S. That is, I fon. If they are, this circumstance will suppose, A. Philips, William Broome, corroborate Mr. Spence's information. Lawrence Eusden, and the Earl of Whether any new light inay be The treatise on the Bathos was written thrown on the subject or not, by an in. in the year 1727

spection of the MSS. in the British MuIn this manner Pope seems to have leum, I shall leave to the invefligation pursued his coadjutor, as Johnson ob. of chole learned and ingenious gentieferves,"with avowed hoftility.” Broome had not, I apprehend, any inclination * Pope died May 30, 1744 ; Broome, to centend with an acrimonious and Nov. 16, 1745.


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