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and Ch, as heard in J-ew, q-ueen, wa-r and ch-ur-ch, thus increasing the number to forty-three. Of the vowel elements it may be said, that they flow freely from the throat, modified indeed, but not interrupted by the organs of the mouth. It is an interesting fact, that many words are formed upon this peculiarity of vowels. Thus, Aa, “a river,” which has been applied to eleven rivers in Westphalia, Switzerland and the Low Countries; the two As flowing on in sound, like the streams they designate. The Greek, too, marking the cease. less flight of time said aei,* the German, je, and the English, aye. The superiority of human speech for the expression of thought, is especially seen in the numerous articulations of which it is composed. These articulations are the consonants of language, and like the keys of the flute and the fingers of the musician, are ever varying and limiting, or to use a familiar, but expressive word, jointing the sound, which issues in full volume from the throat.

In treating of the physiological formation of the Consonants, you must carefully distinguish between the name and the nature of a letter. Thus ef designates the sound which is made by bringing the lower lip near the upper teeth, and then blowing through the narrow aperture between them, as in f-ather. Be is the name of another representative of sound, but while you cannot pronounce the name without opening the mouth, the sound is readily made within the closed lips; b-oy. To this confusion of terms, may be attributed the popular error that the mouth-sounds cannot be produced without the aid of a vowel; an absurdity which has received the sanction of time, and the embellishments of tradition.

In classing the sounds, it will be proper to enumerate them

* Signifying always, perpetually.

according as they are produced by the partial or perfect contact of the several pairs which have been specified.

TABLE OF Mouth-Sounds, or Articulations generally termed Consonants: Pairs of Organs. (Names of sounds Letters. | What Sounds. Root of the tongue Throat sounds K Ch QC|King choir, roqueen, and the palate. or Gutturals. like k; G cat,* gold, tax,

Ks Gz. exist. Upper surface of Palate sounds

Chime, James, the tongue and or palatals. Ch JLY roof of the mouth.

Law, Yes."

Tip of the tongue Tongue sounds T Th D Tell, Think, Did, and upper teeth. or Linguals. RN & Th Rod, No, Then. I

The two passa- Nose sounds Nk Ng N Think, s thing ges to the nostrils. or Nasals. M

тап.

Tip of the tongue Teeth sounds SCZ & Sell, Cell, Zone, and both rows of or Dentals. X like Z Xanthus. teeth.

F Ph PGh Fan, phase, laugh The Lips.

Lip sounds

like F; V Van, Boy, Man, or Labials. BM,& W Water, Ooater.

like oo By a glance at the articulations, you will perceive that they may be divided into two classes; the one of shadowy, whispering sounds, modified by particular positions of the organs; the

* Four letters or combinations have the sound of k. Ks & gz express the sounds of X.

† Ty would express ch; and dy, j. Refer to the account of Y.

$ Th in think, is the aspiration, and th in then, is the corresponding vocal.

$ In the nasal nk, the sound is stopped before the clear, ringing sound is produced.

and Ch, as heard in J-ew, q-ueen, wa-r and ch-ur-ch, thus increasing the number to forty-three. Of the vowel elements it may be said, that they flow freely from the throat, modified indeed, but not interrupted by the organs of the mouth. It is an interesting fact, that many words are formed upon this peculiarity of vowels. Thus, Aa, “a river,” which has been applied to eleven rivers in Westphalia, Switzerland and the Low Countries; the two As flowing on in sound, like the streams they designate. The Greek, too, marking the cease. less flight of time said aei,* the German, je, and the English, aye. The superiority of human speech for the expression of thought, is especially seen in the numerous articulations of which it is composed. These articulations are the consonants of language, and like the keys of the flute and the fingers of the musician, are ever varying and limiting, or to use a familiar, but expressive word, jointing the sound, which issues in full volume from the throat.

In treating of the physiological formation of the Consonants, you must carefully distinguish between the name and the nature of a letter. Thus ef designates the sound which is made by bringing the lower lip near the upper teeth, and then blowing through the narrow aperture between them, as in f-ather. Be is the name of another representative of sound, but while you cannot pronounce the name without opening the mouth, the sound is readily made within the closed lips; b-oy. To this confusion of terms, may be attributed the popular error that the mouth-sounds cannot be produced without the aid of a vowel; an absurdity which has received the sanction of time, and the embellishments of tradition.

In classing the sounds, it will be proper to enumerate them

* Signifying always, perpetually.

according as they are produced by the partial or perfect contact of the several pairs which have been specified.

TABLE OF Mouth-Sounds, or Articulations generally termed Consonants: Pairs of Organs, Names of sounds Letters. What Sounds. Root of the tongue Throat sounds K Ch QC King choir,queen, and the palate. or Gutturals. like k; G cat,* gold, tax,

Ks Gz. exist. Upper surface of Palate sounds

Chime, James, the tongue and or palatals. Ch JLY

Law, Yes. roof of the mouth.

Tip of the tongue Tongue sounds T Th D Tell, Think, Did, and upper teeth. or Linguals. RN & Th Rod, No, Then. I

The two passa. Nose sounds Nk Ng N Think, 9 thing ges to the nostrils.or Nasals. M

man.

Tip of the tongue Teeth sounds SCZ & Sell, Cell, Zone, and both rows of or Dentals. X like Z Xanthus. teeth.

F Ph PGh Fan, phase, laugh The Lips.

Lip sounds

like F; V Van, Boy, Man, or Labials.

BM,& W Water, Ooater.

like 00 By a glance at the articulations, you will perceive that they may be divided into two classes; the one of shadowy, whispering sounds, modified by particular positions of the organs; the

* Four letters or combinations have the sound of k. Ks & gz express the sounds of X.

+ Ty would express ch; and dy, j. Refer to the account of Y.

| Th in think, is the aspiration, and th in then, is the corresponde ing vocal.

In the nasal nk, the sound is stopped before the clear, ringing sound is produced.

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other of these very sounds made vocal or loud, by the action of the Larynx, at the will of the speaker. For, though the organs may assume any required position, volition is still necessary to the production of voice.

A distinct view of these two classes is given in the following

TABLE OF
Whispering Letters and their corresponding Vocals:
Names.
Sounds.

Letters. | Sounds.
Guttural, Croa king,

IK G As in good. X, as in axe,

Ks Gz As in exert. Palatal, Sneezing Ch, as in Ty* Dy

As J in major satchel. Lingual,

T D Lisping, as in nothing Th Tht Soft,as in then Dental, Hissing,

Z Whizzing. Hushing,

Sh Zh Soft J. I Labial, Pusfiing,

B Bleating.

V Breathing, |As in what, whirled. hW8W As in world. Nasal, As in clank.

Nk| Ng Clanging. Aspiration, Panting; as in he. H

As in ye.T his table presents very much of interest and instruction, but with a few comments, I leave it for your own investigation. The letters in the right hand column cannot be dis. tinguished from the corresponding aspirations, when sounded** in a whisper; since in this only, do they differ from them; viz. in possessing somewhat of vocality, or what is better

Aspirations or whispering sounds.

Whispering sounds made vocal.

Y

* The sound expressed by ch, is simply ty, satyel; Dy as J, madyor. † Sometimes represented by dh. | The French sound as in a-s-ure.

Generally written Wh, but the aspiration actually precedes. || Used only at the end of syllables. TY is a Palatal. ** Not the name, but the element.

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