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livered to the youths in such a manner casts upon the problem. The most imthat it may not only be passed on, but portant observation which the naturalist shall gather depth and elevation from has to make is that the system by which generation to generation.

this end is effected should be such as to The first duty of those who have a convey to each member of the society share in this great task — a share, in- enough of the motives of his kind to deed, falls to every man and woman insure his thorough initiation into the is to perceive that the social organiza- brotherhood of man. It is of course tion, with its traditions, its motives, and obviously impossible, in any complicated its learning, though a structure of many social system such as our own, to transparts, is, as before remarked, an organic mit to each youth any considerable share whole. Its true significance can be un- of the traditions and motives which rederstood only by those who look upon side in it. Therefore a selection must it, not as a thing of shreds and patches, be made; some of the young men or woas it is apt to appear on a hasty view, men are to enter on particular employbut as a structure like unto our own ments, and need the learning of their bodies in its complexity ; where the in- special occupations, – a learning which dividual parts have their separate life, would be useless to those of other callbut where the true being arises from ings. This system of division, already the association of their activities ; where begun, must evidently go far. All the health and disease are alike to be found. definite professions, such as law, medFurthermore, it must be remembered icine, engineering, the various employthat the social body, unlike the frames of ments where long training of eye and those who compose it, is to a great extent hand as well as skill of mind is required, determinable by the intelligence and the will have to be provided for by a cerforethoughtful labor of the men and wo- tain amount of special education. The men who share the benefits it confers. main point is to attain this end in such Thus, while such societies are to a great a manner that the youth may not, in extent spontaneous, and exist even in gaining his special training, be too far highly developed forms without the con- separated from the best traditions of his scious care of their members, their best people. success, the elevation to which we may The educator who considers his prohope to see them attain, depends upon blems in the large way clearly sees the intelligence and self - devotion of that the important task is to put each their citizens. Those who bear the re- student in possession of the motives of sponsibilities of teachers are particularly his kind in such a way that the transcharged with the implantation of these mission will have the most improving motives in the social structure ; for it is effect; he looks upon all specialization only from the growth of such an under which demands or threatens to require standing that we may hope to elevate the separation of the youth from the human society to its highest attainable general current of cultivation as an evil ; plane. Clearly, their most eminent task he naturally seeks every means of acis to make men see the history of their commodation by which the end of the present status, and their duty in the light specialist can be attained withont divertof this understanding.

ing the student too far from the main Coming now to the special duties of tide of those influences which experience those whose province it is to care for has shown to be uplifting. This view as the immediate tasks connected with the to the need of general culture in educatransmission of learning, let us see what tion is by no means novel : it has found light the natural history of the matter more or less expression in the writings

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of the great students of such deliberate intention of separating the questions ; it is distinctly indicated in education of engineers from that deemed the system of education which we have appropriate for the gentry or the men inherited ; it is indeed at the foundation of the learned walks of life. The partof our plan of common school education, ing of the old and new educations clearand finds its fullest expression in our ly rests in the main upon the rather pregreater universities.

posterous assumption that the modern or So long as the store of culture re- scientific arts are in a way less respectamained in a form where it could be ap- ble or dignified than the ancient and more propriated in something like its fullness culture-breeding occupations, and in part by each seeker, the system of schooling upon the belief that the new employments which, from the time of the Greeks require less well informed men than the through successive advancements, culmi- old. Other and equally unfounded asnated in the modern university, served sumptions occasionally have a share in the cause of education in a fairly com- determining the separation of the schools plete way. The student who was so for- of applied science from the established tunate as to be destined to receive an institutions of culture. Now and then extended training began his tasks with it is urged that the spirit of the univerthe theory that the first eighteen years sities is disengaged from the practical or so of his life should be devoted to affairs of men, so that the students in the acquisition of the large inheritances them fail to acquire that sense of duty of knowledge, and that on this general and devotion to it which is demanded in foundation his special training of a pro- the bread-winning occupations. Again, fessional nature should be made to rest : we hear that time and money, those elethe lawyer, the clergyman, and the phy- ments of capital which have ever to be sician had in most cases the same pre- considered, are alike janting in the case liminary education. With the recent ad- of our youths who are to take charge of vance of science and the development the practical work of the world. of the arts which depend upon the new Separately stated, and taken without learning, there has been a tendency to an understanding as to the place in the specialize the education of engineers, transmission of learning which, after chemists, and the other men who deal many centuries of experience, has been with the new professions, so ordering assigned to universities, these arguments their training that they are entirely sep- for the separation of mechanical and inarated from their brethren of other in- dustrial education from the old culture tellectual employments. This seems to seem plausible, but in a large analysis of me in its nature a mistake which every the situation they are seen to be fallacious. considerate educator should deplore. No one who has come to understand the

The first, and as yet the most evident relation of the application of energy to tendency to specialize our education, so our civilization can doubt that, in the that each profession may have the largest world's esteem, the engineer is soon to share of time for the training of those take the place of the military man, and who seek to enter it, is seen in the that those who are to app'y force in the establishment of technical schools, with peaceful occupations of the arts are to their plan of work so arranged that have a station coequal, at least, with that their students seek no learning which of the soldier who devotes his life to the does not more or less directly bear upon ancient and destructive uses of power. the craft they intend to pursue. These Whatever of opprobrium may at first detached trade schools originated in Eu- have pertained to mechanical tasks will rope, where they were founded with the disappear as their intellectual station

every citizen.

comes to be recognized, as it needs must of comfort and spiritual advantage to be. The notion that these modern occupations do not call for the same en- It is evident that the foregoing conJarging education that has been devoted siderations bring us to the problem as to the old professions is likewise due to to the place and functions of the univera misconception. It is necessary, in- sity in our modern life. Although the deed, that those who are engaged in the question is far too large to be treated great industrial revolutions should un- adequately in this writing, there are derstand the nature of those societies in certain general facts deserving of notice which their work is to be done. We which may be briefly set forth. In the are surely right in demanding for them first place, it seems plain that this great all the enlargement of perspective given business of handing down the intellecby the training which is to prepare the tual capital of society must be lodged in theologian, the jurist, or the physician. some institution. It cannot safely be left

If it be in any measure true that our to haphazard. At first, and through long universities are, by their motives, sepa- experiment, essays were made in giving rated from our economic life, and that over this work to the churches; the rethey fail to inform their pupils concern- sult was failure. In the later time, which ing such important matters, it is because has indeed not yet passed away, an enthey do not have among their students deavor was made to confide these interand teachers a due number of those who ests to civil governments, to states which are concerned with the modern callings. had already quite enough to do in carThe claim should be, not for a plan which ing for other interests. It seems to me will still further separate these agents clear that if there is to be any headship, for the transmission of learning from the any source of direction, in our educative body of the people, but rather for mea- work, it must be found in the universures which may remedy the defect, and sities, the only institutions which have make the universities effective in trans- proved themselves in any way fit to dismitting the new as they have been in charge this duty. handing down the ancient culture.

If we look upon universities as insti. As for the claim that time and money tutions which are to maintain and guide cannot be spared for the education of the spirit whịch leads to the transmission men who are to devote themselves to of learning ; if we expect from them acengineering and mechanic arts, except complishment comparable to that of the within the limits of their immediate ner churches in caring for religion, or of the cessities, the argument is no stronger state in guarding civil liberty, certain than it is when applied to those who are very grave responsibilities are seen to to enter on the old professions. Pushed' rest upon them. Their first duty is to to its legitimate conclusion, it would limit provide all classes of men with a large an extended education to youths of share of those impulses and understandwealth and prospective leisure. It is, ings which have controlled human promoreover, clear that, decade by decade, gress. Their function is, so far as in through the advance of the mechanic them lies, to see that none go forth to. arts, our societies are able to devote more the directing work of the world without wealth to the enlargement of promising some guiding sense of those motives youths. This is no time to begin to pau- which have inspired civilization. So far perize our education. Least of all is it as the system of our universities hinders fit that its advantages should be denied or does not favor this end, it should be that class of men to whom we look with reformed. If they are to guide in the confidence for an ever-increasing share transmission of learning, they must deal

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with the matter in a broad and inclusive ation and enlargement of these estabway.

lishments have now made it possible for It seems to me that without determined that school to provide departments in plan, without, indeed, any conscious un- 'which the student may make himself fit derstanding of the conditions, our uni- for eight different occupations which deversities have already gone far on the mand a science training. This brief hisway of preparing themselves to deal tory of the enlargement and application with the varied culture of our modern of instruction in Harvard University is life. To take but one instance, chosen but an illustration of what has been gobecause of no favor, but for the reason ing on in every important seat of culthat it alone is well known to me, I may ture in this country. set forth the steps by which Harvard There are other ways in which our University has pushed forward in the universities have gone forth towards the work of adapting the instruction which work of the world. So far as the elecit gives to the needs of this country. tive systems of the University of VirFor about a century and a half the re- ginia and of Harvard College have been quirements of the public seemed to be extended, they have enabled the student sufficiently met by the ancient college. to combine his work of culture for its The first enlargement led to the estab- own sake with the preparation for a calllishment of separate schools which met ing. It seems certain that we shall enthe needs of the ancient professions, ter on the next century with a college divinity, medicine, and law. With the system which will lead men towards beginning of the present half century rather than away from the paths of prowe note a further effort to adapt the fessional duties. The experience with system of instruction to the more dif- elective work appears sufficient to show ferentiated state of public affairs. The that culture in the best sense is not to Lawrence Scientific School was estab- be lost by this liberty which has been lished, and in rapid succession schools granted to peculiar capacities and needs. of agriculture and horticulture, dentistry In the schools of science which have and veterinary surgery were founded. A been established alongside of the colnumber of great establishments, having leges, a successful effort has been made research for their primary object, and yet to adapt the entrance requirements to of teaching value, have grown up

within the instruction given in the public high the university. The Astronomical Obser- schools. As the elective system makes vatory, the Arnold Arboretum, the Mu- head in these secondary institutions of seum of Comparative Zoology, and the learning, the way will be opened by Peabody Museum of American Ethnolo which the children of the people may gy and Archæology, as well as several pass directly to the undergraduate work other lesser laboratories of research, in- of the universities. dicate something of the progress which It now appears that the conditions has been made in adapting this institu- which led, in the greater number of our tion to the needs of our society.

American institutions, to the grouping Of late years, the work of fitting the of professional schools around an original university system to the public need has college, or seat of what has been termed in good part been accomplished through pure culture, afford certain peculiar adthe enlargement effected in the Lawrence vantages. To the college proper we Scientific School. When first instituted, may assuredly look for the perpetuation this school was scantily supported by of those ancient ideals of learning to laboratories and the other elements of which we need so far as possible to conplant demanded in its work. The cre- form in all our advancement. Experi

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ence shows, in Harvard University at to assume a directing function, in the least, that we may trust to the dissemina- task of transmitting the body and spirit tion of this spirit throughout the whole of learning. It is clear that our people of a great establishment. Teachers and have been right in their curious affecpupils alike acquire those enlarged views tion for these establishments. They of education which we cannot hope to have, after the manner of free men, disdevelop under any other conditions. In cerned something of the great work this spontaneous response of our univer- which these institutions were to do. In sities to the demand which our American proportion as they see the task the more public make upon them we have the clearly, we may expect them to magnify best possible evidence as to their fitness this work.

N. S. Shaler.

LOWELL, BROOKS, AND GRAY IN THEIR LETTERS.

Of all devices for trapping personal- vancement of learning or the enrichity, perhaps the private letter is the ment of the spirit. Lowell's writings most effective. Men have been known were gathered and revised by their auto box themselves up in a sonnet, and thor shortly before his death ; the six an autobiography, if long enough, may volumes of Brooks's sermons, his lechave a corner in which the person is at tures on preaching, and his noble tract on last discovered; but letters, whether they toleration form no mean precipitate of a tell what the writer knows or what he life which ran eloquence; and the libradoes, are often fairly indicative of what ry of Gray's work in botanical science he is. There is just enough of form is well represented by the volumes which about them to distinguish them from the he published, and those collected after his amorphism of talk; not so much as to death from his scattered writings. Yet, drive out the spontaneity which betrays though one may have had this previous the secret of self. And if, when we acquaintance, rather because he has had read letters, we know enough of the it, he will discover in these several groups writer otherwise to apply the necessary of letters new and delightful modes of correctives and explanations, the letters access to the men themselves. are often singularly interpretative, and In a letter to Mr. Fields, who had apespecially valuable for giving just that parently been waving his wand over him comprehensive look at a person which to conjure a novel, Lowell makes the almost justifies us in saying that we confession : “ As for the novel, in the know him.

first place I can't write one, nor conceive The season has brought us an unusual how any one else can ; and in the next gift in three books which contain, with — I would sooner be hanged than begin a minimum of editorial intrusion, por- to print anything before I had wholly traits thus self-drawn of three notable finished it. ... The truth is, my brain Americans of our generation, a great requires a long brooding time ere it can humanist, a great preacher, and a great hatch anything. As soon as the life savan. It is possible in each case to comes into the thing it is quick enough approach the subject with a tolerably in chipping the shell.” In these two full knowledge of the deliberate contri- sentences Lowell hits off well the limibution each has made toward the ad- tations and the familiar working of his

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