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mineral wealth, moulder away on the so as to get them to the points where banks of great rivers. Their streets were the demands of trade require them withonce thronged with buyers and sellers, out pulling them empty. Very frequentthe hearts of the citizens were full of ly, also, it occurs where this contest behope and courage, projects of enterprise tween trade centres comes in. My own and improvement were in the air. All line is occasionally used by its patrons this life has vanished, and gloom and as an instrument of warfare to protect dejection brood everywhere. The prin- their territory and their business. We cipal factor in this dilapidation has been are dependent upon St. Louis for a large the railroad, upon which they built all share of our patronage, and we must join their hopes, but which has made it prac- the

army and fight when war is declared. tically impossible to do business except The Chairman. What do you mean at terminal points.

by your patrons ? The patrons along the Mr. George W. Parker, vice-president line, inland ? and general manager of the St. Louis “ Mr. Parker. No, sir; not so much & Cairo Short Line, testified before the as I mean my patrons at the terminal Senate Committee on Interstate Com- points. . . It sometimes happens merce, in 1885, as to the necessities and I wish it were more seldom the conditions of through and local freight combination of circumstances arises, by rates on his line between St. Louis and which, in order to protect our patrons Cairo. The following excerpt from his here, we are compelled to accept a shiptestimony will be of interest as represent- ment from them at less, perhaps, than ing the views of a gentleman thoroughly it would cost us to do that particular well informed, and certainly not hostile service.” to the railroads :

When it is considered that in the The Chairman. Suppose that you State of Iowa, for instance, the local were to carry the freights that you gather business constitutes only about twenty along the line of your road for the same per cent, and the through business about rate that you carry through freight to eighty per cent of the total, and the Cairo, or wherever it is going, what would losses on the four-fifths traffic must be be the consequence ?

made up by overburdening the one-fifth, Mr. Parker. Bankruptcy, inevita- it is easy to imagine what must be the bly and speedily.

effect on the business of the small places, The Chairman. Do you carry and how slender must be their chance freight from St. Louis to Cairo, or from when the industrial war is on, and the Cairo to St. Louis, at less than it costs mighty influence of the railways is you to run the trains or to pay the cur- thrown wholly on the side of the big rent expenses of those trains ?

cities. Mr. Parker. Yes, sir; sometimes A glance at the census figures shows we carry through freight at less than the that some kind of blight bas fallen upon expense of performing the service. I the country districts, from which the shall have to answer in the affirmative, cities have been exempt. The astoundthough we do as little of this as possible. ing growth in the population of the cities Circumstances force us to work for no- has been in great measure directly at thing, occasionally.

the expense of the rural communities. The Chairman. Does that help you, While the city of Indianapolis increased or help anybody else any, except the man 32,389 between 1880 and 1890, or fortywho owns the freight ?

three per cent, forty - nine counties in Mr. Parker. Yes, sir ; it frequently the State remained practically stationary, helps us in the distribution of our cars, and twenty-one counties actually lost

population, some of them quite heavily. there is literally no opening for young It is absurd to imagine that there was men, and no alternative but to go away, in 1880 any surplus population in those it is manifest that the railroads are greattwenty-one counties ; the mere natural ly aiding the cities in drawing to themexcess of births over deaths should have selves the best and the worst from the added materially to their numbers. This country, and every moment are increasexodus has not been peculiar to In- ing the magnitude of the municipal prodiana. Twenty counties in Michigan, blem, which is already one of the most between 1884 and 1890, exhibited the alarming and formidable questions that

, same decline, while Detroit, the princi- confront us. pal terminal point in the State, showed This process has been steadily builda steady and rapid advance. It is not ing up great cities to be the menace of difficult to see whence came the hun. free institutions ; the confluence not only dreds of thousands who have poured into of wealth and business, but of pauperism

, New York and Chicago during the last and misery, of political rottenness and decade. The map of Michigan illus- industrial slavery. Here labor toils in trates in a striking way the wasting great prison-pens, and lodges in teneeffects of railway discrimination against ments reeking with disease; here the the rural districts. Of the twenty coun- enemies of society gather, and in the ties which actually retrograded during midst of filth and hunger plant seeds of the period mentioned, nearly all lie in anarchy; here poverty breeds crime, the southern portion of the State, and and crime poverty. The mighty centriCass, St. Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Le- petal force has sucked into this mael. nawee, and Monroe constitute one black strom millions of human lives that are streak of decaying communities from De- daily growing more wretched and helptroit to Chicago. It cannot be doubt- less. Every neighboring village sends ed that the railroads have been the most its delegation of exiles, the defeated and potent factor in the economic life of the broken down, to swell the wretchedness people of these counties. What is it in of New York, where one in ten of all railroad management which has laid such the funerals is said to go to the potter's a heavy hand


field. It is not, of course, fancied that the in- People have been so long accustomed equality of railroad facilities is the only to “point with pride” to the wonderful force driving people cityward. Ambi- growth of our cities that they have failed tion, the monotony of rural life, the fas- to note sufficiently the cost at which cinations of the city, the American spirit it has been effected ; at most they have of restlessness and desire for change, regarded it as an inevitable tendency of the cheapness and universality of travel, the times, analogous to the centraliza— all these impel the farmer's boy to tion so manifest everywhere. That it leave the farm for the village, and the is very largely the result of an universal village boy to long for the metropolis. denial of equal transportation privileges ; These tendencies are in the air, in the a gross injustice to thousands of isolated conditions of the times, and in the char- communities; a wrong which, if perpeacter of the people ; and when to all these trated by government, would lead to rewe add that every enterprising village volution, has been too often overlooked. tradesman finds himself handicapped by The refusal of simple justice to a thouhigh railroad rates, and trampled upon sand villages in a matter vitally affecting in every railroad war, and if he is really their every interest is the charge now ambitious soon transfers his business to a laid at the door of the railroad system. large city, and that in every small town That this injustice has aided the growth and wealth of fifty cities is not an ad- and contented toil would fill the streets missible answer.

of towns that are now deserted. The part the railroads play in the The evils of discrimination are no new rush of population to the cities is well thing. They have occupied the attention worth serious investigation. The problem of Congress and the state legislatures for of our cities is urgent. The control of many years. The existence of the evils our largest cities seems to have passed cannot be denied. How to remove them definitely into the hands of their worst is the great problem. Some twenty States, citizens. Occasionally things become as well as the general government, have intolerably bad, and then the better tried to control them by means of comelements combine, and a temporary im- missions. They have all undoubtedly done provement is effected; but the deep and some good ; but the States are, by the muddy stream of immigration pours in Constitution, expressly shut out from infrom Europe; the suction from the coun- terfering with interstate commerce, and try, drawing good and bad alike, con- the larger part of the evils felt have pertinues unabated; and in a year or two tained to commerce crossing state lines. a new voting population has come in The railroads of the country made a which has to be educated. The vicious grand pretense of trying to prevent the principle of allowing partisan politics to passage of the Interstate Commerce Law govern in municipal affairs throws the and the establishment of the Interstate reins once more into the hands of the Commerce Commission ; but these few bosses, and the old shameful round be- years have been abundantly sufficient to gins again.

prove that the law was a railroad meaThe rural districts and the small sure, the chief effect of which has been towns still hold three fourths of the to enable the railroads partially to supvotes, but they do not hold one fourth press the great abuse of free passes, to of the power. The vote of New York collect an important body of informacity determines nearly every national tion, and to attract the attention of many election. Still, if the small towns and students to this gigantic and difficult the country could see that the present problem. The hope of making the compolicy of railway discrimination is pow- mission anything more than a bureau of erfully contributing to the influences that statistics seems very faint. The law has are concentrating the national life in the doubtless been of benefit in securing some great cities, and immeasurably adding to publicity of rates, but the inveterate evils the burdens of business in every rural of discrimination, especially against locommunity, it is possible that an awak- calities, remain untouched. As long as ened public opinion would demand such freight agents are full of zeal and enterchanges in the laws and in the railway prise, through freight will be captured practices as would give every locality an at whatever it will pay, local traffic will equal chance. The home, which is to have to pay for itself and through traffic the workingman of New York as unat- also, and village communities will have tainable as a throne, would be possible the breath of life squeezed out of them in a village. The small independent in a hopeless struggle with terminal comworkshop, granted the same access to petitors. Both the managers and their the public highway as the great factory, critics seem to be coming rapidly to would struggle up into life and activity; the conclusion that only by operating the the industrial population, finding it pos- railroads as a single organic whole will sible to obtain work elsewhere than in these evils ever be removed. The railcrowded cities, would build up thousands roads have long contended that competiof thriving villages, and the hum of busy tion makes discrimination unavoidable :


experience appears to be showing every every kind, uncontrollable and destrucday more conclusively that this is true, tive, or else a coalition so gigantic and and at the same time proving that com- so omnipotent as to hold all the induspetitive private ownership means combi- tries of the nation in its grasp. The nation alternating with war, accompanied alternative is nationalization or a univerby discriminations, personal and local, of sal pool.

Henry J. Fletcher.


It would seem strange to hear any lated among the teachers of the country. reasonably well - informed man of our Another school for the training of teachtime assert that teachers cannot be aid- ers was opened at Lancaster, Mass., in ed in their work by special training; and 1827, by James G. Carter, sometimes yet it has not been so long since the most called the “father of the normal school; intelligent and observing men have come but it was not until Horace Mann took to hold this opinion. Not so many years charge of school matters in Massachuago, an English schoolmaster, Richard setts that the normal school idea took Mulcaster, first promulgated the then substantial root in the school system of unheard-of doctrine that teaching, like our country. By his efforts three northe practice of medicine or law, was an mal schools were opened in Massachuart that could be acquired and perfect- setts, about 1840: one at Lexington, one ed by familiarizing one's self with the at Barré, and one at Westfield, with peculiar conditions and characteristics “Father Pierce,” Samuel J. May, and which distinguish it from other arts. In C. B. Tillinghast, respectively, as prinour own country, the stormy times dur. cipals; and although a very vigorous ating the first years of the normal school tack was made on these schools by the illustrate the notion, then prevalent, that legislature of Massachusetts in 1840, still skillfulness in teaching depends upon a they are all in existence at the present sort of instinct which will show itself at time; the location of the schools at Lexthe appropriate time, without any spe- ington and Barré, however, having been cial attention being paid to it. It seems changed several times, until they are now that our early forefathers held stoutly permanently situated at Framingham and to this, for the first note in favor of spe- Bridgewater. cial training for teachers in the colonies The report of the committee appointwas sounded in the Massachusetts Mag- ed by the legislature of Massachusetts azine for June, 1789, by one supposed to investigate the work of these new into be Elisha Ticknor ; but it was not un- stitutions is very interesting, as showtil a number of years afterward, about ing what the law-makers of that period 1824, that a school was established whose thought about the art of teaching and avowed purpose it was to train teachers. the way it is acquired. “Academies This school was opened at Concord, Vt., and high schools,” they said, “ cost the by Samuel R. Hall, who, a little later, Commonwealth nothing; and they are published the Lectures on Teaching, fully competent, in the opinion of the which constituted the only book litera- committee, to furnish a competent supture on this subject for a number of ply of teachers. . . . It appears to your years, and which was very widely circu- committee that every person who has himself undergone the process of instruc- schools, and many others under private tion must acquire by that very process control ; and in many States, as Massathe art of instructing others.” But these chusetts, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Kenwere not the opinions of the most emi- tucky, where normal schools have long nent men of that period, for at the open- been in existence, there is a constant deing of the first normal school at Lexing- mand being made for the establishment ton President John Quincy Adams said: of others. Nor is this all, for chairs “ We see monarchs expending vast sums and departments of pedagogy have been establishing normal schools throughout founded in many colleges and universitheir realms, and sparing no pains to ties, and several normal and teachers' convey knowledge and efficiency to all colleges have been opened in different the children of their poorest subjects. parts of the land. ... Shall monarchies steal a march on In the foundation of teachers' semirepublics in the patronage of that edu- naries and normal schools, both in this cation on which a republic is based ?” country and abroad, one main purpose And Daniel Webster said on the same has been kept in view; and that is the occasion : “This plan of a normal school training of teachers for the common for Plymouth County is designed to ele schools, such as are usually supported in vate our common schools, and thus carry whole or in part at public expense. It out the noble idea of our Pilgrim Fa- is a very natural inference that if the thers. ... Now, if normal schools are State supports a certain grade of schools, to teach teachers, they enlist this interest and compels attendance upon them, it on the right side ; they make parents should go further, and provide competent and all who [in] any way influence child- teachers for them; and this is what the hood competent for their high office.” public normal school system of this and

The normal school idea had become other countries is expected to do. It is too firmly implanted in the minds of a well-known fact, however, that a large those familiar with educational needs to percentage of the common schools of our be uprooted by the hostile report of a country do not get their teachers in any committee, and so the founding of nor- considerable numbers from the normal mal schools, public and private, pushed schools ; yet it is these schools that the forward, although with some opposition, State is chiefly interested in, and that it in all parts of our country. It was not, maintains, free of expense, for the benehowever, until the normal school at Os- fit of all its citizens. But at present the wego, N. Y., had been in operation for State not only supports elementary inseveral years that the American public struction in the common schools ; it also agreed that this sort of school had a aids secondary education by its substanrightful and useful place in our system tial encouragement in a financial way of of education, — if indeed it can truly be the public high school system ; and it said that our people have even yet be- naturally follows that if the State gives come thoroughly convinced of this. True aid to secondary education, it should be it is, at any rate, that people interested anxious, or at least it should not object, practically in educational work flocked to have its contributions made good use to Oswego from all parts of the country of in the high school by the employto witness the wonders to be seen there; ment of good teachers, such as the norand they generally went home to estab- mal school is expected to produce. This lish normal schools in the States and leaves the normal school free to fit teachcities from which they came, until at the ers for the secondary as well as the elepresent time there are upwards of one mentary schools; or rather, it gives norhundred and thirty-five public normal mal school graduates liberty, and even

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