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elsewhere, that a spreading cosmopolitan- it. But if there is hope for its future, ism is the great characteristic of mod- this must be read in a wiser employern times; that it embraces ever more ment of its riches, not in their willful, and more the legacies of all the nations and therefore untruthful limitation; in of the past as well as the teachings of a clearer, more sensible, sensitive, and all the nations of the present ; that it exact, and consequently more artistic renmust mean the growth of eclecticism in dering of personal feeling, not in its thought and action; and that — break- oppression and suppression under an anaing down barriers of place and time, chronistic yoke of general conformity. weakening the integrity of national and Instead of anticipating the establishment local types, and increasing the materials of a new style,” Mr. Van Brunt defor exact self-expression — it must also

it must also clares, — and, we believe, with entire mean the accentuation of personality. veracity, - we ought to anticipate a time Architecture now truthfully expresses when, various and eclectic as they may this great characteristic and all its con- be, our buildings will each and all possequences, just as, in earlier times, it

style” in the sense of unity, harexpressed the consequences of localiza- mony, clarity, logically conceived and tion, limitation, intense nationalism, and logically completed force and charm. community in aims and ideas. Should We should like to see some wellwe not look forward to a day when it may equipped student of poetry discuss in how develop beauty and power from its pre- far Mr. Van Brunt is right to blame sent kind of truth, rather than dream of the poets of the world — as he does in a day when it may become powerful and his final chapter - because they have beautiful by striving for a kind of truth never described architectural forms, and which changed conditions have turned definitely interpreted their historical, into falsehood ? Even if we think mod- æsthetic, and emotional significance ; beern English literature inferior to that of cause they have merely noted the emoElizabeth's time or of Anne's, we do not tions aroused in the casual beholder, or lay the blame to the fact that it is less at most have sketched them in an “iminsular in spirit ; nor do we say that it pressionistic” manner.

It would need, ought to concentrate itself upon one or however, to be a long discussion, for it two literary forms, as Elizabethan writers would involve the whole question in how concentrated themselves upon the drama, far an art which appeals to the mind eighteenth-century writers upon the es- through words may try to portray artistic say and the heroic couplet. We recog- creations which speak primarily to the nize that new and wider times demand a eye.

Mr. Van Brunt's own essay in denew scope, a new eclecticism, and a new scriptive verse is singularly charming; degree of personal independence in lit- but we think its best passages are not erature; and, as Mr. Van Brunt shows, those which describe the church portal we ought to recognize the same thing which he takes as his theme, but those with regard to architecture.

which characterize the intentions and To-day our architecture is in a transi- emotions of its builders. tion state ; it has lost the old simplicity, It is, of course, through mere slips of the old homogeneity, and it is as yet the pen that, on page 138, Mr. Van unable to digest that enormous wealth Brunt dates the palace of Diocletian at of material, to utilize rightly that new Spalatro from the end of the second in

, chance for personality in expression, stead of the third century, and, on page which the development of the human 104, speaks of “the strong Gothic of mind and the enlargement of the artis- the early Cistercian abbeys.” " The first tic horizon have inevitably forced upon

churches in which the austere tenets of

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the Cistercian order were embodied be- Mr. Van Brunt does but follow the long to the beginning of the twelfth cen- example of all other historians when he tury; and it was the florid Romanesque, says that the new principle of construcfostered by Clunisian builders, which tion from which all the forms of meprovoked St. Bernard, standing in the diæval art were to develop — the printypical Clunisian church at Vézelay, to ciple involved in “the starting of the the passionate declaration that its “bi- arch directly from the capitals of columns zarre and monstrous figures,” carried without the interposition of the horizoneven into the sanctuary itself, had no- tal entablature” – was learned by early thing Christian about them. Mr. Van Christian builders from Diocletian's Brunt is much too well trained in the palace. But one wishes that he could history of his art not to know this ; and have been prompted to inaugurate a therefore we may likewise see but a mo- more accurate manner of speech with mentary forgetfulness in his assertion, regard to this important building. Of on page 216, that the modern revival of course it is the one great landmark, Gothic in England" is the only instance the one known and dated building in in history of a moral revolution in art.” certain parts of which columns and More purely moral than this, less com- arches were used with no trace of an plicated with sentimental and patriotic entablature between them. But it is ideas, was the Cistercian revolt against hard to believe that it taught or influluxury in art. Of course it was not a enced, directly or indirectly, all the early revolution in the sense that it established Christian builders who worked in a simia new structural system, introduced a lar way. It was a famous building, but new style, in the usually accepted mean- was not in a prominent, accessible situaing of the term. But if one compares

tion; between the fourth and eighth cenCistercian Romanesque with other con- turies the age was one of artistic disintemporary forms, — if, for instance, one tegration, and also, almost everywhere compares the heavy, severe, and bald in- in the West, of dire artistic necessity. terior of St. Trophimus at Arles with the Many builders must have experimented, portal or with the cloister of the same without knowledge of what their brechurch, — the difference between them, thren were doing or recently had done ; as expressions of the history of human and a new .use of column and arch is thought and feeling, seems greater than just the experiment that would most natthat between Victorian Gothic and Vic- urally be forced upon them. Using, as torian Renaissance, despite the fact that we know they did, ready-made columns the round arch is used in both. The taken from ruined Roman works, and luxuriant native Romanesque of Provence being, as we know they were, deficient was, indeed, practically killed by the in skill, and often in good materials, Cistercian “reform ;” and without our of them must have sprung their knowledge of the intense moral passion arches of small stones directly from their which inspired this reforın, it would be borrowed capitals, with no more thought impossible to understand how the same of principles or precedents than of the communities, in the same half - century, weighty consequences which were to recould have practiced two forms of art so sult from the general adoption of the radically unlike.

new device. VOL. LXXIII. NO. 440.


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Literature and Literary History. No in- invention of printing, — the only period, intimation is given of the number of volumes deed, in the world's history in which the to be devoted to George William Curtis's ownership of ideas has been established upon Orations and Addresses, but the three dig- a firm basis. Much that is curious and innified octavos already published, each with teresting in the centuries that went before is its index, divide well the bulk of his oratori- related in this preliminary volume. — The cal labor; for the first is on the Principles Book-Hunter in Paris, Studies among the and Character of American Institutions and Bookstalls and the Quays, by Octave Uzanne, the Duties of American Citizens, the second with a Preface by Augustine Birrell. (Mccontains Addresses and Reports of the Re- Clurg.) The writer seems to have enjoyed form of the Civil Service of the United himself thoroughly in his browsings along States, and the third consists of Historical the parapets of the left bank of the Seine, and Memorial Addresses. The buoyancy of and he has succeeded in putting the spirit Mr. Curtis's nature, and the loyalty to high of his pleasure into this book. It is a most ideals which he displayed in public life, more leisurely work, with an appropriate touch particularly, will render these addresses in- of bookishness in its manner. Without a spiriting and fruitful long after the imme- suspicion of haste, and with a delightful lack diate occasion for their delivery has passed. of formality, it brings together a considerWe wish especially that the volumes may able array of anecdote, tradition, and unprebe read and re-read by college students. tentious biography. Most agreeable of all (Harpers.) --The English Religious Drama, its records is that of M. Xavier Marmier, by Katharine Lee Bates. (Macmillan.) The and of the dinner which, in accordance with larger part of this excellent book is devoted his will and in memory of the pleasure the to the Miracle Plays of old England, and stalls had afforded him, was given soon after the writer's sympathetic study has served his death to ninety-five booksellers of the to show very clearly what they were and left bank. - The Builders of American Litwhat they signified, both in their time and erature, Biographical Sketches of American in preparing the way for the development Authors born Previous to 1826, by Francis of the later drama. The author has been H. Underwood. (Lee & Shepard.) More very happy in her descriptions of these than twenty years ago Mr. Underwood pubearly plays, for she has selected and com- lished his two Hand-Books of English Litermented upon just enough of the right pas- ature. Now, instead of merely revising the sages to satisfy the curiosity of a reader volume that dealt with American writers, who cannot make the selections for himself. he has found the necessary changes so many Nor does one quite forget that the writer and the additions so considerable as to renis a woman. Who else would have spoken der advisable the preparation of two new of Adam as “overcome by his masculine volumes, of which this is the first. After curiosity”? – Authors and their Public in an Historical Introduction, he provides the Ancient Times, by George llaven Putnam. reader with sketches and estimates of more (Putnams.) The author's services in be- than a hundred writers of the generations half of international copyright have already passed and passing. There is, indeed, no given evidence of his interest in the ques- dearth of pathetic suggestion in the array tion of literary property. Nor is this the of names which, though they could not have first book that he has put forth upon the been omitted from such a book as this, are subject. It is by no means intended as the in reality names, and nothing more. - The last, for Mr. Putnam announces his purpose Annual Literary Index for 1893, edited, of bringing the history of the relations of with the Coöperation of Members of the author, publisher, and public up to the pre- American Library Association and of the sent day. This book, dealing cursorily with Library Journal Staff, by W. I. Fletcher and various Eastern countries, and more specifi- R. R. Bowker. (Publishers' Weekly, New cally with Greece and Rome, is but a preface York.) The editors of this useful book to a study of the period beginning with the have taken a comprehensive view of their function ; for not only do they provide an be called the Napoleonic revival. In this Index to Periodicals, but they give the con- voluminous work, M. Lévy undertakes to tents of a considerable body of literature, prove that his hero was “the personification some sixscore books, which are made up of of all the virtues of the middle class ;" his collections, like volumes of essays, studies bourgeois Napoleon being alike exemplary in literature and biography, and the like, an and admirable as son, husband, father, author-index to both lists, a list of biblio- friend, and master, a man only too trustgraphies published either separately or in ing, generous, long - suffering, and kindconnection with treatises, and, finally, a ne- hearted. “If,” says the author, “ the hucrology of writers deceased in 1893. — The man heart may be compared to a lyre, of Boundaries of Music and Poetry, a Study which each cord represents

virtue or a in Musical Æsthetics, by Wilhelm August defect, we may affirm that in Napoleon it Ambros. Translated from the German by was the cord of humanity that vibrated J. H. Cornell. (G. Schirmer, New York.) most loudly.” M. Lévy is a diligent comIf easy reading is hard writing, it would piler from the whole body of Napoleonic be natural to infer, by contraries, that this histories and memoirs, naturally using only treatise was easily written. Yet the infer- such excerpts as he thinks will serve to ence would reckon without the author's evi- strengthen his position ; and he shows condent breadth of musical knowledge, and his siderable skill as a collector, with little hardihood in grappling such themes as the critical insight in the use of the material subtle interrelations of music and literature. thus collected. It should be said that his The book is professedly for “musicians and idea of the virtuous bourgeois is essentially cultivated amateurs ;" especially, it appears, Gallic, and, quite unconsciously as it would composers, actual or potential. Under the seem, he makes almost obtrusively appare title The Temple Shakespeare, J. M. Dent ent some of the pettiest and most unlovely & Co., London, have begun the issue of the traits in his hero's character ; and it is, after separate plays in separate small volumes, all, the ingrained vulgarity of the great man very prettily made and at a low price. The which impresses the reader most strongly. text is that of the Cambridge Shakespeare, Such value as the book possesses is seriousand a glossary at the end of the volume ly impaired by the absence of an index. — takes the place of footnotes. The Tem- Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots in pest is the first play given. — The Ariel edi- France, by P. F. Willert, M. A. Heroes tion of Shakespeare, little volumes of single of the Nations Series. (Putnams.) The plays, clearly printed from fair type, mak- plan of this work compels the author not ing about a hundred and fifty pages each, only to tell the story of the great Béarnais, without notes and with rather ineffective out- but also to trace the history of French line illustrations, has been carried forward Protestantism prior to the time when he by a group of seven comedies. (Putnams.) became its leader in the field ; and de– The uniform edition of William Black's spite the necessarily severe condensation, works (llarpers) now includes all but his the narrative is neither dry nor colorless, current novels, so to speak; the most re- but steadily readable. The writer has his cent additions being Donald Ross of Heimra, material well in hand, and has formed a with one exception the strongest and most clear conception of the king, - a hero of a interesting of the author's later Highland nation, if there ever was one, though so stories, and a tale which incidentally con- unheroic in certain aspects, — and of the veys some sound information on the crofter men and women surrounding him; and his question as well ; and Stand Fast, Craig- characterizations are often acute, and alRoyston! chiefly noticeable for the charac- ways interesting. Especially does he do ter study of the highly imaginative, delud- full justice to the moral elevation and noing, and self-deluded Bethune of Balloray. bility of nature of the elect men among the

History and Biography. The Private Life Huguenots, those French Puritans beside of Napoleon, by Arthur Lévy. Translated whom “the Eliots, Hampdens, and Hutchby Stephen Louis Simeon. (Imported by insons of our own civil wars appear narrow Scribners.) A translation of Napoléon In- and incomplete.” That the author should time, one of the more notable of last year's follow certain distinguished historians in contributions to the literature of what may carefully Anglicizing French Christian

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names can hardly be objected to, but still have the interest and value of preserving we would mildly protest against the need- contemporary opinion, and as the work of less substitution of Lewis for Louis. This one hand have a quality of unity which is is so contrary to general usage — the best not common in newspaper extracts. guide where a fixed rule is impracticable In Foreign Lands. The Rulers of the

- that it displeases the eye and seems an Mediterranean, by Richard Harding Davis. affectation. — The Story of Louis XVII. of (Harpers.) A series of light sketches of France, by Elizabeth E. Evans. (Swan travel from Gibraltar to Constantinople. Sonnenschein & Co.) Few "claimants ”. Mr. Davis has a keen eye and a sure touch ; have appeared who have not had a follow- there is some persiflage in his talk, but on ing of devout and often fanatical believers, the whole he is a very agreeable traveling and the many alleged Dauphins are no ex- companion, and his snap shots at persons ceptions to the rule. Of these, Mrs. Evans and things are by no means miscellaneis convinced, and with excellent reason, that ous, but follow a good sense of art. — The Hervagault, Bruneau, Richemont, and the Art of Living in Australia (Together with more noteworthy pretender, Naundorff were Three Hundred Australian Cookery Recipes shameless impostors, and she devotes a and Accessory Kitchen Information, by large part of her volume to demolishing Mrs. H. Wicken), by Philip E. Muskett. their claims; but she also entirely believes (Eyre & Spottiswoode.) The principal obthat the Rev. Eleazar Williams was the ject of this work is to bring about some hapless son of Louis XVI. Her story of improvement in the food habits of the Aus“ the lost prince" is substantially the same tralians, who, it appears, still follow English as that Mr. Hanson gave to the world forty ways in this respect ; living, the author years ago, and time seems to have made declares, in direct opposition to their semionly more apparent its excessive flimsiness, tropical environment. He urges the imso that it is sometimes difficult to treat it mense advantages which would result from with becoming seriousness. The author, a development of the deep-sea fisheries, marhowever, takes it very seriously indeed, her ket gardening, and vine culture, and writes faith seeming to wax stronger in the more sensibly and forcibly. It seems curious that improbable and inconsequent portions of the such advice should be needed, and that, narrative. But in regard to the most im- living in a climate practically the same as portant evidence offered, we fear that many that of the south of Europe, the Australians readers will not need the Prince de Join- should still be satisfied with the limited ville's assurances to that effect to find much menu of their English kin. of his supposed interview with Mr. Wil- Poetry and the Drama. The Humours liams “entirely imaginary.” And yet the of the Court, a Comedy and Other Poems, missionary is the only one of the pseudo- by Robert Bridges. (Macmillan.) Mr. Dauphins for whom a special plea having Bridges acknowledges his debt to Calderon a semblance of plausibility can be made. and Lope for the substance of his play, into Indeed, in respect to the foundation upon which, be it said, he has not infused enough which all such assumptions rest, the rescue of the spirit of humor to make it truly of the child, — whose pitiful story is the amusing reading. What he has brought to most intolerably painful of the recorded it is one of the gifts that make his poems atrocities of the Terror, — no proof worthy just what they are, - the gift of deftness the name has ever yet been given. Brave and care, leaving nothing at loose ends, Little Holland, and What She Taught Us, and creating an artistic unit. In the short by W. E. Griffis. (Houghton.) It would poems to which the last pages of the book be hard to pack into the space of this little are given Mr. Bridges is more really himbook more varied information, historical, self. His power of saying within austere geographical, and social, about Holland and limits many things that are well worth sayits relation to England and America. The ing has often been shown before, and no loss author is chock - full of his subject, and of it appears in such lines as “Weep not towrites with enthusiasm. — Phillips Brooks day.” — The Lower Slopes, Reminiscences in Boston, Five Years' Editorial Estimates, of Excursions round the Base of Helicon, by M. C. Ayres. (George H. Ellis, Bos- undertaken for the most part in Early ton.) These clippings from a daily paper Manhood, by Grant Allen. (Elkin Mathews

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