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fifth centuries before the Christian æra, and precisely by the same means which, before the exterminating war with Crotona, had rendered the ancient Sybaris great and powerful by the great fertility of the soil, by navigation and commerce."
It appears also, that at the time of which we speak, as well as afterwards, the passage from Thurium to the Pelopomesus, and nominally to Cyllene, a famous port in Elis, was common, and established in a regular manner; and I suppose that the Syracusans, mentioned in our inscription, coming from Cuma and wishing to pass into Elis, perhaps to be present at the celebration of the Olympic games, preferred a journey of a few days through Greek Italy (Magna Græcia was thus named), through friendly and partly allied countries, to a long and uncertain voyage from Cuma to Cyllene ; and that they embarked at Thurium for Cyllene, where Alcibiades embarked with other fugitives (after leaving the Athenian expedition in Sicily), to go to Cyllene, and from thence to Lacedemonia. *
We may rather be surprised at the manner of writing the name of the city, Tvran instead of TVRIAN, which is the same as Bouplav.3 That the omission of the iota in the name of the city is surprising, I confess before I say more: that circumstance alone has made me doubtful of the explanation, which 1 have presumed to submit to the examination of your Excellency and our learned friends. But I am somewhat encouraged by observing the extraordinary differences, in the ancient authors, in the manner of writing the Greek names of places. Those, for example, who have read Strabo, Ptolemy, and Stephanus Byzantinus, must have perceived the strange dissimilitudes in the local denominations. There are many varieties entirely provincial, of which we are ignorant, as we only know the Greek language from the authors (who are not silent). We sometimes find these provincial varieties inscribed on marbles. Deprived as I am of books, I shall only cite one example, which will at
· Let us remember, for example, the memorable words of Diodorus on the rising colony of Thurium (Bib. Istor, lib. xii. p. 485. ed. Wesseling in fol.)
2 Thucyd. b. vi. p. 227. (ed. of Eur. Stefano 1564 in fol.)
This handsome and ingenious but wicked man had his own reasons for not going to Athens to give an account of his conduct.
3 I say only “the same as @ovpían,” because it appears useless to demonstrate the ancient value of the t for e, and of the sign v instead of the diphthong or; as the Greek paleography, which is known to every one, is not here spoken of.
least be new, for it is taken from an inscribed marble, lately brought from Arcadia, which I shall perhaps soon publish.
Pausanias, in B. viii. ch. 53. (ed. Facius vol. ii. p. 514.) remarks the names of the four tribes, Gunai, of the city of Tegea, in Arcadia,-Ιπποθοίτις, Απολλωνίασις, Αθανεάτις, and Κλαρεώτης : but on a fine and rather antique marble, a long inscription, which treats precisely of the four tribes of Tegea, mentions the naines of the citizens of the last, as Kpapetai monítar.'
But if we merely consider the name of the city before mentioned, we shall find a great variety in its denominations in the different authors. The plural form Boúpso. is doubtless the most common among the ancient writers. Thucydides writes the name Θουρία ; Piolemy and Diodorus Siculus write Θούριον. In consequence of these diversities, Stephanus Byzantinus gives all the three forms, Θούριοι, Θουρία, and θούριον. Titus Livius declines the name Thuria, iarum, and one of the two ancient, tabula itinerar. writes Turii and Turís, a form not far from that of our inscription TVRA.
The question which now remains to be considered is the most important, as it relates to the historical part of the inscription; it is this, Why WERE THE SYRACUSANS IN CUMA? AND WHEN DID THEY GO THERE? The inscription on the helmet, which without doubt covered the head of “ the man in the car” as he is called by Pausanias, that is, of the statue of the same Olympic victor, Hiero king of Syracuse, --the inscription, I say, sculptured in such a place, in a country so celebrated for brilliant actions, and the gift of a king, must indicate some remarkable event, some great and signal action of the Syracusans in Cuma. If this is not proved, our inscription will not be fully illustrated.
'This interesting marble was found in Paleoepiscopi, the site of the ancient city of Tegea in Arcadia; it was obtained by Colonel Ross, and taken by him to Zante, where I lately copied the inscription. The cacography of the word Kaapsūtar in the marble, is the same provincialism which is so often heard in Greece in the present time. In Epirus, in Attica, and in many parts of the Peloponnesus, the common people almost always pronounce ngõe, 'Apparlons, &c. instead of her, 'Anßavírns, &c.; a vice exactly contrary to that called by the ancients sparroquís. See the curious verses of Aristophanes, Vespe 42-46, where Alcibiades is ridiculed for his bad pronunciation:
Είσ' 'Αλκιβιάδης είπε πρός με τραυλίσας
όλας Θέωλος την κεφαλήν κόλακος έχει. . instead of spôsmlwgos-xópaxos.
2 See note 1. p. 135.
I have no doubt that it relates to the assistance generously given by Hiero to the Cumeans, when they were attacked a second time by the Tyrrheneans, who possessed some naval force, and were jealous of the florishing 'state of Cuma and of its increasing power. The most circumstantial account of these facts with which I am acquainted, may be found in Diodorus, in the eleventh book of his Historical Library: “When Acestorides was archon in Athens, he sent to Hiero & considerable number of gallies, to succour the Cumeans of Italy, who had implored him to assist them against the Tyrrheneans, who were powerful at sea. The commanders of this navy went to Cuma, united with the Cumeans, gave battle to the Tyrrheneans, and gained a great victory, which relieving the Cumeans from their anxiety, they returned to Syracuse.". The anonymous author of the chronological list of the Olympiads * only remarks two hostile enterprises undertaken by the Tyrrheneans against Cuma, and that both ended unfavorably to the aggressors. The first occurred in the first year of the 64th Olympiad, which corre sponds with the year 524 before our era, and the second, about half a century after, in the third year of the 76th Olympiad, or the year 474 before J. C. I understand from chronological arguments, which any one may easily combine, that the assistance of Hiero, to which we suppose that the author of our inscription alludes, must have been granted to the Cumeans in the second defensive war which they supported against their enemies.4
Pindar has not passed over this generous action of Hiero. The verses in which he celebrates two of the most brilliant victories of the Syracusan princes of the Dinomenean family, that over the Tyrrheneans near Cuma, and that other, renowned in Grecian history, over the Carthaginians near Imera in Sicily, are of the greatest beauty.5
Diodorus Hist. Lib. vol. i, p. 442, ed. Wesseling. in fol. 2 Intitled Evvaywyn forogowe, and published by Joseph Scaliger as the Chronicon Eusebii.
3 Here are his own words: 'Όλυμπιάδος ξδ' έτει α' οι κατά την Ιταλίαν Κυμαίοι πολλάς Τυρρηνών και οπικών μυριάδας ενίκησαν.” And afterwards : « Όλυμπιάδος οτ' έτει και οι Τυρρηνοί υπό Κυμαίων ηττηθέντες δεινώς εταπεινώθησαν.”
The diligent and learned Cluverio has not forgotten these places in his singular itinerary compilation, Italia Antiqua, lib. iv. p. 1106. ed. Lugd. Batav. 1624. in fol. 4 See note 1. p. 136.
Pyth. i. 137. I cannot help transcribing these transcendant verses,
From these combinations I do not think it presumptuous to conclude, that the commanders of the Syracusan navy, after having gained so brilliant a victory, eagerly repaired to Olympia, to join their Sovereign, who, to mark his satisfaction, commanded that their valor should be recorded on the great monument which he had dedicated to Jupiter Olympius, and that his orders were executed by Dinomenes, his son.
that my reader ponédams may at least find something beautiful in this little treatise:
Λίσσομαι, τεύσον, Κρονίων, άμερον
Πολεμίων ανδρών καμόντων.
may the hardy Tuscan never dare
If I have discovered the true meaning of the inscription, which I cannot absolutely affirm, the sense of it will be as follows:
Hiero the son of Dinomenes, and the Syracusans who were victorious at Cuma, coming by Thurium, erected this monument.
“Si quid novisti rectius istis,
ITHACA is really a beautiful rock. I have been almost all round it, for the second time, during the last three days.
I had only two books with me in my knapsack, the Odyssey, and the admirable work of my learned friend Sir William Gell.:
Your Excellency knows that I have no inclination to what is called sentimentality"
But I can aver, that, with you, I only pretend to simple and natural sentiment: I behold with the greatest pleasure the beautiful and classic height, called by the inhabitants the Mount of the Eagle, detòs, detò-Bouvòv,} clothed in the brilliant verdure of April, or red with the glowing colors of sun-set; I can affirm that every one, even those with the least degree of enthusiasm, if they understand Greek, will read the 14th canto of the Odyssey with singular and almost domestic pleasure, at the unchanged
'On the Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca, in 4to.
? The Italians, who rarely suffer from this ultramontane malady, will pardon me this word, which, fortunately for them, does not belong to their fine language. I wish to express by it, an extraordinary delicacy of sentiment, an extreme sensibility, a disposition of the nerves and fibres to feel in an excessive manner, (super-sentire, imepatobávodai) any thing fine or great in nature or art, &c. which we of colder dispositions only feel. Besides the momentary transports, and a great number of local exclamations (which are of no consequence, since no one pays any attention to them) arising from this disposition, it leads some of our authors, and almost all our authoresses of Travels, to repaint amply in print the beauty and grandeur of nature. These delightful descriptions are of some consequence, as they might at least spoil the taste of those who read them. Certainly it is a bold and arduous undertaking to describe the extraordinary beauties of Nature, on which the Almighty has lavished all the colors of the universe, in a thousand various tints,
3. Which unites the two parts of the island, the Neios and the Neritos of the Odyssey
The summit of the mountain årròs is covered with ancient polygonal walls, which have been perfectly described by Sir W. Gell. I consider it as the site of the dwellings of the heroes of the Odyssey.